Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for September 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Tissue Oxygenation Test Predicts Surgical Site Infection
THURSDAY, Sept. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Subcutaneous oxygen concentrations, measurable by a simple test, appear to be highly predictive of a patient's risk for developing postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs), according to research published in the October issue of Anesthesia & Analgesia.
Dexamethasone Therapy Improves Meningitis Outcomes
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Therapy with dexamethasone has been widely implemented in the Netherlands as an adjunctive treatment of pneumococcal meningitis, and there subsequently has been substantial improvement in the prognosis of the disease on a national level, according to research published online Sept. 29 in Neurology.
Oseltamivir May Prevent Pneumonia in H1N1 Patients
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) treatment appears to be effective in preventing the development of radiographically confirmed pneumonia as well as reducing duration of fever and viral RNA shedding among patients with 2009 H1N1 infection, according to a study published online Sept. 28 in BMJ.
Vaccines Provide Hep B Immunity in Children for at Least 5 Years
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Infants vaccinated with hexavalent vaccines, including hexavac, appear to maintain immunity to hepatitis B for at least five years after primary vaccination, suggesting that booster doses are not necessary to maintain immunity, according to a study published online Sept. 29 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
Breast-Feeding Linked to Protection Against Infections
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Exclusive breast-feeding for six months may reduce the frequency and severity of infections in infants in a setting with a well-vaccinated infant population and adequate health standards, according to research published online Sept. 27 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.
Taribavirin Shows Benefit in Hepatitis C Versus Ribavirin
TUESDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Taribavirin (TBV) appears to be a safe and effective alternative to ribavirin (RBV) for treating chronic hepatitis C, with lower associated rates of anemia, according to research published in the October issue of Hepatology.
Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection Surveillance Varies
TUESDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CA-BSI) surveillance practices differ substantially among pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), with more aggressive surveillance practices associated with higher CA-BSI rates, according to research published in the October issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.
HIV Prevalence 19% Among Men Who Have Sex With Men
FRIDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) remains high in the United States, and 44 percent of infected MSM do not know they are infected, according to research published in the Sept. 24 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Children With H1N1 Have More Neurologic Complications
FRIDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Children with H1N1 influenza, especially if they have an underlying medical or neurologic condition, appear to be at higher risk for neurologic complications such as seizures and encephalopathy than children with seasonal flu, according to research published online Sept. 23 in the Annals of Neurology.
Digital Tomosynthesis Effective for Lung Lesion Detection
FRIDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- The use of a low-radiation dose digital tomosynthesis (DTS) technique appears to be more effective in detecting lung lesions among patients with pulmonary mycobacterial disease than conventional radiography, according to a study in the October issue of Radiology.
Rituximab Infection Risk in Daily Practice Same As in Trials
FRIDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- The rate of severe infections in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with rituximab (RTX) in daily practice is similar to that seen in controlled clinical trials of the drug, according to research published in the September issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism. The study also identifies patient characteristics which are associated with an increased risk of these infections.
Factors Tied to Higher Risk of Liver Cancer in Hep C Patients
FRIDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- People with elevated hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and ALT levels and HCV genotype 1 appear to be at increased risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma, according to research published online Sept. 20 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
ACOG: Pregnant Women Should Get Flu Vaccine Early
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Replacing a committee opinion published in 2004, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has released a new report from the Committee on Obstetric Practice supporting influenza vaccination during pregnancy. The new opinion has been published in the October issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Elevated Post-Op Glucose Ups Risk of Surgical Site Infection
TUESDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Postoperative hyperglycemia is an important risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) in general surgical procedures, but only operative time and diabetes are associated with SSI after vascular procedures, according to research published in the September issue of the Archives of Surgery.
Influenza Vaccine Tied to Reduced Heart Attack Rate
TUESDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza -- but not pneumococcal -- vaccination may reduce the rate of first acute myocardial infarction, according to a study published online Sept. 20 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.
Adenovirus Infection Linked to Childhood Obesity
MONDAY, Sept. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Obese children are significantly more likely to test positive for antibodies to adenovirus 36 (AD36) than are non-obese children, according to research published online Sept. 20 in Pediatrics.
Gel Not Shown to Reduce HIV-1 Incidence in Women
MONDAY, Sept. 20 (HealthDay News) -- PRO2000 microbicide gel is not efficacious against vaginal HIV-1 transmission, according to research published online Sept. 20 in The Lancet.
