Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Neurology for May 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Stents, Endarterectomy Equally Effective at Preventing Stroke
WEDNESDAY, May 26 (HealthDay News) -- Carotid-artery stenting and carotid endarterectomy are equally effective in preventing stroke in the long term, according to a study published online May 26 in the New England Journal of Medicine to coincide with its presentation at the European Stroke Conference, held from May 25 to 28 in Barcelona, Spain.
Brain Injury Patients Plagued by Poor Sleep, Depression
TUESDAY, May 25 (HealthDay News) --Patients with traumatic brain injury exhibit disrupted circadian rhythms and lower levels of melatonin production, contributing to poor sleep quality, anxiety and depression, according to a study in the May 25 issue of Neurology.
Visceral Fat, Total Brain Volume Inversely Associated
MONDAY, May 24 (HealthDay News) -- In middle-aged adults, abdominal fat -- especially visceral fat -- is inversely associated with total brain volume, according to research published online May 20 in the Annals of Neurology.
On-Time Vaccinations in First Year Don't Hurt Development
MONDAY, May 24 (HealthDay News) -- Children who are vaccinated on schedule in their first year of life exhibit neuropsychological development at ages 7 to 10 that is as good as or better than children who receive delayed vaccination or do not get vaccinated, according to a study published online May 24 in Pediatrics.
Intervention Improves Parent-Autistic Child Interactions
FRIDAY, May 21 (HealthDay News) -- A parent-mediated social communication intervention in preschool children with autism improves parent-child interaction but does not result in clinically significant benefits in autism severity, according to research published in the May 21 online edition of The Lancet.
Stroke Incidence Falls in Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky
FRIDAY, May 21 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of stroke decreased significantly among whites, but not blacks, in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky area from 1999 to 2005, according to research published online May 20 in Stroke.
Nonorganic Pain Drawings Linked to Inferior Outcomes
THURSDAY, May 20 (HealthDay News) -- A nonorganic pain drawing used during lumbar spinal fusion surgery is a significant risk factor for inferior outcome, according to a study published in the May issue of The Spine Journal.
Botox Injections Resolve Chronic Cough
THURSDAY, May 20 (HealthDay News) -- Injection with botulinum toxin type A (BtxA) can resolve chronic cough caused by laryngeal hypertonicity and neuroplastic changes, according to research published in the May issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery.
Major Depression Prevalent After Traumatic Brain Injury
TUESDAY, May 18 (HealthDay News) -- Within the first year after traumatic brain injury (TBI), more than half of patients meet criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), which independently predicts poorer health-related quality of life, according to research published in the May 19 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Cerebral Vasoreactivity Related to Gait, Possibly Falls, in Elderly
TUESDAY, May 18 (HealthDay News) -- Impaired regulation of cerebral blood flow is associated with slowed gait and may be related to increased falls in the elderly, according to research published in the May 18 issue of the journal Neurology.
Brain-Injured Youths Have More Postconcussive Symptoms
TUESDAY, May 18 (HealthDay News) -- Postconcussive symptoms (PCSs) are not unique to children with mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBIs), but children with such injuries experience more PCSs and different neurocognitive recovery than their non-head-injured peers, according to research published online May 17 in Pediatrics.
Higher Pesticide Exposure Linked to Increased ADHD Risk
MONDAY, May 17 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of organophosphate exposure have been associated with adverse effects on neurodevelopment, and cross-sectional data suggest that levels of exposure common in U.S. children may contribute to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence, according to research published online May 17 in Pediatrics.
Sprix Approved for Moderate-to-Severe Pain
MONDAY, May 17 (HealthDay News) -- Roxro Pharma's Sprix (ketorolac tromethamine) nasal spray has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the short-term treatment of moderate to moderately severe pain, the manufacturer said Monday in a news release.
Earliest Receipt of Alteplase Benefits Stroke Outcomes Most
FRIDAY, May 14 (HealthDay News) -- The thrombolytic drug alteplase should be given as soon as possible after a stroke, as the odds of a favorable outcome decrease as the time to treatment increases, according to a pooled analysis published online May 15 in The Lancet.
Low Umbilical Artery pH Linked to Adverse Outcomes
FRIDAY, May 14 (HealthDay News) -- Low umbilical artery pH at birth is strongly associated with adverse long-term outcomes, including death and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, according to research published online May 13 in BMJ.
Stroke Sign Awareness Doesn't Translate to Calling 911
FRIDAY, May 14 (HealthDay News) -- Most adults cannot correctly identify stroke warning signs, and even those who can may not respond to them by calling 911, according to research published online May 13 in Stroke.
Autism Onset Patterns Linked to Developmental Outcomes
THURSDAY, May 13 (HealthDay News) -- In children under age 3, the onset of autism has three distinct patterns -- regression, plateau, and no loss or plateau -- which substantially affect developmental, diagnostic and educational outcomes, according to a study published April 2 in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.
