Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for March 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
H1N1 Still Circulating, Uptick Seen in Southeastern U.S.
TUESDAY, March 30 (HealthDay News) -- The H1N1 influenza virus is still circulating throughout the United States, and there has even been an uptick in the number of cases in the southeast, health officials said during a March 29 press briefing by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Chest X-Ray Helps Predict Adverse H1N1 Outcomes
MONDAY, March 29 (HealthDay News) -- Abnormal findings on an initial chest X-ray in patients infected with H1N1 influenza, particularly extensive involvement of both lungs, may be associated with a worse prognosis, according to research published in the April issue of Radiology.
HPV-Related Oropharyngeal Carcinoma on the Rise
FRIDAY, March 26 (HealthDay News) -- Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma related to human papillomavirus (HPV) represents an emergent, distinct, and increasingly prevalent type of head and neck cancer that may ultimately affect public health policy and clinical practice, according to an editorial published March 25 in BMJ.
Intensive Program Can Reduce Large Hospitals' MRSA Burden
THURSDAY, March 25 (HealthDay News) -- Over the long term, the use of an intensive program can reduce the burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a large hospital institution, according to research published in the March 22 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Home Screening for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Popular
THURSDAY, March 25 (HealthDay News) -- Home-screening for sexually transmitted infections is far more popular than going to a clinic for screening, according to a study published in the April issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
U.S. Tuberculosis Rate Sharply Dropped in 2009
TUESDAY, March 23 (HealthDay News) -- In 2009, the tuberculosis rate in the United States declined to a record low, according to a report published in the March 19 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Study Finds Terbinafine Effective in Treating Toenail Fungus
TUESDAY, March 23 (HealthDay News) -- The use of systemic terbinafine to treat a first episode of toenail onychomycosis may lead to better long-term success than itraconazole in patients who have a complete response, according to research published in the March issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.
FDA Recommends Temporary Suspension of Rotarix Vaccine
MONDAY, March 22 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has recommended that health care providers in the United States temporarily suspend use of the rotavirus vaccine Rotarix, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline, because of possible contamination by an extraneous virus.
Measles Outbreak Linked to Under-Vaccination
MONDAY, March 22 (HealthDay News) -- Intentional under-vaccination of children can lead to measles outbreaks, resulting in significant costs to public health agencies, medical systems, and families, according to research published online March 22 in Pediatrics.
Risk of TB Transmission During Air Travel Is Deemed Low
FRIDAY, March 19 (HealthDay News) -- There is low risk of tuberculosis (TB) being transmitted between airline passengers, and, contrary to current World Health Organization guidelines, tracing and screening airline passengers who may have been exposed to TB is an inefficient use of limited resources for disease control, according to a review in the March issue of The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
Antiseptic Baths Reduce Infection in Critically Ill
FRIDAY, March 19 (HealthDay News) -- Bathing critically ill patients daily with cloths containing chlorhexidine reduces bacterial infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), as well as catheter-related infections and MRSA ventilator-associated pneumonia, according to a study in the March issue of the Archives of Surgery.
Household H1N1 Transmission Usually Starts With Children
MONDAY, March 15 (HealthDay News) -- Early in the 2009 outbreak of pandemic H1N1 influenza, household transmission primarily occurred from children to other household members, according to a study in the April issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases.
Pediatric C. difficile-Related Hospitalizations Increasing
MONDAY, March 15 (HealthDay News) -- In U.S. hospitals, the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the pediatric population appears to be increasing, according to a study published online ahead of print in the April 4 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases.
Extended Use of Catheters in Newborns Linked to Infection
MONDAY, March 15 (HealthDay News) -- Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are probably associated with a higher risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLA-BSIs) in high-risk newborns when inserted for extended periods, particularly after more than 35 days, according to research published online March 15 in Pediatrics.
Self-Testing for HPV May Increase Detection Rates
FRIDAY, March 12 (HealthDay News) -- Providing women at high risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) who do not attend regular screening with a kit that allows them to self-collect cervicovaginal samples can help boost the reach of screening programs and the HPV detection rate, according to a study published online March 11 in BMJ.
Article Outlines Use of PCV13 Vaccine in Young Children
FRIDAY, March 12 (HealthDay News) -- A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was recently licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is recommended for all children ages 2 to 59 months, as well as some older children with underlying conditions, according to a report in the March 12 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. According to another report in the same issue, the vaccine could greatly reduce the prevalence of pneumococcal disease in children younger than 5 years.
Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Efforts Evaluated
FRIDAY, March 12 (HealthDay News) -- Significant policy and practice gaps persist in the efforts of U.S. hospitals to prevent perinatal transmission of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), according to a study published online March 8 in Pediatrics.
One in Six Americans Ages 14 to 49 Has Herpes
WEDNESDAY, March 10 (HealthDay News) -- Overall, about one in six Americans in the 14 to 49 age group is infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), with higher rates found among women and African-Americans, according to the results of a nationwide survey released March 9 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Lung Cancer Incidence in HIV-Infected Women Studied
WEDNESDAY, March 10 (HealthDay News) -- Lung cancer among women with HIV infection is strongly associated with smoking, but it remains unclear if there is a further link between HIV infection and its treatment and lung cancer, according to research published online Feb. 22 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
C-Reactive Protein Test May Help Guide Infection Treatment
WEDNESDAY, March 10 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with respiratory and sinus infections, testing C-reactive protein (CRP) levels as a marker for infection severity can aid in the treatment decision and reduce antibiotic use, according to a study in the March/April issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.
Vaccinating Children Shown to Reduce Flu Transmission
TUESDAY, March 9 (HealthDay News) -- Selectively immunizing children and adolescents against influenza significantly protects unimmunized members of rural communities against influenza, according to a study in the March 10 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Factors Point to Children at Risk of Intraorbital Abscess
TUESDAY, March 9 (HealthDay News) -- In children with suspected cellulitis around the eye, factors associated with a high risk of intraorbital abscess include proptosis and/or pain or difficulty with movement in the extraocular area, according to research published online March 1 in Pediatrics.
Hepatitis B and C Remain a Neglected Epidemic in America
TUESDAY, March 9 (HealthDay News) -- Lack of awareness about the extent of hepatitis B and C infection, not just among the public but also among health care professionals, is undermining efforts to combat the diseases, according to research published online Feb. 22 in Hepatology.
Visitors and Displaced Persons at High Risk of Malaria in Haiti
MONDAY, March 8 (HealthDay News) -- In the aftermath of the Jan. 12 earthquake in Haiti, malaria has become a serious risk for displaced individuals living outdoors or in temporary shelters, as well as for emergency responders and travelers to the island nation, according to a report published in the March 5 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Severe Liver Injury Still a Concern in Isoniazid Treatment
MONDAY, March 8 (HealthDay News) -- While nine months of isoniazid (INH) therapy remains the mainstay of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment, severe liver injuries can occur and patients should remain under close clinical supervision, per a report published in the March 5 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Beneficial in HIV
WEDNESDAY, March 3 (HealthDay News) -- A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine can protect adults with HIV against recurrent pneumococcal infection, according to research published in the March 4 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Health Care Services Found Lacking for Injecting Drug Users
MONDAY, March 1 (HealthDay News) -- Worldwide, coverage of services for injecting drug users -- including those who are HIV-positive -- tends to be extremely low and is insufficient to prevent the spread of HIV in this population, according to a review published online March 1 in The Lancet.
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