Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for April 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Combo Antibiotics Effective in Chlamydia-Induced Arthritis
FRIDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- A combination of antibiotics has been found effective in the treatment of Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis (ReA), and may hold promise for cure of the disease, according to research published in the May issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.
2009/2010 Flu Vaccination Rates Up Sharply for Children
FRIDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- National influenza vaccination coverage for the 2009/2010 flu season increased substantially for children, and moderately for younger adults without high-risk conditions, according to a report in the April 30 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Hepatitis C May Have Causal Role in Insulin Resistance
THURSDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Suppression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with improved insulin resistance (IR), suggesting that the virus may play a causal role in IR, according to research published in the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.
Hep C Therapy Less Effective in Urban Minorities Than Thought
THURSDAY, April 29 (HealthDay News) -- Pegylated interferon and ribavirin -- the standard hepatitis C treatment -- is not as effective in urban minority patients who are treated in clinical practice as is implied by phase III trials, according to a study in the April issue of Hepatology.
Risk Factors for Physician Misconduct Identified
WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors who are male, are from lower socioeconomic groups or had academic difficulties in medical school may be at increased risk of professional misconduct, according to a study published online April 27 in BMJ.
HPV Testing With Triage Beats Conventional Cytology
WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- Screening women with a human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test first, with cytology triage if the result is positive, is more sensitive for the detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions than conventional cytology, according to a study published online April 27 in BMJ.
FDA Changes Medical Device Advisory Committee Process
TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Because of the increasing number of medical device advisory panel meetings in recent years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is changing the way expert panels review and discuss information during public hearings on devices that are being reviewed for premarket approval.
Interruptions Increase Medication Errors by Nurses
TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Nurses who are interrupted in the process of preparing and administering medications are more likely to make an error, with error severity increasing with the number of interruptions, according to a study in the April 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Financial Ties Negatively Affect Perceptions of Research Quality
TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Disclosure of financial ties to industry influences patients', physicians', and research participants' beliefs about the quality of research evidence, according to a review published in the April 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Most Doctors Not Knowledgeable About Herbals
MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Most physicians are not knowledgeable about herbal medicines and believe the general public is poorly informed as well, according to the results of a survey published in the April issue of the Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin.
New P. Falciparum Malaria Drug as Effective as Standard
FRIDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Pyronaridine-artesunate, a new anti-malarial drug that can be given once a day, is as effective as the current standard Plasmodium falciparum malaria treatment, artemether-lumefantrine, which requires twice-daily dosing, according to a study in the April 24 issue of The Lancet.
Scientific Panel Upholds Lyme Disease Treatment Guidelines
THURSDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- After more than a year of hearings and deliberations, a special review panel has unanimously concluded that no changes are warranted to the Infectious Diseases Society of America's (IDSA) 2006 Lyme disease treatment guidelines, which have been the subject of an antitrust investigation by Connecticut's attorney general, Richard Blumenthal.
T. Tonsurans Rate High in Black Children in Kansas City
THURSDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Of Kansas City schoolchildren tested for Trichophyton tonsurans infection, 6.6 percent exhibited positive cultures, and black children had the highest prevalence of infection, according to a study published online April 19 in Pediatrics.
Serious Infection in Children With Fever Often Missed
WEDNESDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Emergency department physicians tend to underestimate the likelihood of serious bacterial infection in young children presenting with fever, pointing to the need for improved diagnostic protocols, according to research published online April 20 in BMJ.
Early Antivirals Decrease H1N1 Mortality in Pregnant Women
TUESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women with influenza A(H1N1) have a high risk of mortality, although early antiviral treatment is associated with fewer intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and lower mortality, according to research published in the April 21 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Many Physicians Ignore Interim Guidelines for Hib Vaccine
MONDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Most primary care physicians who administer Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine are aware of interim recommendations for vaccine shortages -- including deferral of the vaccine booster for healthy 12- to 15-month-olds -- but many do not adhere to the recommendations, according to research published online April 19 in Pediatrics.
Chagas Disease Linked to Increased Risk of Stroke
FRIDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Chagas disease -- which affects 18 million people worldwide -- is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although cardioembolism is the main cause, cryptogenic stroke and small vessel stroke also often occur in indeterminate Chagas disease and in patients with mild chronic heart disease related to Chagas disease, according to a review published in the May issue of The Lancet Neurology.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Exacts Global Toll in Children
FRIDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) may be responsible for acute lower-respiratory infections (ALRIs) that kill nearly 200,000 children younger than 5 worldwide each year, according to a review published online April 16 in The Lancet.
