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Category: Family Medicine | Monthly Briefing

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April 2010 Briefing - Family Practice

Last Updated: May 03, 2010.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Family Practice for April 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Newer Diabetes Drugs May Confer Substantial Costs

FRIDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Newer medications for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, such as exenatide and sitagliptin, may be associated with substantial costs, suggesting that the health benefits they confer need to be considerable in order for them to provide economic value to health care systems and patients, according to research published in the April issue of Diabetes Care.

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CDC: U.S. Infant Mortality Rate Declined 3 Percent in 2006

FRIDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Between 2005 and 2006, the overall U.S. infant mortality rate declined by 3 percent. However, the rate varied widely by race and ethnicity, and very preterm infants accounted for more than half of all infant deaths, according to a new report -- Infant Mortality Statistics From the 2006 Period Linked Birth Infant Death Data Set -- released April 30 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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2009/2010 Flu Vaccination Rates Up Sharply for Children

FRIDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- National influenza vaccination coverage for the 2009/2010 flu season increased substantially for children, and moderately for younger adults without high-risk conditions, according to a report in the April 30 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Woman's Risk of Hyperemesis Up if Mother Had Condition

FRIDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Daughters of mothers who had hyperemesis gravidarum during pregnancy are at three times the risk of suffering from this condition themselves compared with daughters of women who did not have the condition, according to research published online April 29 in BMJ.

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Many Obstetricians Support Short Interpregnancy Intervals

FRIDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Despite the fact that interpregnancy intervals of less than six months are associated with poorer outcomes, a majority of obstetricians support interpregnancy intervals of this length for parents who are bereaved by perinatal death, according to a study in the April issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Lower Maternal UV Exposure May Raise Offspring's MS Risk

FRIDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Both region of birth and low first-trimester maternal exposure to ultraviolet radiation are linked to an increased risk of subsequent multiple sclerosis (MS) in offspring in Australia, according to research published online April 29 in BMJ.

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Many Obese Diabetes Patients Have Abnormal Stress Tests

FRIDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- More than 20 percent of overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes may experience abnormal graded exercise test (GXT) results, with higher age being the most consistent predictor of abnormal results, according to research published in the April issue of Diabetes Care.

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Visits When Doctor Is Seated Seem Longer to Patients

THURSDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Hospitalized patients perceive brief bedside visits from a physician to be longer if the physician is seated rather than standing, according to research from the University of Kansas.

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Surveillance Feasible for Small Testicular Masses

THURSDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- In men with incidental testicular masses less than 1 cm in size, ultrasound surveillance may be a safe alternative to immediate surgical removal, according to a study published in the April issue of The Journal of Urology.

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Back Pain May Lead to Higher Expenses for Other Conditions

THURSDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Incidents of low back pain are associated with increased expenditures for other health conditions, according to research published in the April 1 issue of Spine.

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CBT Rapid Responders More Likely Maintain Gains in IBS

THURSDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Many irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients who undergo cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) experience a positive response within four weeks, and these rapid responders are more likely to maintain their treatment gains than those who do not have a rapid response, according to a study in the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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In VBAC, Epidural Doses Linked to Uterine Rupture Risk

THURSDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Frequent epidural anesthesia doses needed by women who attempt vaginal delivery after cesarean delivery (VBAC) may indicate an increased risk for uterine rupture, according to research published in the April issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Dieting May Raise Cortisol Levels, Leading to Weight Gain

THURSDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Monitoring and cutting calories may result in psychological and biological stresses in women, along with an increase in cortisol production and related weight gain, which should be considered before clinicians recommend dieting, according to a study published online April 5 in Psychosomatic Medicine.

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High BMI Plus Inactivity Increases Risk of Fibromyalgia

THURSDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of fibromyalgia in women, particularly in those who are physically inactive or exercise less than one hour per week, according to a study in the May issue of Arthritis Care & Research.

