Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Neurology for September 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
DNA Findings in Children With ADHD Suggest Genetic Cause
THURSDAY, Sept. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appear to have an increased rate of large, rare chromosomal deletions and duplications, known as copy number variants (CNVs), that have been implicated previously in autism and schizophrenia, according to a study published online Sept. 30 in The Lancet.
Dexamethasone Therapy Improves Meningitis Outcomes
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Therapy with dexamethasone has been widely implemented in the Netherlands as an adjunctive treatment of pneumococcal meningitis, and there subsequently has been substantial improvement in the prognosis of the disease on a national level, according to research published online Sept. 29 in Neurology.
Terlipressin Linked to Sodium Reduction in Bleeding Patients
TUESDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with severe portal-hypertensive bleeding who are treated with terlipressin commonly have an acute reduction in serum sodium concentration that is associated with neurological complications and is usually reversible after the treatment is ended, according to research published in the October issue of Hepatology.
Mortality Risk Predictor for Stroke Patients Devised
MONDAY, Sept. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Using Get With The Guidelines-Stroke (GWTG-Stroke) data, researchers have developed a new mortality risk predictor for patients hospitalized with ischemic stroke, according to research published online Sept. 27 in Circulation.
Mindfulness-Based Approach May Help MS Patients
MONDAY, Sept. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Compared to usual care, a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) appears to improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL), depression, and fatigue among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a study in the Sept. 28 issue of Neurology.
FDA: Octagam Voluntarily Withdrawn From U.S. Market
MONDAY, Sept. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Octapharma and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have announced a voluntary market withdrawal of all lots of Immune Globulin Intravenous (human) 5 percent Liquid Preparation (Octagam) currently in the U.S. market, as the drug is potentially associated with an increased number of thromboembolic events.
Carotid Endarterectomy Tied to Long-Term Stroke Reduction
FRIDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) performed in asymptomatic patients under 75 years of age appears to reduce 10-year stroke risks, with half this reduction in disabling or fatal strokes, according to a study published in the Sept. 25 issue of The Lancet.
Children With H1N1 Have More Neurologic Complications
FRIDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Children with H1N1 influenza, especially if they have an underlying medical or neurologic condition, appear to be at higher risk for neurologic complications such as seizures and encephalopathy than children with seasonal flu, according to research published online Sept. 23 in the Annals of Neurology.
Home-Based Intervention Beneficial for Anemic Infants
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Infants with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) who receive a home-based intervention -- consisting of weekly visits to foster child development -- show improvements in cognitive and social-emotional scores, but don't quite catch up with nonanemic peers in the latter category, according to research published online Sept. 20 in Pediatrics.
Gilenya Approved for Relapsing MS
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Gilenya (fingolimod) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to reduce relapses and delay disability progression in people with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis.
Botulism Toxin Benefit Seen for Drooling in Children
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Botulinum toxin can help reduce drooling in some children with neurological disorders, according to research published in the September issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery.
Thigh-Length Stockings Help Avert Thromboses After Stroke
TUESDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- In hospitalized stroke patients, proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is less common in those who wear prophylactic thigh-length stockings than in those who wear below-knee stockings, according to a study published online Sept. 20 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.
IV Aspirin Found to Be Safe, Effective in Severe Headache
MONDAY, Sept. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Intravenous (IV) aspirin appears to be effective and safe in the treatment of patients hospitalized for the management of severe headache, according to research published in the Sept. 21 issue of Neurology.
Childhood Tobacco Smoke Exposure Ups Risk of ADHD
MONDAY, Sept. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood increases the odds of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the magnitude of risk seen with elevated serum cotinine levels varies by race, according to research published online Sept. 20 in Pediatrics.
Introspective Abilities Related to Prefrontal Cortex Anatomy
FRIDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- The ability to introspectively examine one's thoughts appears to be related to the anatomy of an individual's anterior prefrontal cortex, according to research published in the Sept. 17 issue of Science.
Age-, Disease-Related Dementia Have Same Pathology
THURSDAY, Sept. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Age-related and disease-related dementia are associated with the same types of neuropathologic changes in the brain, according to research published online Sept. 15 in Neurology.
Neural Clues Identified for Postpartum Depression
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have identified neural mechanisms -- diminished dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activity and amygdala connectivity -- that may play a role in postpartum depression and impaired maternal attachment processes; their findings have been published online Sept. 15 in The American Journal of Psychiatry.
Hyperglycemia Linked to Poor Outcomes in Ischemic Stroke
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Among patients who suffer ischemic stroke, hyperglycemia at admission may increase the risks for poor outcomes after thrombolysis, according to a study in the September issue of the Archives of Neurology.
Neuroimaging of Sleep Disorder Patients Spots Parkinson's Risk
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Neuroimaging of patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) can identify those at risk for developing neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease or dementia, before any symptoms of those conditions appear, according to a study published online Sept. 15 in The Lancet Neurology.
Depression, Burnout Have Dire Impact on Medical Training
TUESDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Depressed medical students are more likely to endorse depression stigma attitudes than nondepressed students, and those with burnout are more likely to engage in unprofessional conduct and less likely to hold altruistic views of physicians' social responsibilities than those without burnout, according to two articles published in the Sept. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Sacrifice Makes Industry Gifts Seem More Acceptable
TUESDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Residents who are reminded of the sacrifices they made to attain their medical education tend to rate the acceptability of industry-sponsored gifts higher than those who are not reminded, according to research published in the Sept. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Cilostazol As Good As Aspirin for Stroke Prevention
TUESDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- The antiplatelet drug cilostazol is non-inferior, and possibly superior, to aspirin for secondary stroke prevention, and is associated with fewer hemorrhagic events, according to research from the second Cilostazol Stroke Prevention Study (CSPS 2) published online Sept. 11 in The Lancet Neurology.
