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Category: Pediatrics | Monthly Briefing

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April 2010 Briefing - Pediatrics

Last Updated: May 03, 2010.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for April 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

CDC: U.S. Infant Mortality Rate Declined 3 Percent in 2006

FRIDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Between 2005 and 2006, the overall U.S. infant mortality rate declined by 3 percent. However, the rate varied widely by race and ethnicity, and very preterm infants accounted for more than half of all infant deaths, according to a new report -- Infant Mortality Statistics From the 2006 Period Linked Birth Infant Death Data Set -- released April 30 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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2009/2010 Flu Vaccination Rates Up Sharply for Children

FRIDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- National influenza vaccination coverage for the 2009/2010 flu season increased substantially for children, and moderately for younger adults without high-risk conditions, according to a report in the April 30 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Full Text - Report 1
Full Text - Report 2

Lower Maternal UV Exposure May Raise Offspring's MS Risk

FRIDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Both region of birth and low first-trimester maternal exposure to ultraviolet radiation are linked to an increased risk of subsequent multiple sclerosis (MS) in offspring in Australia, according to research published online April 29 in BMJ.

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In Children With CKD, Race Linked to Hemoglobin Levels

WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- African-American children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have lower hemoglobin levels than white children with the disease, regardless of the disease's underlying cause, according to a study published online April 26 in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

Abstract
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Risk Factors for Physician Misconduct Identified

WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors who are male, are from lower socioeconomic groups or had academic difficulties in medical school may be at increased risk of professional misconduct, according to a study published online April 27 in BMJ.

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Editorial

ALA Report Finds Good, Bad News on Air Pollution

WEDNESDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- Despite reductions in particle and ozone pollution in recent years, unhealthy air remains a threat to about 58 percent of Americans, according to the American Lung Association's State of the Air 2010 report.

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FDA Changes Medical Device Advisory Committee Process

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Because of the increasing number of medical device advisory panel meetings in recent years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is changing the way expert panels review and discuss information during public hearings on devices that are being reviewed for premarket approval.

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Interruptions Increase Medication Errors by Nurses

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Nurses who are interrupted in the process of preparing and administering medications are more likely to make an error, with error severity increasing with the number of interruptions, according to a study in the April 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Therapeutic Swings May Cause Eye Injury in Autistic Children

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians from two different medical centers recently identified therapeutic home swings, used for vestibular stimulation in patients with autism-spectrum disorders, as the common culprit in recurrent corneal metallic foreign bodies in two of their patients, according to an article published in the Journal of AAPOS, the official periodical of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.

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Survival in Extreme Preterm Infants Unchanged Since 1993

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Since 1993, more infants born at less than 24 weeks' gestation have lived more hours or even days thanks to active resuscitation, but overall survival has not improved, according to a report published online April 22 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition.

Abstract
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Financial Ties Negatively Affect Perceptions of Research Quality

TUESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Disclosure of financial ties to industry influences patients', physicians', and research participants' beliefs about the quality of research evidence, according to a review published in the April 26 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

FDA Addresses External Infusion Pump Safety Issues

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced a new initiative to address safety issues related to external infusion pumps, which are commonly used in hospitals, other clinical settings, and patient's homes.

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Report Addresses Intimate Partner Violence

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- It is important for pediatricians to be familiar with the signs of intimate partner violence (IPV), to identify abused caregivers, and to be able to evaluate and treat children from homes where family violence may occur, according to a clinical report published online April 26 in Pediatrics.

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Panel Warns of Risks Posed by Female Genital Cutting

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Immigrants from areas where female genital cutting (FGC) in infants, children and adolescents is common may request physicians in the United States to perform such procedures, but the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) opposes all types of FGC that pose physical or psychological risk, and counsels its members not to perform such procedures, according to a policy statement published online April 26 in Pediatrics.

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Most Doctors Not Knowledgeable About Herbals

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Most physicians are not knowledgeable about herbal medicines and believe the general public is poorly informed as well, according to the results of a survey published in the April issue of the Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin.

DTB Survey on Herbal Medicines

Policy Statement Addresses DNAR Requests in Schools

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatricians have a critical role to play in working with school nurses and officials to ensure the do-not-attempt-resuscitation (DNAR) requests of the families of children and adolescents with complex chronic conditions are honored, according to a policy statement published online April 26 in Pediatrics.

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Younger Workers Often at High Risk for Occupational Injury

FRIDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Younger workers (15 to 24 years of age) are often employed in jobs that place them at high risk for injury, and employers should ensure that they can safely perform their jobs by identifying and mitigating safety hazards, according to a report published in the April 23 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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New P. Falciparum Malaria Drug as Effective as Standard

FRIDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Pyronaridine-artesunate, a new anti-malarial drug that can be given once a day, is as effective as the current standard Plasmodium falciparum malaria treatment, artemether-lumefantrine, which requires twice-daily dosing, according to a study in the April 24 issue of The Lancet.