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BMI Often Fails to ID Obesity in Women of Reproductive-Age

THURSDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Using cutoff values for body mass index (BMI) that are recommended by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) may fail to identify obesity in reproductive-aged women in certain ethnic or racial populations who meet the criteria for obesity by percent body fat, according to research published in the May issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Statin Use May Lower Risk of Prostate Cancer Recurrence

THURSDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- In men treated with radiotherapy for prostate cancer, statin use is associated with significant improvements in clinical outcomes, including a higher likelihood of relapse-free survival, according to research published online April 26 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Lumbar Fusion Associated With Improved Quality of Life

THURSDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- After patients undergo lumbar fusion for degenerative lumbar stenosis with spondylolisthesis, health-related quality of life outcome measures approach those of the age-matched normal population, and are similar to improvements observed in patients after total hip and knee joint replacement surgery, according to a study in the April issue of The Spine Journal.

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Hep C Therapy Less Effective in Urban Minorities Than Thought

THURSDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Pegylated interferon and ribavirin -- the standard hepatitis C treatment -- is not as effective in urban minority patients who are treated in clinical practice as is implied by phase III trials, according to a study in the April issue of Hepatology.

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ECE: Testosterone, ED Tied to Higher Cardiac Mortality Risk

WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- Low testosterone levels in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) are associated with an increased risk of dying of cardiovascular disease, according to a study presented at the European Congress of Endocrinology, held from April 24 to 28 in Prague, Czech Republic. A study by the same researchers also presented at the meeting found that impaired penile blood flow is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in obese men with ED more than in leaner men with the condition.

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Excess Mortality in ACCORD Study Not Due to Low A1C

WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- A post hoc analysis of mortality data from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study has determined that rapid glucose lowering and maintenance of lower A1C levels through intensive control -- as opposed to a standard strategy -- was not the cause of increased death rates in that arm of the study, according to research published in the May issue of Diabetes Care.

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FDA Warns of Faulty Parts in 14 Defibrillator Models

WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a warning about external defibrillators manufactured by Cardiac Science Corp. that may malfunction when being used to rescue people in cardiac arrest.

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Four-Kallikrein Panel Could Reduce Prostate Biopsies

WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- As has been reported previously, in men with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a panel of four kallikrein forms in serum -- total, free and intact PSA, and kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (hK2) -- may predict the result of biopsy and help reduce unnecessary biopsy rates, according to a replication study published online April 26 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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In Children With CKD, Race Linked to Hemoglobin Levels

WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- African-American children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have lower hemoglobin levels than white children with the disease, regardless of the disease's underlying cause, according to a study published online April 26 in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

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Risk Factors for Physician Misconduct Identified

WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors who are male, are from lower socioeconomic groups or had academic difficulties in medical school may be at increased risk of professional misconduct, according to a study published online April 27 in BMJ.

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HPV Testing With Triage Beats Conventional Cytology

WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- Screening women with a human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test first, with cytology triage if the result is positive, is more sensitive for the detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions than conventional cytology, according to a study published online April 27 in BMJ.

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Single Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening Found Beneficial

WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- The use of a single flexible sigmoidoscopy examination in individuals between the ages of 55 and 64 provides long-term benefits, according to research published online April 28 in The Lancet.

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Radiofrequency Device Approved for Severe Chronic Asthma

WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- The first device that uses radiofrequency energy to help control lung inflammation in adults with severe chronic asthma has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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ALA Report Finds Good, Bad News on Air Pollution

WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- Despite reductions in particle and ozone pollution in recent years, unhealthy air remains a threat to about 58 percent of Americans, according to the American Lung Association's State of the Air 2010 report.

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Selenium May Help Reset Cells' Biological Clock

WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- Dietary selenium can help re-establish circadian rhythms critical to the growth and behavior of cells that have been disrupted by carcinogenic agents, according to an animal study published online April 27 in Cancer Prevention Research.

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Vitamin B Therapy May Be Unsafe in Diabetic Nephropathy

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with diabetic nephropathy who take high doses of vitamin B may experience a greater decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than those on placebo, as well as an increase in vascular events, according to research published in the April 28 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use May Up Heart Failure Risk

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Long-term users of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) may have more severe cardiac dysfunction than previously suspected, possibly putting them at higher risk of heart failure, according to research published online April 27 in Circulation: Heart Failure.

