Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for July 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Higher Pediatric Mortality Marked 2009/2010 Flu Season
FRIDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- Since April 2009, influenza activity in the United States has been characterized by much higher pediatric mortality and higher rates of hospitalization in children and young adults than seen in previous years, according a report published in the July 30 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Flu Vaccine for Upcoming Season Approved
FRIDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- The annual flu vaccine for the 2010-2011 influenza season has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the agency said Friday.
Specialties See Modest Compensation Increases in '09
FRIDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- Most medical specialties saw modest compensation increases in 2009, but many provider organizations are still operating at a substantial loss, according to the findings of the American Medical Group Association's (AMGA) 2010 Medical Group Compensation and Financial Survey.
General Anesthesia May Up Surgical Site Infection Risk
THURSDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Patients who undergo a primary total hip or knee replacement procedure with general anesthesia have a higher risk of surgical site infection (SSI) than those who undergo the procedure with epidural/spinal anesthesia, according to a study published in the August issue of Anesthesiology.
HIV Care Quality in VA Hospitals Generally High
TUESDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- National performance rates for quality-of-care measures for HIV patients receiving care through the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) are generally high, though there is variation from facility to facility, according to a study in the July 26 Archives of Internal Medicine. Another study in the same issue suggests that some HIV drugs increase the risk of heart attack in HIV-infected patients.
Younger Children Have Longer H1N1 Viral Shedding Period
TUESDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- Children under 13 years of age shed the 2009 H1N1 virus longer than other age groups, posing a higher risk for spreading the virus; yet, closing schools during a flu pandemic has limited effectiveness for isolating children, according to two studies published in the August issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases.
MODS Culture Method Beneficial in TB Diagnosis
MONDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- The microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS) culture method, using duplicate gastric-aspirate specimens, may be the best diagnostic test for pulmonary tuberculosis in high-risk children in a resource-poor setting, according to research published online July 26 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
Depression May Compromise Treatment for Hepatitis C Virus
MONDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- Symptoms of major depression in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are often missed during routine clinical interviews, and the presence of depression hinders treatment outcomes; in addition, HCV is associated with greater absence from work, lower productivity, and higher health care costs, according to two articles published in the August issue of Hepatology.
HPV Vaccine Demonstrates Sustained Protection
WEDNESDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- The quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine appears to provide strong and sustained protection against low-grade lesions attributable to HPV, according to research published July 20 in BMJ.
Intervention Ups Vaccination Rate in Health Care Workers
TUESDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- An educational intervention program can increase low influenza vaccination rates in primary health care workers, according to research published in the July/August issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.
Post-Op, Sepsis More Common Than MI, Pulmonary Embolism
TUESDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of post-surgical sepsis is higher than the incidence of post-surgical myocardial infarction or pulmonary embolism, and risk factors for sepsis include older age, need for emergency surgery, and comorbidities, according to research published in the July issue of the Archives of Surgery.
HIV Tied to Higher Death Risk Even With High CD4 Counts
FRIDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- HIV infection appears to increase the risk of death in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive patients with CD4 counts greater than 350 cells per µL compared to the general population, although the increased risk appears relatively modest, according to a study published online July 16 in The Lancet.
'Ghosts' After Heart Device Removal Linked to Infection
FRIDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- The presence of "ghosts" -- or intracardiac masses noted on echocardiography after device removal -- suggests device infection and may be associated with cardiac device-related infective endocarditis (CDRIE); these ghosts are present in 8 percent of patients after percutaneous device removal, according to research published in the July issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Cardiovascular Imaging.
18 Months' Treatment Optimal for Q Fever Endocarditis
FRIDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Q fever endocarditis should be treated with a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine for a period of 18 months in patients with native values, and through 24 months in patients with prosthetic valves, according to a retrospective study published online July 15 in The Lancet: Infectious Diseases.