Abstract
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Comment (subscription or payment may be required)

T. Tonsurans Rate High in Black Children in Kansas City

THURSDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Of Kansas City schoolchildren tested for Trichophyton tonsurans infection, 6.6 percent exhibited positive cultures, and black children had the highest prevalence of infection, according to a study published online April 19 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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In Utero Methadone Exposure Linked to Vision Problems

THURSDAY, April 22 (HealthDay News) -- Infants born to women who misused drugs and were prescribed methadone during pregnancy are at risk for a range of vision problems, and those with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) severe enough to receive pharmaceutical treatment may especially be at risk for developing nystagmus, according to a report published online April 21 in the British Journal of Ophthalmology.

Abstract
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Serious Infection in Children With Fever Often Missed

WEDNESDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Emergency department physicians tend to underestimate the likelihood of serious bacterial infection in young children presenting with fever, pointing to the need for improved diagnostic protocols, according to research published online April 20 in BMJ.

Abstract
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Editorial

Children's Hospitals Often Do Little to Offset High Occupancy

WEDNESDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Among children's hospitals, there is a low rate of acute response to high occupancy, and the magnitude of response is small in those that do respond, according to research published online April 19 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Childhood Cancer Rates Up, But Mortality Down, Since 1975

WEDNESDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Despite increasing incidence rates, childhood cancer mortality rates have declined since 1975, and further success in reducing these rates will require new treatment paradigms that build on an increased understanding of molecular processes, according to research published online April 19 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Abstract
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Video Games Before Bed Affect Teens' Sleep Only Slightly

WEDNESDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Playing stimulating video games prior to bedtime has only a slight effect on the sleep of older male teens, according to a study in the April 15 issue of the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.

Abstract
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Cochlear Implants Help Young Children More Than Expected

TUESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Children who undergo cochlear implantation before age 5 may have greater spoken-language learning improvements than predicted, according to research published in the April 21 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Long-Term Effects of Sucrose in Infants Unclear

TUESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Little is known about the potential long-term developmental effects of early dietary exposure to sugar, and physicians should be conservative in their use of sucrose to ameliorate pain in preterm and critically ill infants, according to research published online April 19 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Review Finds Surprisingly High Death Rate for Kids' Choking

MONDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Hospital admissions for airway foreign body and esophageal foreign body airway obstruction in pediatric patients occur infrequently, but are associated with a surprisingly high mortality rate, according to a review published in the April issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery.

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Many Physicians Ignore Interim Guidelines for Hib Vaccine

MONDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Most primary care physicians who administer Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine are aware of interim recommendations for vaccine shortages -- including deferral of the vaccine booster for healthy 12- to 15-month-olds -- but many do not adhere to the recommendations, according to research published online April 19 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Study Examines Tobacco Ingestion in Young Children

MONDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly 14,000 cases of tobacco-product ingestion in children were reported in 2006 to 2008, many of which involved smokeless tobacco products, according to a study published online April 19 in Pediatrics. An analysis in the same issue determined that the National Poison Data System is an important tool for monitoring inhalant abuse in children.

Abstract - Connolly
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Abstract - Marsolek
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Many Child Care Directors Unnecessarily Exclude Children

MONDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Even though Wisconsin endorses American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Public Health Association (APHA) national guidelines on exclusion of children from child care centers, the state has high rates of unnecessary exclusions by child care directors, according to research published online April 19 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Retinopathy of Prematurity Can Progress Rapidly

MONDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Usually, in infants with type 2 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), progression to type 1 of the condition can be identified with weekly examinations, but a subset of infants progresses to type 1 in fewer than seven days, according to a study in the April issue of the Archives of Ophthalmology.

Abstract
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Books Read to Baby Helpful Teaching Tools for New Mothers

FRIDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Books that new mothers read to infants may be effective in providing anticipatory guidance to the women, according to research published online April 12 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Respiratory Syncytial Virus Exacts Global Toll in Children

FRIDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) may be responsible for acute lower-respiratory infections (ALRIs) that kill nearly 200,000 children younger than 5 worldwide each year, according to a review published online April 16 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Congenital Syphilis Cases Rise After Years of Decline

FRIDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- After declining between 1991 and 2005, the incidence of congenital syphilis (CS) in infants in the United States increased 23 percent from 2005 to 2008, according to data reported in the April 16 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Many Youths With Respiratory Conditions Use Inhalants

THURSDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- More than 4 percent of adolescents ages 12 to 17 have used an inhalant in the past year, including many with a respiratory condition such as pneumonia, bronchitis, asthma or sinusitis, according to The National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual survey sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

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Acquired Childhood Glaucoma More Common Than Congenital

THURSDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- Over a 40-year period in Olmstead County, Minn., the incidence of childhood glaucoma was 2.29 per 100,000 residents younger than 20, with acquired and secondary forms of the condition being most common and juvenile and congenital glaucoma being rare, according to research published in the April issue of the Archives of Ophthalmology.