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Rates, Costs of Imaging in Medicare Patients Have Risen

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- The use of diagnostic imaging in Medicare patients with cancer has increased, as have imaging costs, which are outpacing the rate of the increase in total costs among Medicare recipients who have cancer, according to research published in the April 28 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Coronary Artery Calcium Helps Predict Risk of CHD Events

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Adding coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) to traditional risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) events significantly improves predictions of risk, and results in more individuals being placed in the highest and lowest risk categories, according to research published in the April 28 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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FDA Changes Medical Device Advisory Committee Process

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Because of the increasing number of medical device advisory panel meetings in recent years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is changing the way expert panels review and discuss information during public hearings on devices that are being reviewed for premarket approval.

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Device Found as Effective as Heparin for Clot Prevention

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- The use of a mobile compression device for the prevention of thromboembolic disease after total hip arthroplasty is likely just as effective as low-molecular-weight heparin treatment but safer, according to a study in the March issue of the Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

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Nearly Half of Adults Have at Least One Cardiac Risk Factor

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of all U.S. adults have either high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, or some combination of the three, according to a new report on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2006, from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Interruptions Increase Medication Errors by Nurses

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Nurses who are interrupted in the process of preparing and administering medications are more likely to make an error, with error severity increasing with the number of interruptions, according to a study in the April 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Women With PCOS Exhibit Different Insulin Reactions

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can develop impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and combined glucose intolerance (CGI) despite having hyperinsulinemia, and their insulin response patterns vary though they have similar insulin resistance, according to research published in the April issue of Diabetes Care.

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Therapeutic Swings May Cause Eye Injury in Autistic Children

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians from two different medical centers recently identified therapeutic home swings, used for vestibular stimulation in patients with autism-spectrum disorders, as the common culprit in recurrent corneal metallic foreign bodies in two of their patients, according to an article published in the Journal of AAPOS, the official periodical of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.

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Survival in Extreme Preterm Infants Unchanged Since 1993

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Since 1993, more infants born at less than 24 weeks' gestation have lived more hours or even days thanks to active resuscitation, but overall survival has not improved, according to a report published online April 22 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition.

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Financial Ties Negatively Affect Perceptions of Research Quality

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Disclosure of financial ties to industry influences patients', physicians', and research participants' beliefs about the quality of research evidence, according to a review published in the April 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Depression Linked to Increased Chocolate Consumption

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- People who are depressed really do appear to eat more chocolate than those who are not depressed, though it is unclear whether there is a causal link, according to a study in the April 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Poor Health Behaviors Combo Has Major Effect on Mortality

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- The combined ill effects of several negative health behaviors -- ranging from suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake to smoking -- result in major increases in mortality, according to a study in the April 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Recall Issued for LIFEPAK 15 Monitor/Defibrillator

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has alerted health care professionals of a Class I recall of Physio-Control Inc.'s LIFEPAK 15 Monitor/Defibrillator, distributed between March 26 and December 15, 2009, as the device may have issues with powering on and off.

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Selecting High Risk Patients for Cardio Screening Cost-Effective

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Using routine data for cardiovascular risk stratification before inviting high risk individuals to be screened may be just as effective, and less costly, for preventing cardiovascular disease than the U.K. government's recommended national strategy to screen everyone aged 40 to 74 for cardiovascular risk, according to research published April 25 in BMJ.

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FDA Addresses External Infusion Pump Safety Issues

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced a new initiative to address safety issues related to external infusion pumps, which are commonly used in hospitals, other clinical settings, and patient's homes.

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Report Addresses Intimate Partner Violence

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- It is important for pediatricians to be familiar with the signs of intimate partner violence (IPV), to identify abused caregivers, and to be able to evaluate and treat children from homes where family violence may occur, according to a clinical report published online April 26 in Pediatrics.

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Panel Warns of Risks Posed by Female Genital Cutting

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Immigrants from areas where female genital cutting (FGC) in infants, children and adolescents is common may request physicians in the United States to perform such procedures, but the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) opposes all types of FGC that pose physical or psychological risk, and counsels its members not to perform such procedures, according to a policy statement published online April 26 in Pediatrics.

