Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for June 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
MMRV Vaccine Ups Fever and Seizure Risk
TUESDAY, June 29 (HealthDay News) -- Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccination is associated with an increased risk of fever and seizure in young children, above that already associated with measles-containing vaccines, according to research published online June 29 in Pediatrics, confirming preliminary evidence from a previous study.
Doctors Agree Malpractice Fears Drive Overuse of Tests
MONDAY, June 28 (HealthDay News) -- A large majority of physicians agree that the practice of defensive medicine -- stemming from malpractice concerns -- is responsible for an overuse of medical tests and procedures, according to a research letter in the June 28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Rapid Test to Detect Hepatitis C Approved
FRIDAY, June 25 (HealthDay News) -- The OraQuick HCV Rapid Antibody Test to detect antibodies from the hepatitis C virus has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Substantial Proportion of STI Consultations Involve Swingers
FRIDAY, June 25 (HealthDay News) -- Swingers -- heterosexuals who practice mate swapping or group sex or visit sex clubs as couples -- make up a considerable proportion of consultations for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and should be identified and treated as a risk group for STI prevention and care services, according to research published online June 24 in Sexually Transmitted Infections.
Rate of HIV Testing Up, New AIDS Cases Down in D.C.
THURSDAY, June 24 (HealthDay News) -- In Washington, D.C., where the HIV case rate is nearly 10 times the U.S. rate, the proportion of the population tested for HIV has increased and the rate of newly diagnosed AIDS cases has decreased in recent years, according to a report published in the June 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Menstrual Cycle, OCPs Affect High-Risk HPV Detection Rates
THURSDAY, June 24 (HealthDay News) -- The timing of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing within the menstrual cycle affects detection rates in women who are taking non-continuous oral contraceptives, as well as in women who are not on oral contraceptives, according to research published in the July issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Computerized Decision Support Boosts Postpartum Vaccination
THURSDAY, June 24 (HealthDay News) -- A computer-based clinical decision-support algorithm can dramatically increase rates of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of postpartum women, according to a study in the July issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
In Older Women, HPV Results Useful for Colposcopy Triage
WEDNESDAY, June 23 (HealthDay News) -- Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Pap test results can be used together in some cases to triage patients for further evaluation for cervical cancer with colposcopy, according to research published in the July issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
New 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Test Authorized by FDA
WEDNESDAY, June 23 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has authorized a new test that uses molecular biology techniques to diagnose 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection in humans.
Racial Disparities in Sepsis Explained by Two Factors
TUESDAY, June 22 (HealthDay News) -- Racial differences in sepsis rates are due to higher infection rates as well as a higher risk of organ dysfunction among black patients compared with white patients, according to research published in the June 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Surgical Infection-Prevention Program Has Mixed Results
TUESDAY, June 22 (HealthDay News) -- Adherence to Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) infection-prevention measures is associated with a decreased risk of postoperative infections only when the measures are analyzed as a composite score instead of individually, according to research published in the June 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Spinal Surgical Site Infections Usually S. Aureus
TUESDAY, June 22 (HealthDay News) -- Both deep and superficial surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal surgery are usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus; successful treatment of deep infections is possible with single stage debridement and intravenous antibiotics, and superficial infections can effectively be treated with local wound care and oral antibiotic therapy, according to research published in the June 1 issue of Spine.
Breast-Feeding for Six Months Best for Infection Prevention
MONDAY, June 21 (HealthDay News) -- Exclusive breast-feeding until age 6 months is slightly more protective against infectious diseases than exclusive breast-feeding for four months and partially thereafter, according to research published online June 21 in Pediatrics.
PCBs Linked to Reduced Response to Vaccinations
MONDAY, June 21 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) early in life may reduce the effectiveness of childhood vaccinations and impair immune-system responses to infection, according to research published online June 20 in Environmental Health Perspectives.
Newly Approved HIV Test Can Spot Infection Earlier
MONDAY, June 21 (HealthDay News) -- Abbott's Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
New Method Gives Better Local Start Date for RSV Prophylaxis
THURSDAY, June 17 (HealthDay News) -- Using five years of local laboratory surveillance data to predict likely respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) outbreak timing is a viable method for recommending optimal immunoprophylaxis dates, according to research published online June 14 in Pediatrics.
