Back to Cardiovascular Diseases
Causes of mitral valve stenosis include rheumatic fever, congenital
mitral stenosis, myxoma, prosthetic valves & valve calcificification.
- Low cardiac output
- Valve: ventricular filling is impaired when the mitral orifice is
reduced to 2cm2 and transvalvular pressure gradient developes
on exercise. At 1cm2 a gradient of 20mmHg evelopes at rest
to maintain normal cardiac output. Calcification may develop in the
- Left atrium pressure rises, dilatation, thrombosis, fibrillation.
- Increased pulmonary venous pressure: dyspnoea on exertion, hemoptysis
and lung fibrosis. if rapidly above 25mmHg ? pulmonary edema. If gradual
this leads to adaptation due to thickening of the walls in the pulmonary
- Increased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure.
- Pulmonary arteriolar constriction leading to disappearance of the
- Elevated pulmonary artery pressure.
- Pulmonary atherosclerosis
- Pulmonary regurgitation
- Tricuspid regurge
- Right sided failure.
- Peripheral thrombosis with pulmonary embolism.
1. Treatment of grade 1 mitral stenosis
(mild MS ? by echo + exertional dyspnoea < G2)
Diuretics for congestive symptoms
Prophylaxis against rheumatic fever and infective endocarditis.
Anticoagulants if atrial fibrillation.
Consider digoxin if atrial fibrillation and tachycardia.
Are you a doctor or a nurse?
Do you want to join the Doctors Lounge online medical community?
Participate in editorial activities (publish, peer review, edit) and
give a helping hand to the largest online community of patients.
Click on the link below to see the requirements:
Doctors Lounge Membership
2. Treatment of grade 2 mitral stenosis
(tight mitral stenosis + lung congestive symptoms ? dyspnoea > G2)
1st line treatment as above.
If severe symptoms not responding to medical therapy consider surgery
with commissurotomy, MVR or balloon valvuloplasty.
3. Treatment of grade 3 mitral stenosis
(tight MS + pulmonary hypertension)
Surgical repair with commissurotomy, MVR or balloon valvuloplasty.
4. Treatment of grade 4 mitral stenosis
(tight mitral stenosis + pulmonary hypertension and Right sides heart
as above followed by antifailure therapy.
* In cases with recurrent embolization that did not respond to anticoagulant
therapy and that did not cause serious damage to the patient already are
indicated for commissurotomy to remove the atrial appendage.