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Most Doctors Not Knowledgeable About Herbals

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Most physicians are not knowledgeable about herbal medicines and believe the general public is poorly informed as well, according to the results of a survey published in the April issue of the Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin.

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Policy Statement Addresses DNAR Requests in Schools

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatricians have a critical role to play in working with school nurses and officials to ensure the do-not-attempt-resuscitation (DNAR) requests of the families of children and adolescents with complex chronic conditions are honored, according to a policy statement published online April 26 in Pediatrics.

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Study Assesses Knowledge of Health Care Costs, Utilization

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals who have more knowledge about their copayments for visits to the doctor and the emergency department appear to behave in a more cost-efficient manner, with fewer emergency department visits and more office visits, according to research published in the April issue of the American Journal of Managed Care.

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Cancer Risk Factors Differ for Hispanics, Non-Hispanic Whites

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Breast cancer risk factors that have been established in non-Hispanic white (NHW) women have less influence on the risk of breast cancer in Hispanic women, according to a study published online April 26 in Cancer.

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Younger Workers Often at High Risk for Occupational Injury

FRIDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Younger workers (15 to 24 years of age) are often employed in jobs that place them at high risk for injury, and employers should ensure that they can safely perform their jobs by identifying and mitigating safety hazards, according to a report published in the April 23 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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In Diabetes Patients, Modifiable Factors Up Risk of Cesarean

FRIDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Nulliparous women with type 1 diabetes mellitus have a high rate of cesarean delivery, and their potentially modifiable risk factors for cesarean delivery include pre-pregnancy body weight, gestational weight gain, and accuracy of the prediction of fetal macrosomia, according to a study published in the May issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Stress Hormones May Promote Ovarian Cancer Metastasis

FRIDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with ovarian cancer, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) modulation by stress hormones -- especially norepinephrine and epinephrine -- may contribute to tumor progression, according to research published online April 12 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

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Liraglutide Found Superior to Sitagliptin for Glycemic Control

FRIDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- In type 2 diabetes patients who have inadequate glycemic control on metformin therapy, liraglutide injections are well tolerated and are more effective than oral sitagliptin in reducing HbA1C, according to a study in the April 24 issue of The Lancet.

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First-Trimester Vaginal Bleeding Tied to Complications

FRIDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- First-trimester vaginal bleeding during a woman's first pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of complications later in the pregnancy and with a recurrence of bleeding and other complications in a later pregnancy, according to a study in the May issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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New P. Falciparum Malaria Drug as Effective as Standard

FRIDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Pyronaridine-artesunate, a new anti-malarial drug that can be given once a day, is as effective as the current standard Plasmodium falciparum malaria treatment, artemether-lumefantrine, which requires twice-daily dosing, according to a study in the April 24 issue of The Lancet.

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Socioeconomic Status Affects Prostate Cancer Treatment

FRIDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- In men with prostate cancer, lower socioeconomic status is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of undergoing radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy, according to a study published April 22 in BMJ.

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Urologist Presence Linked to Less Urologic Cancer Mortality

THURSDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- The presence of a urologist in a county is linked to lower mortality for prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, though increasing urologist density beyond two urologists per 100,000 people does not result in further improvements, according to research published online April 20 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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BRCA Risk Often Missed in Ovarian Cancer Patients

THURSDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Although there has been improvement over time, interpretation of risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in ovarian cancer patients, and subsequent referral for genetic counseling, remains poor, with half of substantial-risk patients being missed in 2007, according to research published in the May issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Exercise Linked to Long-Term Lipid Improvements in Men

THURSDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Regular exercise has beneficial effects on lipid levels that persist for many years in middle-aged and older men, according to research published in the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport.

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Scientific Panel Upholds Lyme Disease Treatment Guidelines

THURSDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- After more than a year of hearings and deliberations, a special review panel has unanimously concluded that no changes are warranted to the Infectious Diseases Society of America's (IDSA) 2006 Lyme disease treatment guidelines, which have been the subject of an antitrust investigation by Connecticut's attorney general, Richard Blumenthal.

