Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Neurology for March 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Research Urged to Help Iraq, Afghanistan War Vets Readjust
WEDNESDAY, March 31 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs urgently need to conduct research on how to help veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars and their families readjust to post-deployment life and cope with mental health problems, as well as improve the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI), according to Returning Home from Iraq and Afghanistan, a preliminary assessment of veterans' needs by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.
Imaging Detects Child Abuse Fractures With High Sensitivity
TUESDAY, March 30 (HealthDay News) -- Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is likely more sensitive than a skeletal survey in identifying fractures due to child abuse, according to a study in the April issue of Radiology.
C-Reactive Protein Linked to Cognition in Older Adults
TUESDAY, March 30 (HealthDay News) -- Low-grade inflammation, as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), is associated with cerebral microstructural disintegration and poorer performance in executive function in older adults, according to research published in the March 30 issue of Neurology.
Common Signals May Underlie Obesity and Drug Addiction
MONDAY, March 29 (HealthDay News) -- Over-consumption of calorie-rich food may trigger a reaction similar to cocaine and heroin addiction-like responses, according to a study in rats published online March 28 in Nature Neuroscience.
Depth of Infant Head Injury Can Help Identify Cause
MONDAY, March 29 (HealthDay News) -- Head injury depth can be a useful tool to assess the causes and mechanisms of acute cranial trauma in children under 3 years of age, according to a study published online March 29 in Pediatrics.
Racial Disparities Observed in Stroke Quality of Care
FRIDAY, March 26 (HealthDay News) -- African-American ischemic stroke patients have a moderate but consistent reduction in the frequency with which guideline-based care is provided in-hospital, according to a study published online March 22 in Circulation.
AHA Calls for New Strategies to Cut Medication Errors
FRIDAY, March 26 (HealthDay News) -- New strategies are needed to reduce medication errors in acute cardiovascular and stroke patients, according to an American Heart Association scientific statement published online March 22 in Circulation.
Diet Plus Weight Control Shown to Improve Cognition
THURSDAY, March 25 (HealthDay News) -- In hypertensive patients who are overweight and obese, combining the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with a weight management program may improve neurocognitive function, according to a study published online March 19 in Hypertension. Another Hypertension study, published online March 8, found that perindopril may effectively reduce the risk of major vascular events in patients of any weight category with a history of stroke.
Rifaximin Maintains Remission in Patients With Liver Disease
WEDNESDAY, March 24 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment with rifaximin maintains remission and reduces the risk of hospitalization in patients with hepatic encephalopathy, a neuropsychiatric complication of hepatic cirrhosis, better than placebo, according to a study in the March 25 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Americans Sustain 1.7 Million Traumatic Brain Injuries a Year
WEDNESDAY, March 24 (HealthDay News) -- Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a contributing factor in almost one-third of all injury-related deaths, and there are 1.7 million cases of TBI every year in the United States, according to a report published March 8 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Deep Brain Stimulation Shows Benefit in Refractory Epilepsy
MONDAY, March 22 (HealthDay News) -- In adults with medically refractory partial seizures, bilateral stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus is associated with long-term reduction of seizures, according to research published online March 17 in Epilepsia.
Article Evaluates Options for Non-Motor Parkinson's Issues
FRIDAY, March 19 (HealthDay News) -- Several medications may be helpful in treating such non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease as erectile dysfunction and constipation, but there is insufficient evidence for certain treatments for other issues such as anxiety and urinary incontinence, according to an American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter published in the March 16 issue of Neurology.
Newborn Heart Surgery May Lead to Motor, Cognitive Delays
FRIDAY, March 19 (HealthDay News) -- Babies who undergo heart surgery in early infancy are more likely to experience cognitive and motor delays as very young children, according to a review published online March 15 in Pediatrics.
Racial Disparities in Neuro-Oncologic Care Worsen
THURSDAY, March 18 (HealthDay News) -- Access to high-quality neuro-oncologic care has worsened over time for Hispanics and blacks in the United States, even though access has improved overall, according to research in the March issue of the Archives of Surgery.
Wide Prenatal Screening for Spine Condition Is Costly
THURSDAY, March 18 (HealthDay News) -- It would not be cost-effective to universally screen pregnant women for the neurodegenerative disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in their fetuses, but screening might make sense for women who have a family history of the disease, according to research published in the March issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Increased Defibrillator Access Improves Survival Rate
WEDNESDAY, March 17 (HealthDay News) -- The increasing availability of public-access automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in Japan has brought faster help to people who suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and has improved the rate of survival without neurologic impairment, according to a study in the March 18 New England Journal of Medicine.
Mothers' Pesticide Exposure Linked to Deficits in Children
WEDNESDAY, March 17 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal exposure to pesticides may lead to persistent adverse effects on brain development in children, according to research published online Feb. 25 in Environmental Health Perspectives.
Device Provides Sustained Pain Relief for Migraines With Aura
TUESDAY, March 16 (HealthDay News) -- A handheld device that delivers pulses of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) provides sustained pain relief for acute migraines with aura, according to a study published in the April issue of The Lancet Neurology.