Antiretroviral Regimens Reduce Mom-Baby HIV Transmission
WEDNESDAY, June 16 (HealthDay News) -- Various antiretroviral treatment options for lactating mothers and breast-feeding infants appear to reduce mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), according to two studies in the June 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Nurses Safely and Effectively Manage HIV Therapy
WEDNESDAY, June 16 (HealthDay News) -- Nurse-monitored combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-positive patients appears to be as effective and safe as doctor-monitored therapy, according to a non-inferiority study published online June 16 in The Lancet.
MRSA Linked to Higher Mortality in Cystic Fibrosis
TUESDAY, June 15 (HealthDay News) -- Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection have worse survival rates than CF patients without the infection, according to a study in the June 16 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
HIV Nucleic Acid Testing With Automated Reporting Beneficial
TUESDAY, June 15 (HealthDay News) -- Adding nucleic acid testing (NAT) that includes automated result reporting systems to routine HIV testing programs can increase the early detection of infected individuals, particularly in settings that serve men who have sex with men (MSM), according to a study in the June 15 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.
Treatments Found Effective for Chronic Hepatitis E Infection
TUESDAY, June 15 (HealthDay News) -- Ribavirin and pegylated interferon-α may be effective in treating chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, according to two reports published online June 14 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.
Vaccination Ends Disparities in Pneumococcal Disease
MONDAY, June 14 (HealthDay News) -- The vaccination of young children with seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in recent years has eliminated disparities in risk for vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) associated with race and group child care attendance, according to a case-control study published online June 14 in Pediatrics.
Rotavirus Prescribing Information, Labeling Changed
FRIDAY, June 11 (HealthDay News) -- New prescribing information and patient labeling for rotavirus vaccines has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in response to reports of vaccine-acquired rotavirus infection in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID), according to a report published in the June 11 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
S. aureus Infections a Greater Risk After Certain Procedures
THURSDAY, June 10 (HealthDay News) -- The frequency and type of invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections following surgeries vary according to the type of procedure, with cardiothoracic and neurosurgical procedures linked to the highest risks, according to research published in the July issue of Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.
H1N1, Seasonal Flu Have Similar Attack Rates
THURSDAY, June 10 (HealthDay News) -- The pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus had transmissibility and clinical features similar to those of seasonal influenza A viruses, and the use of oseltamivir ring chemoprophylaxis -- along with quick identification and isolation of affected individuals -- effectively reduced the impact of 2009 H1N1 outbreaks in semiclosed settings, according to two studies published in the June 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Infection Control Lapses Common in Surgical Centers
TUESDAY, June 8 (HealthDay News) -- Two-thirds of Medicare-participating ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs) have at least one lapse in their infection control practices, and a substantial number have three or more lapses, according to research published in the June 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Fatal Medication Errors Rise in July at Teaching Hospitals
TUESDAY, June 8 (HealthDay News) -- In July there is a significant increase in fatal medication errors at medical institutions, and this spike is at least partly due to the arrival of new medical residents, according to a study published online May 29 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.
GBS Screening Guidelines Widely Followed in Tennessee
FRIDAY, June 4 (HealthDay News) -- The state of Tennessee has mostly succeeded in implementing and adhering to universal screening guidelines for perinatal group B streptococci (GBS), but the timing of screening and administration of chemoprophylaxis when indicated could be improved upon, according to research published in the June issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Non-Married at Greater Risk of Hospitalization for Sepsis
FRIDAY, June 4 (HealthDay News) -- Single, separated, and widowed adults have a higher risk of hospitalization for sepsis than do their married peers, and some face higher mortality rates as well, according to research published in the June issue of Chest.
WHO Maintains Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Alert
FRIDAY, June 4 (HealthDay News) -- The World Health Organization has decided to maintain an H1N1 flu pandemic alert based on the recommendation of 15 international influenza experts, as new cases of H1N1 are expected in the short-term during the flu season in the southern hemisphere.
Antivirals in Compensated Cirrhosis Found Cost-Effective
FRIDAY, June 4 (HealthDay News) -- The antiviral treatment of patients with compensated cirrhosis may be the most cost-effective treatment option for patients with advanced liver disease caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, according to research published in the June issue of Liver Transplantation.
Electronic Patient Records Reduce Time to Treatment
THURSDAY, June 3 (HealthDay News) -- Switching from paper notes to electronic patient records (EPR) may help clinics dramatically reduce the time between a positive test result and treatment for a sexually transmitted infection, according to research published online May 21 in Sexually Transmitted Infections.
FDA: Claris IV Medications Recalled Due to Contamination
TUESDAY, June 1 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has notified health care professionals not to use intravenous medications including metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and ondansetron manufactured by Claris Lifesciences, as the products may be contaminated.
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