Congenital Syphilis Cases Rise After Years of Decline
FRIDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- After declining between 1991 and 2005, the incidence of congenital syphilis (CS) in infants in the United States increased 23 percent from 2005 to 2008, according to data reported in the April 16 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Incidences of E. Coli, Shigella Foodborne Infections Drop in '09
THURSDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- In 2009, there was a decreased incidence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and Shigella foodborne infections compared with the preceding three years, though little progress has been made in infection rates of other foodborne pathogens, according to a report in the April 16 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Progression to Active TB
THURSDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- Low vitamin D levels are associated with progression to active tuberculosis in healthy household contacts of tuberculosis patients, according to a study published online April 14 in Emerging Infectious Diseases. Another study in the same journal found a high prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among drug users, female sex workers, and homeless individuals in Tijuana, Mexico.
Mothers Influence Daughters' Uptake of HPV Vaccine
WEDNESDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- Even when young women are old enough to get vaccinated against human papillomavirus (HPV) without parental consent, mother-daughter communication about sex and daughters' perception of their mothers' approval of the vaccination are important predictors of vaccination, according to research published online April 12 in Pediatrics.
Real-Time PCR Assays on Blood Spots Fall Short for CMV
TUESDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- In newborns, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of dried blood spots doesn't appear suitable for mass screening for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, according to research published in the April 14 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
H1N1 Seroconversion Rates Varied in Singapore Cohorts
TUESDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- After the June to September 2009 wave of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) in Singapore, serologically determined infection rates varied widely by cohorts and age groups, suggesting that the context-specific risks of infection need to be considered, and interventions need to be tailored to the at-risk population, according to a study published in the April 14 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Key Gene Identified in Tick-Bite Lyme Disease Transmission
THURSDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- Deactivating a gene in Borrelia burgdorferi, the tick-borne bacterium that causes Lyme disease in humans, may prevent the transmission of the disease by a tick, according to a study of mice published online April 5 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Study Questions Effectiveness of Single Chlamydia Test
FRIDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- A single chlamydia screening does not prevent most cases of pelvic inflammatory disease over 12 months, and most cases that do occur are in women who were negative for chlamydia at baseline, according to a study published online April 8 in BMJ.
Telaprevir Improves Hepatitis C Retreatment Outcomes
THURSDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) who failed to respond to peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin, retreatment that involves telaprevir in combination with the two drugs is more effective than the two drugs alone, according to a study in the April 8 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Study Shows How Antibody Class Inhibits HIV Infection
WEDNESDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- Naturally occurring antibodies that can block a method of HIV entry into cells point to a possible new approach for designing HIV vaccines, according to research published online April 5 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.
Elderly on Antipsychotics at Higher Risk for Pneumonia
TUESDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- Elderly patients taking antipsychotic medication are at a dose-dependent increased risk of developing community-acquired pneumonia, according to a study published in the April 6 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.
Graded Doses of Flu Vaccine Safe for Egg-Allergic Children
MONDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatric patients who are allergic to eggs (but don't have anaphylaxis to egg) can safely receive influenza vaccination in two graded doses without a prior vaccine skin test as a precaution to avoid serious adverse reaction, according to research published online April 5 in Pediatrics.
Health Misinformation Can Spread Fast Via Social Networks
MONDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Misunderstandings regarding proper use of antibiotics could potentially be widely disseminated through social networks such as Twitter, according to a study in the April issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.
Many Transplant Patients Open to Possibly Infected Kidney
FRIDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- The majority of renal transplant candidates are open to accepting a kidney from a donor at increased risk for blood-borne viral infections such as HIV under some circumstances, but many donor kidneys infected with hepatitis C are thrown away despite the need among hepatitis C patients awaiting transplants, according to two studies published, respectively, online March 25 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology and March 26 in the American Journal of Transplantation.
Influenza Vaccination Coverage Remains Inadequate
THURSDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- While 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) or seasonal influenza vaccination was higher among health care personnel (HCP) than previous seasons, a wide variation in 2009 H1N1 state-specific vaccination rates suggests improvement opportunities in upcoming seasons, according to interim results of two reports published in the April 2 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
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