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Lactose-Intolerant Can Tolerate Cup of Milk Daily

THURSDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Most people with presumed lactose intolerance or malabsorption can tolerate about a cup of milk daily, according to research published online April 19 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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T. Tonsurans Rate High in Black Children in Kansas City

THURSDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Of Kansas City schoolchildren tested for Trichophyton tonsurans infection, 6.6 percent exhibited positive cultures, and black children had the highest prevalence of infection, according to a study published online April 19 in Pediatrics.

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FDA Adds Boxed Warning to Propylthiouracil Label

THURSDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has added a boxed warning to the label of propylthiouracil due to the risk of serious liver injury -- which in some cases may be fatal -- in adult and pediatric patients.

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Women at Risk of Periviable Birth, Providers ID Priorities

THURSDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Patients and health care providers agree that information provision and emotional support are fundamentally important for women at risk of periviable delivery, but there are pitfalls that can impair the provider-patient relationship if not avoided, according to a study in the May issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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New Migraine Drug May Be as Effective as Current Treatments

THURSDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Telcagepant, a new drug for migraine treatment currently in development, relieves pain to a similar extent as triptans, but does not cause constriction of the blood vessels, making it particularly suitable for migraine patients with cardiovascular disease, according to research published online April 22 in The Lancet. The article also discusses the use of topiramate to prevent migraine attacks in people with chronic migraine.

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In Utero Methadone Exposure Linked to Vision Problems

THURSDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Infants born to women who misused drugs and were prescribed methadone during pregnancy are at risk for a range of vision problems, and those with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) severe enough to receive pharmaceutical treatment may especially be at risk for developing nystagmus, according to a report published online April 21 in the British Journal of Ophthalmology.

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Serious Infection in Children With Fever Often Missed

WEDNESDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Emergency department physicians tend to underestimate the likelihood of serious bacterial infection in young children presenting with fever, pointing to the need for improved diagnostic protocols, according to research published online April 20 in BMJ.

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Taped Consult Boosts Patient Knowledge, Sense of Control

WEDNESDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Audiotaping a cardiac surgery patient's pre-surgical consultation, and providing the patient with the tape to review, substantially increases his or her knowledge and sense of control, while reducing anxiety and depression, according to a study in the April issue of the Archives of Surgery.

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Adverse Effects Similar With Single, Multiple Epilepsy Drugs

WEDNESDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Treating a patient with epilepsy with multiple antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) does not increase the incidence of adverse effects compared with treatment with a single AED, and drug load is also not correlated with adverse effects, according to a study published online April 20 in Epilepsia.

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E-visits for Acne Patient Follow-Up Found Effective

WEDNESDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Follow-up care for acne patients delivered via online visits, or "e-visits," results in an equivalent outcome clinically compared with conventional office visits, according to a study in the April issue of the Archives of Dermatology.

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Children's Hospitals Often Do Little to Offset High Occupancy

WEDNESDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Among children's hospitals, there is a low rate of acute response to high occupancy, and the magnitude of response is small in those that do respond, according to research published online April 19 in Pediatrics.

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Childhood Cancer Rates Up, But Mortality Down, Since 1975

WEDNESDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Despite increasing incidence rates, childhood cancer mortality rates have declined since 1975, and further success in reducing these rates will require new treatment paradigms that build on an increased understanding of molecular processes, according to research published online April 19 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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IOM: FDA Should Regulate Salt Content in Food

WEDNESDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- New federal standards are needed to regulate the amount of salt that food manufacturers, restaurants, and food service companies can add to their products, according to an Institute of Medicine report -- Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States -- published April 21 by the National Academies Press.

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Video Games Before Bed Affect Teens' Sleep Only Slightly

WEDNESDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Playing stimulating video games prior to bedtime has only a slight effect on the sleep of older male teens, according to a study in the April 15 issue of the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.

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Delaying Clopidogrel After Stent Placement May Be Deadly

TUESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Many patients who have had a drug-eluting stent (DES) inserted delay filling a prescription for clopidogrel after discharge from the hospital, and, as a result, they face nearly double the risk of heart attack or death, according to research published online April 20 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes.