Pramipexole Beneficial for Depression in Parkinson's
THURSDAY, May 13 (HealthDay News) -- The dopamine agonist pramipexole improves depression in patients with Parkinson's disease, suggesting that it could become an important antidepressant treatment for these patients, according to a study published online May 10 in the The Lancet Neurology.
New FDA Program Targets Misleading Drug Advertising
WEDNESDAY, May 12 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has announced the launch of a new program to educate health care providers regarding their role in making certain that advertisements and promotions for prescription drugs are truthful and not misleading.
Multiple IV Immunoglobulin Doses Benefit CIDP Patients
WEDNESDAY, May 12 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) may need two doses of immune globulin intravenous, 10 percent caprylate/chromatography purified (IGIV-C), every three weeks for initial improvement, and additional therapy may be needed to reach and maintain a maximal response, according to research published online May 10 in the Archives of Neurology.
Two Novel Gene Variants Linked to Alzheimer's Disease
TUESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Two biologically plausible, novel genetic variations are associated with Alzheimer's disease; however, variations may not improve the ability to predict incident Alzheimer's disease, according to a study published in the May 12 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
COPD Exacerbations May Raise Risk of Cardiovascular Events
TUESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) appear to increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, according to research published in the May issue of Chest.
Restless Legs Syndrome Is Frequently Familial
TUESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Restless legs syndrome (RLS) has a high familial rate, and siblings of those who are severely affected by the disease appear to be at increased risk of developing it themselves, according to research published in the May issue of the Archives of Neurology.
Impulse Control Disorders Common in Parkinson's Disease
TUESDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are fairly common in people with Parkinson's disease and are associated with several clinical and demographic variables -- particularly dopamine-replacement therapies, according to research published in the May issue of the Archives of Neurology.
Fluctuating Blood Pressure May Increase Risk of CVD in Elderly
MONDAY, May 10 (HealthDay News) -- High blood pressure (BP) and greater BP fluctuations are associated with an increased risk for cerebrovascular disease in older adults, according to research published in the May issue of the Archives of Neurology.
Nerve Block Successfully Treats Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
FRIDAY, May 7 (HealthDay News) -- The injection of a local anesthetic in a cervical vertebra to create a stellate ganglion block (SGB) in the sympathetic nervous system has been shown to successfully relieve the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in veterans of combat in Iraq, according to case reports from the Walter Reed Army Medical Center published online April 20 in Pain Practice.
Spouses of Dementia Patients Have Higher Risk of Dementia
FRIDAY, May 7 (HealthDay News) -- Among older married couples in which one spouse has dementia, the other spouse -- especially the husband -- has a significantly higher risk of also developing dementia, and a potential causal factor may be the chronic, often severe stress associated with dementia caregiving, according to a study published online May 6 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
Vaccine May Have Role in Dravet Onset; Does Not Cause Disease
THURSDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- Pertussis vaccination may cause an earlier onset of Dravet syndrome in children who are destined to develop the disease because of a mutation, but the vaccine does not appear to affect outcomes and there is no reason to withhold it, according to research published online May 5 in The Lancet Neurology.
Frontal Lobes Divide to Represent Simultaneous Goals
THURSDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- Though the left and right medial frontal cortex in the human brain jointly drive the performance of a single task, they divide to drive the pursuit of two concurrent goals simultaneously, according to research published in the April 16 issue of Science.
Deep Brain Stimulation Beneficial in Parkinson's
THURSDAY, May 6 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease who undergo deep brain stimulation (DBS) in addition to the best medical therapy report better quality of life than patients who receive only best medical therapy, though they are at increased risk of serious adverse events, according to a study published online April 29 in The Lancet Neurology.
Mutation Linked to Tourette's Identified in Family
WEDNESDAY, May 5 (HealthDay News) -- A genetic mutation resulting in abnormal histamine biosynthesis has been identified in a father and his offspring, all of whom have Tourette's syndrome, pointing to a role for histaminergic neurotransmission in the modulation and mechanism of Tourette's, according to research published online May 5 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Cost Barriers Hamper Herpes Zoster Vaccination of Seniors
TUESDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- Though most physicians recommend the use of herpes zoster vaccine in older adults, they are hampered by its financial barriers, according to survey results published in the May 4 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine. A study in the same issue found that the vaccine is well tolerated in older adults.
Most People Don't Know Which Hospitals Are Stroke-Certified
TUESDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- Despite believing that it is important to know where to get specialty stroke care, most Americans do not know which hospitals in their area are considered stroke-certified, according to the results of a survey released by the American Stroke Association on May 3.
Magnetic Stimulation Found Effective for Depression
MONDAY, May 3 (HealthDay News) -- The use of daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is likely an effective and safe option for the treatment of major depressive disorder, according to a study in the May issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.
Common Heart Defect Linked With Brain Aneurysms
MONDAY, May 3 (HealthDay News) -- People with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), a common heart defect, may be at higher risk for brain aneurysms, according to research published in the May 4 issue of Neurology.
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