Abstract
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Mouth Breathing May Lead to Medical, Other Problems

THURSDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- Health care professionals may be unaware of the physical, medical and social problems associated with mouth breathing, but it is important for the entire health care community -- including dentists -- to screen for and diagnose the condition to prevent these problems, according to an article in the January/February issue of General Dentistry.

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Early Treatment Helps Some Infants With Retinopathy

THURSDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- Infants with type 1 high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) who receive early treatment stand to benefit from improvements in visual acuity at age 6, while those with type 2 high-risk prethreshold ROP do not appear to similarly benefit, according to a study published online April 12 in the Archives of Ophthalmology.

Abstract
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Bariatric Surgery Linked to Lower Risk of Pregnancy Complications

WEDNESDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- Obese women who undergo bariatric surgery before having a baby have a lower risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy than obese women who have a baby before undergoing bariatric surgery, according to a retrospective cohort study published online April 13 in BMJ.

Abstract
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Mothers Influence Daughters' Uptake of HPV Vaccine

WEDNESDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- Even when young women are old enough to get vaccinated against human papillomavirus (HPV) without parental consent, mother-daughter communication about sex and daughters' perception of their mothers' approval of the vaccination are important predictors of vaccination, according to research published online April 12 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Seven Metered-Dose Inhalers to Be Phased Out

WEDNESDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- Seven metered-dose inhalers that contain ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons will be gradually removed from the U.S. marketplace, according to an April 13 announcement by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

More Information

Some Anticonvulsants Linked to Higher Suicide Risk

TUESDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- Compared with topiramate use, the use of gabapentin, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, and tiagabine may be associated with a higher risk of suicidal acts or violent death, according to research published in the April 14 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Real-Time PCR Assays on Blood Spots Fall Short for CMV

TUESDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- In newborns, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of dried blood spots doesn't appear suitable for mass screening for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, according to research published in the April 14 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Maternal Deaths Decreased Significantly From '80 to '08

MONDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- The global maternal mortality rate has decreased significantly since 1980, with countries such as China, Egypt, Ecuador and Bolivia making large strides to reduce their rates, though the United States is among a group of high-income countries where maternal mortality rates have increased, according to an article published online April 12 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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Comment (subscription or payment may be required)

Surreptitious Administration of Insulin Seen in Case Studies

MONDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Unexplained hypoglycemia in children can be perplexing, and surreptitious administration of insulin -- whether by children themselves or their caregivers -- may need to be considered as a cause, according to three case studies published online April 12 in two different articles in Pediatrics.

Abstract - Osipoff
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Abstract - Green
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Spanking 3-Year-Olds Ups Risk of Increased Aggression Later

MONDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- When mothers employ even mild corporal punishment, such as spanking, to discipline their 3-year-olds, those children are more likely to display more aggressive behavior by the age of 5, even when confounding factors are accounted for, according to research published online April 12 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Suicide Risk Seen With Mental, Physical Conditions in Youths

MONDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Youths with chronic physical conditions have a slightly higher risk of self-harm, suicidal thinking and attempted suicide than healthy peers, and a suicide risk assessment training module using standardized patients is more effective in teaching pediatric interns than lecture alone, according to research published online April 12 in Pediatrics.

Abstract - Barnes
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Abstract - Fallucco
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Alcohol Linked to Benign Breast Disease in Young Women

MONDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Among teen girls and young women, more frequent alcohol consumption and greater quantity consumed is associated with a higher risk of benign breast disease (BBD) in young adulthood, according to research published online April 12 in Pediatrics, which also featured a policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics with recommendations for pediatricians regarding alcohol use in youths.

Abstract - Berkey
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Abstract - Policy Statement
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Couples Who Lose a Pregnancy More Likely to Break Up

FRIDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- Married or cohabitating couples are at a higher risk for breaking up after experiencing a stillbirth or miscarriage than those who experience a live birth, according to research published online April 5 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Mothers Heed Advice on Infant Supine Sleeping Position

WEDNESDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- Advice from health care providers, family and the media, and addressing concerns about infant comfort and choking are crucial to getting predominantly African-American mothers to place their infants in the recommended supine sleeping position, according to a study in the April issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

Abstract
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Child's Post-Anesthesia Crying Unaffected by Parent Presence

WEDNESDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- Young children coming out of anesthesia postoperatively in a post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) may cry whether or not their parents are present, though parental presence is associated with decreased negative behavior change two weeks later, according to a study in the April issue of Anesthesia & Analgesia.