FDA Issues Requirements for Baxter Infusion Pump Recall
THURSDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued conditions for Baxter Healthcare Corporation to follow in performing its April 2010 recall of Colleague Volumetric Infusion Pumps (CVIPs), and the agency is requiring the company to provide refunds or replacement pumps for customers or terminate their leases.
Benefits Seen With Early Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV
WEDNESDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T-cell counts below 350 per cubic millimeter may lower the rates of death and new cases of tuberculosis, according to research published in the July 15 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
MPV4 Vaccine Not Linked to Henoch-Schönlein Purpura
WEDNESDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPV4) does not appear to be associated with post-vaccination Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) in 16- to 20-year-olds, according to research published online July 12 in Pediatrics.
Program Linked to Fewer HIV Risk Behaviors in Couples
TUESDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- A culturally congruent intervention may reduce sexual risk behaviors in African-American couples who are HIV serodiscordant, according to research published online July 12 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Pneumonia, Raised CRP Level Tied to Severe H1N1 Outcomes
TUESDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- Pandemic H1N1 influenza infection often leads to hospitalization in previously healthy individuals, as well as people with underlying conditions, and an abnormal chest X-ray or an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level -- particularly in obese individuals or those with pulmonary conditions other than asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) -- is associated with a potentially serious outcome, according to research published in the July issue of Thorax.
Findings May Hold Value for Future HIV-1 Vaccine Design
MONDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- Three previously unknown monoclonal antibodies can neutralize most circulating HIV-1 isolates, and one of these partially imitates the interaction of the CD4 receptor with the viral envelope protein but focuses on a site consistent between strains, allowing for broad neutralization, according to the results of two studies published online July 8 in Science.
H1N1 Tied to Death, Serious Illness in Transplant Patients
FRIDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza A H1N1 can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients; however, initiation of antiviral therapy within 48 hours of symptom development may decrease intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, according to a study published online July 9 in the The Lancet: Infectious Diseases.
Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Linked to HPV Infection
FRIDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Infection with genus β human papillomavirus (HPV) appears to be associated with incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, with the risk higher for long-term users of systemic glucocorticoids, according to a study published online July 8 in BMJ.
Improper Anesthesia Practice Causes Hepatitis Outbreak
FRIDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- An anesthesiologist who reused a contaminated single-use propofol vial on multiple endoscopy patients caused an outbreak of hepatitis infection affecting 13 patients at two clinics, according to a report published in the July issue of Gastroenterology.
FDA: Cepheid Recalls MRSA/SA Blood Culture Assay
WEDNESDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- In response to an increasing number of complaints of false-negative results, Cepheid has alerted customers to a recall of all lots of Xpert methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA/SA) blood culture assay products for use with the GeneXpert Dx System.
Users of ED Drugs Have Higher Rates of Sexual Diseases
TUESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Men using medication for erectile dysfunction (ED) have higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) -- especially HIV infection -- both before and after using these drugs, according to research published in the July 6 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.
West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease Rate Lowest Since '01
FRIDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- There were 386 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease reported in the United States in 2009, for an incidence of 0.13 cases per 100,000 population, the lowest incidence since 2001, according to a report published in the July 2 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
CDC: Surge in Childhood Hepatitis A Vaccination Stalled
FRIDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- As the result of a broadened recommendation from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), hepatitis A average vaccination coverage for children increased sharply from 2006 to 2007, but has since stalled, according to a report in the July 2 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
CDC: Vaccinia Virus Infection Linked to Sexual Contact
FRIDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Following sexual contact with her military serviceman boyfriend, who had been recently vaccinated for smallpox, a woman in Washington state contracted vaccinia virus infection in her vagina, according to a case report published in the July 2 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Report Addresses Physician Financial Conflicts in Care
THURSDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- In a new report, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) urges U.S. teaching hospitals to establish policies that ensure financial relationships between physicians and industry do not result in conflicts of interest that influence patient care.
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