Genetic Test Detects More Abnormalities in Autism
MONDAY, March 15 (HealthDay News) -- Although current testing guidelines for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) recommend G-banded karyotype and fragile X testing, chromosomal microarray (CMA) detects more genetic abnormalities and should be considered for diagnostic use, according to a study published online March 15 in Pediatrics.
Warfarin May Raise Hemorrhage Risk After Stroke Treatment
MONDAY, March 15 (HealthDay News) -- Warfarin-treated patients may be at a higher risk for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) than their counterparts not being prescribed warfarin, according to a study published online March 8 in the Archives of Neurology.
Findings Link Variability in Blood Pressure, Stroke Risk
FRIDAY, March 12 (HealthDay News) -- Variability in systolic blood pressure (SBP) from visit to visit and maximum SBP are predictors of stroke, and the effect of drug classes on interindividual variation in blood pressure may explain the different effects of antihypertensive drugs on stroke risk, according to research published in the March 13 issue of The Lancet.
Technique Shows Potential of Bapineuzumab in Alzheimer's
THURSDAY, March 11 (HealthDay News) -- A neuroimaging technique known as carbon-11-labelled Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) shows that treating patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease with an antibody that targets amyloid-β is associated with a 25 percent reduction in amyloid-β deposits compared with placebo, according to a study published online March 1 in The Lancet Neurology.
Valproic Acid Resolves Girl's Acute Confusional Migraine
THURSDAY, March 11 (HealthDay News) -- Intravenous valproic acid (VPA) was able to quickly resolve the sudden onset of acute confusional migraine (ACM) in a 12-year-old girl, and the treatment approach warrants further research, according to a case report published online March 8 in Pediatrics.
Melanoma Risk May Be Higher in Parkinson's Disease
THURSDAY, March 11 (HealthDay News) -- Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may be at increased risk of melanoma, according to a study in the March issue of the Archives of Neurology.
Whole-Genome Sequencing May Identify Causes of Disease
WEDNESDAY, March 10 (HealthDay News) -- Whole-genome sequencing has the potential to identify clinically relevant variants and provide important diagnostic information, according to a study published online March 10 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Botox Approved for Spasticity in Stroke Victims
TUESDAY, March 9 (HealthDay News) -- Botox (onabotulinumtoxin A) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat spasms (spasticity) in the flexor muscles of the elbow, wrist and fingers in adults who have had a stroke, the agency said Tuesday in a news release.
Lacosamide Shows Benefit in Partial-Onset Seizures
MONDAY, March 8 (HealthDay News) -- The use of lacosamide as an adjunctive treatment in patients with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures is effective in reducing seizure frequency and may provide additional benefits for some patients with secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures, according to research published online Jan. 27 in Epilepsia.
In Very Oldest, Dementia Rate Rises Exponentially
FRIDAY, March 5 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of dementia among people aged 90 years and above is very high, and increases exponentially with age, according to a study in the January issue of the Annals of Neurology.
Thrombolysis Key to Women's Post-Stroke Functional Status
THURSDAY, March 4 (HealthDay News) -- Men and women who suffer stroke and receive a thrombolytic agent have similar outcomes in terms of functional status and mortality, but women who do not undergo thrombolysis fare worse than men in functional status after six months, according to a study in the March 2 issue of Neurology.
Adult Ocular Shingles Linked to Higher Stroke Risk
THURSDAY, March 4 (HealthDay News) -- Adults diagnosed with ocular shingles have a more than four-fold higher risk of stroke during the first year after diagnosis than those not diagnosed with ocular shingles, according to a study published online March 3 in Neurology.
Study Compares Drugs for Absence Epilepsy in Children
WEDNESDAY, March 3 (HealthDay News) -- Ethosuximide and valproic acid are more effective for treating childhood absence epilepsy than lamotrigine, and ethosuximide treatment results in fewer adverse attentional effects, according to research published in the March 4 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Effect of Bystander CPR for Children Assessed by Type
WEDNESDAY, March 3 (HealthDay News) -- For children who have cardiac arrest outside of a hospital attributable to non-cardiac causes, conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with rescue breathing is preferable, while either conventional or compression-only CPR are similarly effective for arrests of cardiac causes, according to a study published online March 3 in The Lancet.
Embolic Protection Device May Be Beneficial After Stenting
WEDNESDAY, March 3 (HealthDay News) -- An embolic protection device that captures and removes embolic material is associated with low rates of stroke in high-risk patients undergoing carotid artery stenting, according to a study published in Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions.
Greater Purpose in Life Linked to Lower Risk of Alzheimer's
TUESDAY, March 2 (HealthDay News) -- Seniors with a greater purpose in life have a slower rate of cognitive decline and are less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease, according to a study in the March Archives of General Psychiatry.
Early Marijuana Use Increases Psychosis Risk in Young Adults
MONDAY, March 1 (HealthDay News) -- The early use of marijuana increases the risks for schizophrenia, delusions and hallucinations in young adulthood, according to a study published online March 1 in the Archives of General Psychiatry.
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