Abstract
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Environment Affects Quality of Life in Adolescent Scoliosis

WEDNESDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- Living environment may influence assessment results of the quality of life after surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, according to a study in the March 15 issue of Spine.

Abstract
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Computer-Assisted Program Cuts Repeat Teen Pregnancies

WEDNESDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- Computer-assisted counseling of pregnant teenage girls for the purpose of preventing repeat pregnancies can be an effective and cost-effective strategy, according to a study in the April issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

Abstract
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Longer Therapy No Better Than Shorter in JIA Remission

TUESDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- Among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), continuing methotrexate treatment for a year during remission does not prevent eventual disease relapse any better than continuing it for six months during remission, and higher myeloid-related proteins 8 and 14 heterocomplex (MRP8/14) concentrations are associated with risk of relapse after discontinuing the drug, according to a study in the April 7 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Teen Birth Rate Drops Between 2007-2008 After Two-Year Rise

TUESDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- The teen birth rate in the United States declined 2 percent between 2007 and 2008, and more women are waiting until their 40s to have children, according to a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics.

Press Release
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Exercise Mitigates Effect of Obesity Gene in Adolescents

TUESDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescents with the minor A allele of the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism are at high risk of obesity, but that risk can be overcome by an hour or more of daily exercise, according to a study in the April issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

Abstract
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Chest Radiation in Youth Found to Up Breast Cancer Risk

TUESDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- Women who are treated for cancer at a young age with chest radiation therapy have an increased risk of developing breast cancer at a young age, according to a systematic literature review published in the April 6 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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Adult Mortality Considerable in Survivors of Childhood Cancer

TUESDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- Survivors of childhood cancer face considerable mortality as adults, according to research published in the April 6 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Child Travelers Have Different Health Issues Than Adults

MONDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Children have different health problems associated with international travel than adults as well as different patterns of health care use, and the most common diagnoses in children vary by travel destination, suggesting a need for health professionals who provide pre-travel advice to tailor prevention strategies by age as well as destination, according to research published online April 5 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Screening Test for Liver Disease in Children May Be Unreliable

MONDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- The upper limit of the test most commonly used to screen children for chronic liver disease varies widely from one children's hospital to another, and is set so high that it may not reliably detect the disease, according to research published in the April issue of Gastroenterology.

Abstract
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Graded Doses of Flu Vaccine Safe for Egg-Allergic Children

MONDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatric patients who are allergic to eggs (but don't have anaphylaxis to egg) can safely receive influenza vaccination in two graded doses without a prior vaccine skin test as a precaution to avoid serious adverse reaction, according to research published online April 5 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Spanish Medication Labels Common, Likely to Have Errors

MONDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- While a majority of pharmacies provide medication labels in Spanish for Spanish-speaking customers, the translations are not always complete and may contain hazardous errors, according to the results of a survey published online April 5 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Health Misinformation Can Spread Fast Via Social Networks

MONDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Misunderstandings regarding proper use of antibiotics could potentially be widely disseminated through social networks such as Twitter, according to a study in the April issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

Abstract
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Pediatric Vesicoureteral Reflux Treatment Studies Faulted

MONDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- The overall per-ureter dextranomer/hyaluronic acid success rate in patients with pediatric vesicoureteral varies widely between studies, and this variation can't be explained by most underlying patient or study factors, suggesting a need for more study and improved reporting of vesicoureteral reflux treatment, according to a review published online April 5 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Childhood Injuries on Holidays Often Not Holiday-Specific

MONDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Among teens and children, most injuries requiring emergency-department care that occur on holidays are associated with general activities rather than holiday-specific activities, according to research published online April 5 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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More Breast-Feeding Could Cut National Costs, Save Lives

MONDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- If 90 percent of American families breast-fed exclusively for six months, the United States could save billions of dollars annually and prevent hundreds of infant deaths, according to research published online April 5 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Influenza Vaccination Coverage Remains Inadequate

THURSDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- While 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) or seasonal influenza vaccination was higher among health care personnel (HCP) than previous seasons, a wide variation in 2009 H1N1 state-specific vaccination rates suggests improvement opportunities in upcoming seasons, according to interim results of two reports published in the April 2 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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FDA Requires Device Makers to Provide Pediatric Information

THURSDAY, April 1 (HealthDay News) -- In certain premarket applications, device manufacturers will need to include readily available information on pediatric patients that have the condition the device is intended for, whether or not the device was designed or developed for use in pediatric populations, according to a March 31 press release from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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