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Early Antivirals Decrease H1N1 Mortality in Pregnant Women

TUESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women with influenza A(H1N1) have a high risk of mortality, although early antiviral treatment is associated with fewer intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and lower mortality, according to research published in the April 21 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Cochlear Implants Help Young Children More Than Expected

TUESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Children who undergo cochlear implantation before age 5 may have greater spoken-language learning improvements than predicted, according to research published in the April 21 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Added Sugars Linked to Measures of Dyslipidemia

TUESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Greater consumption of added sugars in foods is associated with cardiovascular risk factors including lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and higher triglyceride levels, according to research published in the April 21 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Low-Dose CT Linked to High False-Positive Rates

TUESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- The risks for false-positive results on lung cancer screening tests are substantial after two yearly examinations, especially with low-dose computed tomography (CT), according to a study in the April 20 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Rosuvastatin Reduces Cardio Events in Older People

TUESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Rosuvastatin may reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular events in apparently healthy older individuals without hyperlipidemia but with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, according to an analysis published in the April 20 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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ASCO, CAP Release Guideline for Breast Cancer Testing

TUESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- A guideline from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the College of American Pathologists (CAP) has been issued with the intention of improving the accuracy of immunohistochemical testing for estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer. The guideline was published online April 19 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology and the Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine.

Abstract - Journal of Clinical Oncology
Full Text - Journal of Clinical Oncology
Abridged Version - Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

Long-Term Effects of Sucrose in Infants Unclear

TUESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Little is known about the potential long-term developmental effects of early dietary exposure to sugar, and physicians should be conservative in their use of sucrose to ameliorate pain in preterm and critically ill infants, according to research published online April 19 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Sinus Rhythm Maintenance May Be Ineffective Strategy

TUESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure, a rhythm-control strategy or the presence of sinus rhythm is not associated with improved outcomes, according to a study published in the April 27 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Abstract
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Indoor Tanning Addiction Observed in College Students

TUESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Many college students meet the criteria for addiction to indoor tanning, which is also associated with an increased likelihood of anxiety and substance use, according to a study published in the April issue of the Archives of Dermatology.

Abstract
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Secondhand Smoke Linked to Chronic Rhinosinusitis

MONDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is common in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and many cases of CRS may be directly attributable to the SHS exposure, according to a study published in the April issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery.

Abstract
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Many Physicians Ignore Interim Guidelines for Hib Vaccine

MONDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Most primary care physicians who administer Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine are aware of interim recommendations for vaccine shortages -- including deferral of the vaccine booster for healthy 12- to 15-month-olds -- but many do not adhere to the recommendations, according to research published online April 19 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Study Examines Tobacco Ingestion in Young Children

MONDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly 14,000 cases of tobacco-product ingestion in children were reported in 2006 to 2008, many of which involved smokeless tobacco products, according to a study published online April 19 in Pediatrics. An analysis in the same issue determined that the National Poison Data System is an important tool for monitoring inhalant abuse in children.

Abstract - Connolly
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Abstract - Marsolek
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Many Child Care Directors Unnecessarily Exclude Children

MONDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Even though Wisconsin endorses American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Public Health Association (APHA) national guidelines on exclusion of children from child care centers, the state has high rates of unnecessary exclusions by child care directors, according to research published online April 19 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Retinopathy of Prematurity Can Progress Rapidly

MONDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Usually, in infants with type 2 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), progression to type 1 of the condition can be identified with weekly examinations, but a subset of infants progresses to type 1 in fewer than seven days, according to a study in the April issue of the Archives of Ophthalmology.

Abstract
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Higher Dose Aspirin Effective for Acute Migraine Headache Pain

MONDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Aspirin is an effective option for the treatment of acute migraine headaches, and the addition of metoclopramide improves relief of nausea and vomiting, according to a review published in the April issue of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Abstract
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Books Read to Baby Helpful Teaching Tools for New Mothers

FRIDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Books that new mothers read to infants may be effective in providing anticipatory guidance to the women, according to research published online April 12 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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