U.S. Vaccine Coverage Remains High in Young Children
FRIDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Routine vaccination of children between 19 and 35 months of age remains high in the United States, with coverage for most routine vaccines at or near the national objective of 90 percent, according to a report published in the Sept. 17 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
FDA Issues Label Change for Valganciclovir Hydrochloride
THURSDAY, Sept. 16 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has alerted health care professionals of new pediatric dosing recommendations for valganciclovir hydrochloride (Valcyte) in an effort to prevent overdosing in children with low body weight, low body surface area, and below normal serum creatinine.
Depression, Burnout Have Dire Impact on Medical Training
TUESDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Depressed medical students are more likely to endorse depression stigma attitudes than nondepressed students, and those with burnout are more likely to engage in unprofessional conduct and less likely to hold altruistic views of physicians' social responsibilities than those without burnout, according to two articles published in the Sept. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Sacrifice Makes Industry Gifts Seem More Acceptable
TUESDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Residents who are reminded of the sacrifices they made to attain their medical education tend to rate the acceptability of industry-sponsored gifts higher than those who are not reminded, according to research published in the Sept. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Re-Consent Important Before Secondary Use of Genetic Data
MONDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Most research participants want to be asked for secondary consent -- referred to as re-consent -- before their existing personal genetic data are added to the federal database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP), according to research published in the September issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics.
High HIV Rate for Men Having Sex With Men in France
FRIDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Although overall HIV incidence rates in France declined between 2003 and 2008, the rate was drastically higher among men who have sex with men (MSM) than among other groups, according to research published online Sept. 9 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
Inflammation Biomarkers ID Prosthetic Joint Infection
THURSDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Several inflammation biomarkers, including interleukin-6, C-reactive protein level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood-cell count, can effectively diagnose prosthetic joint infection at the time of total hip or knee arthroplasty, according to a meta-analysis published in the Sept. 1 issue of the Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Annual Medical Liability Costs Surpass $50 Billion
THURSDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- The annual costs of the medical liability system in the United States total more than $50 billion, which accounts for a relatively small but non-trivial portion of total health care spending, according to an article in the September issue of Health Affairs.
Nevirapine Reuse in Children With HIV May Be Safe
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 8 (HealthDay News) -- After achieving viral suppression with protease inhibitor-based therapy, most children infected with HIV at birth despite being given nevirapine may safely be switched back to nevirapine-based therapy without fear of drug resistance, according to a study published in the Sept. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Pandemic H1N1 Affected Younger Patients Than H3N2
TUESDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- The median age of individuals affected by 2009 H1N1 influenza was substantially lower than that of individuals affected by 2007/2008 H3N2 influenza; however, the risk of most serious complications was not higher in those with 2009 H1N1 than in those with recent seasonal influenza strains, according to research published in the Sept. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Serotype 19A Acquisition Tied to Vaccine Schedule
TUESDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV-7) using a 2+1 dosing schedule may result in an increase in serotype 19A nasopharyngeal acquisition, according to a study in the Sept. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Urban Clinic Increases HIV Testing Uptake in Adolescents
TUESDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- After the publication of national recommendations for routine HIV testing and the implementation of rapid testing, the rate of HIV testing among adolescents at an urban adolescent primary care clinic substantially increased, according to research published in the September issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.
Protocol Guides Wound Closure Timing for Open Fractures
THURSDAY, Sept. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Use of a protocol based on wound culture results after irrigation and surgical debridement of open fractures appears to result in a low rate of infection and may help guide decisions on wound closure timing, according to research published in the Aug. 18 issue of the Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.
FDA Issues Label Change for Tigecycline (Tygacil)
THURSDAY, Sept. 2 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has updated the Warnings and Precautions and Adverse Reactions sections of the drug label for tigecycline (Tygacil), as the antibiotic has been associated with an increased risk of mortality compared to other antibiotics used to treat serious infections.
Assay for Tuberculosis Shows Promise in Low-Income Areas
THURSDAY, Sept. 2 (HealthDay News) -- An automated molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and resistance to rifampin (RIF) -- Xpert MTB/RIF -- allows for rapid and sensitive detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance, according to research published online Sept. 1 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
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