Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pulmonology for September 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Dexamethasone Therapy Improves Meningitis Outcomes
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Therapy with dexamethasone has been widely implemented in the Netherlands as an adjunctive treatment of pneumococcal meningitis, and there subsequently has been substantial improvement in the prognosis of the disease on a national level, according to research published online Sept. 29 in Neurology.
Oseltamivir May Prevent Pneumonia in H1N1 Patients
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) treatment appears to be effective in preventing the development of radiographically confirmed pneumonia as well as reducing duration of fever and viral RNA shedding among patients with 2009 H1N1 infection, according to a study published online Sept. 28 in BMJ.
Day Care May Up Problems in Lung Disease Patients
MONDAY, Sept. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Children with chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLDP) may be at increased risk for morbidities of that condition if they attend day care, according to research published online Sept. 27 in Pediatrics.
Digital Tomosynthesis Effective for Lung Lesion Detection
FRIDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- The use of a low-radiation dose digital tomosynthesis (DTS) technique appears to be more effective in detecting lung lesions among patients with pulmonary mycobacterial disease than conventional radiography, according to a study in the October issue of Radiology.
Fondaparinux Effective in Superficial-Vein Thrombosis
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Fondaparinux appears to be safe and effective for reducing symptomatic superficial-vein thrombosis of the legs and may reduce the risk of that condition progressing to deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, according to the results of a large randomized trial published in the Sept. 23 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Researchers Identify Alleles Associated With Asthma
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have identified a handful of common alleles that are related to the risk of developing asthma, and their findings have been published in the Sept. 23 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Tiotropium Plus Glucocorticoid Effective in Asthma Patients
MONDAY, Sept. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The addition of the long-acting anticholinergic agent tiotropium bromide to an inhaled glucocorticoid is superior to a doubling of the dose of the glucocorticoid in improving lung function and symptoms in patients with uncontrolled asthma, and it is non-inferior to the addition of salmeterol, according to a study published online Sept. 19 in the New England Journal of Medicine to coincide with a presentation at the European Respiratory Society Annual Congress, held from Sept. 18 to 22 in Barcelona, Spain.
Metabolic Imbalance Linked With Asthma in Children
MONDAY, Sept. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Children with an imbalanced metabolism, which could be due to diet and/or exercise deficiencies, may be at an increased risk for developing asthma regardless of their body mass index (BMI), according to research published online Sept. 17 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Lung Function Tied to Diabetes and Heart Disease Risk
THURSDAY, Sept. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Restrictive impaired lung function among men without a history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes appears to be associated with fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and incident type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in the September issue of Diabetes Care.
Molecule's Role in Lung Cancer Tumor Growth Clarified
THURSDAY, Sept. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Among mice with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), overexpression of the molecule microRNA-21 (miR-21) enhances the development of lung tumors, while miR-21 underexpression retards tumor growth, compared to mice with normal miR-21 expression, according to a study in the Sept. 14 issue of Cancer Cell.
Insufficient Sleep May Lower Insulin Sensitivity
THURSDAY, Sept. 16 (HealthDay News) -- One week's sleep restriction decreases insulin sensitivity significantly in healthy subjects, raising questions about the effect chronic short sleep duration could have on insulin resistance-related disease processes, according to research published in the September issue of Diabetes.
No-Smoking Law Linked to Lower Asthma Rates
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Since comprehensive smoke-free legislation was introduced in Scotland, incidence of asthma has fallen among people without occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke -- namely, children, according to research published in the Sept. 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Neuromuscular Blocker May Help ARDS Patients
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 15 (HealthDay News) -- The early administration of a neuromuscular blocking agent appears to improve the odds of survival in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) without resulting in increased muscle weakness, according to research published in the Sept. 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Research IDs Frequent-Exacerbation COPD Phenotype
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), irrespective of disease severity, appear to fall within a susceptibility phenotype, according to research published in the Sept. 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Depression, Burnout Have Dire Impact on Medical Training
TUESDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Depressed medical students are more likely to endorse depression stigma attitudes than nondepressed students, and those with burnout are more likely to engage in unprofessional conduct and less likely to hold altruistic views of physicians' social responsibilities than those without burnout, according to two articles published in the Sept. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Sacrifice Makes Industry Gifts Seem More Acceptable
TUESDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Residents who are reminded of the sacrifices they made to attain their medical education tend to rate the acceptability of industry-sponsored gifts higher than those who are not reminded, according to research published in the Sept. 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Re-Consent Important Before Secondary Use of Genetic Data
MONDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Most research participants want to be asked for secondary consent -- referred to as re-consent -- before their existing personal genetic data are added to the federal database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP), according to research published in the September issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics.
ICU Intervention Fails to Improve Quality of Dying
MONDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- An intervention program designed to improve end-of-life care in intensive care units (ICUs) fails to improve the quality of dying, length of ICU stay before death, or time from admission to withdrawal of life-sustaining measures, according to research published online Sept. 10 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Many Pediatric Primary Care Doctors Don't Use Spirometry
FRIDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Spirometry use is limited among pediatric primary care physicians, particularly pediatricians, suggesting a need for additional physician training, according to research published online Sept. 6 in Pediatrics.
Annual Medical Liability Costs Surpass $50 Billion
THURSDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- The annual costs of the medical liability system in the United States total more than $50 billion, which accounts for a relatively small but non-trivial portion of total health care spending, according to an article in the September issue of Health Affairs.
U.S. Adult Smoking Rate Stabilizes After Decline
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 8 (HealthDay News) -- The proportion of U.S. adult smokers has remained stable since a decline between 2000 and 2005, with rates of secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmokers remaining high despite recent decreases, according to two early-release reports published Sept. 7 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Pandemic H1N1 Affected Younger Patients Than H3N2
TUESDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- The median age of individuals affected by 2009 H1N1 influenza was substantially lower than that of individuals affected by 2007/2008 H3N2 influenza; however, the risk of most serious complications was not higher in those with 2009 H1N1 than in those with recent seasonal influenza strains, according to research published in the Sept. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Bowel Disease Is Risk Factor for Recurrent VTE
FRIDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who have had a venous thromboembolism (VTE) have a higher risk of having a recurrence than those with a prior VTE but no IBD, according to a study in the September issue of Gastroenterology.
Acetaminophen May Increase Pediatric Asthma Risk
THURSDAY, Sept. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Use of acetaminophen in children may increase the risk of asthma, eczema, and rhinoconjunctivitis, according to research published online Aug. 13 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Assay for Tuberculosis Shows Promise in Low-Income Areas
THURSDAY, Sept. 2 (HealthDay News) -- An automated molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and resistance to rifampin (RIF) -- Xpert MTB/RIF -- allows for rapid and sensitive detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance, according to research published online Sept. 1 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Metformin Shows Promise As Cancer Chemopreventive Drug
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 1 (HealthDay News) -- A trio of studies published online Sept. 1 in Cancer Prevention Research highlight the possibility that metformin and possibly other biguanide drugs may eventually prove useful in chemoprevention of various cancers, including lung and colon cancer.
Abstract - Memmott
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Abstract - Hosono
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Abstract - Pollak
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Insomnia, Short Sleep Duration Linked to Mortality in Men
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is related to an increased risk of mortality among men, according to research published in the Sept. 1 issue of SLEEP.
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