ADHD Drug Helps Childhood Cancer Survivors in Long Term
TUESDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Methylphenidate (MPH), the stimulant drug most commonly prescribed to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, appears to ameliorate behavior and attention problems in childhood cancer survivors over the course of a year, according to research published online Sept. 13 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Serum Protein Biomarker Analysis Diagnoses Alzheimer's
MONDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- A new risk model uses serum protein biomarkers to diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a study in the September issue of the Archives of Neurology. According to a pilot study published online Sept. 13 in the same journal, pioglitazone is well tolerated as a treatment for AD.
Whites Live Longer Than Blacks With Muscular Dystrophy
MONDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Whites with muscular dystrophies (MDs) live longer than blacks with the disease, and the gap has widened among males in recent decades, according to a study in the Sept. 14 issue of Neurology.
Add-On Albuterol Treatment Beneficial in Multiple Sclerosis
MONDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with glatiramer acetate and given an add-on treatment of albuterol have better clinical outcomes than those not receiving albuterol, according to a study in the September issue of the Archives of Neurology.
Individually Optimized Therapy Reduces ADHD Problems
MONDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive levels of aggression, and a history of insufficient response to stimulant medication may benefit from a protocol of individually optimized stimulant monotherapy and behavioral intervention, according to research published online Sept. 13 in Pediatrics.
Re-Consent Important Before Secondary Use of Genetic Data
MONDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Most research participants want to be asked for secondary consent -- referred to as re-consent -- before their existing personal genetic data are added to the federal database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP), according to research published in the September issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics.
Thimerosal Not Linked to Autism Spectrum Disorder
MONDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal and early-life exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations does not increase the risk of either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or two subcategories of the disorder, according to research published online Sept. 13 in Pediatrics.
Stenting for Carotid Stenosis Unsafe for Older Adults
FRIDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Stenting for treatment of carotid stenosis should be avoided in patients 70 years of age or older, but the approach appears to be as safe as endarterectomy in patients younger than 70, according to a meta-analysis published online Sept. 10 in The Lancet.
Stroke Recurrence and Severity Higher in Mexican Americans
THURSDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Mexican Americans (MAs) with atrial fibrillation who experience ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) are at a higher risk of stroke recurrence and more severe recurrences than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), but all-cause mortality appears to be similar between the two groups, according to a study published online Sept. 9 in Stroke.
Perioperative Stroke Rare but Deadly in Joint Replacement
THURSDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Though rare, perioperative stroke following joint replacement has a high rate of both mortality and morbidity, according to a study in the Sept. 1 issue of the Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Annual Medical Liability Costs Surpass $50 Billion
THURSDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- The annual costs of the medical liability system in the United States total more than $50 billion, which accounts for a relatively small but non-trivial portion of total health care spending, according to an article in the September issue of Health Affairs.
Graded Symptom Checklist IDs Pediatric Concussion
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 8 (HealthDay News) -- A graded symptom checklist reliably identifies concussions (mild traumatic brain injuries [mTBIs]) in school-age children, and posttraumatic amnesia predicts greater symptom severity, according to a study published online Sept. 6 in Pediatrics.
Mild Cognitive Impairment Risk Higher for Men Than Women
TUESDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- About 16 percent of dementia-free elderly individuals have mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and the risk for MCI is higher in men than in women, according to a study in the Sept. 7 issue of Neurology.
Toddlers' Fixation on Moving Patterns May Predict Autism
TUESDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- A preference for moving geometric patterns as opposed to social images appears to be an easy-to-detect signature of toddlers who are at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a study published online Sept. 6 in the Archives of General Psychiatry.
Early Severe Hypoglycemia Tied to Poorer Cognition
FRIDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to severe hypoglycemia (SH) at an early age may negatively impact long-term cognitive function in individuals with type 1 diabetes, according to a study published in the September issue of Diabetes Care.
Dementia Risk Higher for Vets With Post-Traumatic Stress
FRIDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Older veterans who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at higher risk for dementia than those who don't have PTSD, even higher than those who suffered traumatic injury in action, according to a study in the September issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
Sibutramine May Raise Risks in Those With CVD, Diabetes
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 1 (HealthDay News) -- In overweight or obese subjects with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, long-term use of sibutramine is associated with an increased risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and nonfatal stroke but not cardiovascular death or any-cause death, according to a study in the Sept. 2 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Cognitive Activity Impacts Alzheimer's Disease Progression
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Cognitively stimulating activity may slow cognitive decline prior to dementia onset in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but lead to faster decline after onset, according to a study published online Sept. 1 in Neurology.
MR Imaging May Have New Role in Neurological Diagnoses
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can distinguish mice with the Huntington's disease (HD) mutation from normal mice, and it holds promise for rapidly and non-invasively diagnosing neurological degenerative diseases, according to a study in the Oct. 15 issue of the Journal of Comparative Neurology.
Chromosome 9p21 Tied to ALS Across Multiple Populations
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 1 (HealthDay News) -- A major cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the Finnish population is the chromosome 9p21 locus that overlaps with a haplotype recently reported to be associated with frontotemporal dementia, according to research published online Aug. 31 in The Lancet Neurology. A second study published in the same issue found strong evidence of a genetic association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 9 with sporadic ALS.
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