Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pulmonology for March 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Elderly Lung Cancer Patients Not Likely to Receive Chemo
WEDNESDAY, March 31 (HealthDay News) -- Elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer are not likely to receive chemotherapy, and platinum-based doublet regimens in particular, despite their clear survival benefits, according to a study published online March 29 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Link Observed Between Pediatric Asthma and GERD
MONDAY, March 29 (HealthDay News) -- In pediatric patients who present with asthma in secondary and tertiary referral settings, there may be an association between asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but some aspects of the association are unclear, according to a review published online March 29 in Pediatrics.
Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis Mostly in Line With Guidelines
MONDAY, March 29 (HealthDay News) -- Diagnostic imaging tests used for suspected pulmonary embolism are generally in accordance with accepted guidelines, but there is some variation by treating physician specialty and geographic location, according to research published in the April American Journal of Roentgenology.
Chest X-Ray Helps Predict Adverse H1N1 Outcomes
MONDAY, March 29 (HealthDay News) -- Abnormal findings on an initial chest X-ray in patients infected with H1N1 influenza, particularly extensive involvement of both lungs, may be associated with a worse prognosis, according to research published in the April issue of Radiology.
Fewer Organ Donors But Higher Transplant Success Rates
FRIDAY, March 26 (HealthDay News) -- The number of organs available for donation from both living and deceased donors is decreasing, but survival rates for transplant surgery have increased, according to a study in the April issue of the American Journal of Transplantation.
Gene Associated With Lung Cancer in Non-Smokers
THURSDAY, March 25 (HealthDay News) -- Genetic variants that affect the expression of the GPC5 gene may play a role in lung cancer in people who have never smoked, according to research published online March 22 in The Lancet Oncology.
Adjuvant Chemotherapy Can Extend Lung Cancer Survival
THURSDAY, March 25 (HealthDay News) -- Adding adjuvant chemotherapy to surgery alone or surgery plus radiotherapy improves survival modestly among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to a pair of meta-analyses published online March 24 in The Lancet.
Mortality Linked to Hospital Volume in Acute Conditions
WEDNESDAY, March 24 (HealthDay News) -- Mortality for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia is generally reduced in hospitals that handle more patients with those conditions, but there is a point of diminishing returns, according to research published in the March 25 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
U.S. Tuberculosis Rate Sharply Dropped in 2009
TUESDAY, March 23 (HealthDay News) -- In 2009, the tuberculosis rate in the United States declined to a record low, according to a report published in the March 19 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Stress in Pregnancy May Hike Baby's Asthma Risk
TUESDAY, March 23 (HealthDay News) -- Stresses on a mother during pregnancy may affect the development of her fetus's immune system and increase the risk of the child developing asthma, according to a study published online March 1 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Risk of TB Transmission During Air Travel Is Deemed Low
FRIDAY, March 19 (HealthDay News) -- There is low risk of tuberculosis (TB) being transmitted between airline passengers, and, contrary to current World Health Organization guidelines, tracing and screening airline passengers who may have been exposed to TB is an inefficient use of limited resources for disease control, according to a review in the March issue of The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
Complications Relatively Common With Neonatal CPAP
THURSDAY, March 18 (HealthDay News) -- For patients in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), complications are relatively frequent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but not with cannula supplementation, according to a study in the March issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery.
Stereotactic Body Radiation Beneficial in Lung Cancer
TUESDAY, March 16 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with early-stage but inoperable lung cancer, treatment with stereotactic body radiation therapy may significantly improve rates of tumor control, according to a study in the March 17 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Article Outlines Use of PCV13 Vaccine in Young Children
FRIDAY, March 12 (HealthDay News) -- A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was recently licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is recommended for all children ages 2 to 59 months, as well as some older children with underlying conditions, according to a report in the March 12 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. According to another report in the same issue, the vaccine could greatly reduce the prevalence of pneumococcal disease in children younger than 5 years.
CT Scan Cost-Effective Way to Screen for Lung Condition
THURSDAY, March 10 (HealthDay News) -- Using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to screen nonsmoking young women who spontaneously suffer a pneumothorax is a cost-effective strategy for the early diagnosis of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), according to a study published online Feb. 18 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Benefit Not Seen From Adding Sorafenib in Lung Cancer
THURSDAY, March 11 (HealthDay News) -- The addition of sorafenib to carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) does not show a clinical benefit supporting use as first-line therapy, according to research published online March 8 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Lung Cancer Incidence in HIV-Infected Women Studied
WEDNESDAY, March 10 (HealthDay News) -- Lung cancer among women with HIV infection is strongly associated with smoking, but it remains unclear if there is a further link between HIV infection and its treatment and lung cancer, according to research published online Feb. 22 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
C-Reactive Protein Test May Help Guide Infection Treatment
WEDNESDAY, March 10 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with respiratory and sinus infections, testing C-reactive protein (CRP) levels as a marker for infection severity can aid in the treatment decision and reduce antibiotic use, according to a study in the March/April issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.
Pregnancy Effects on Asthma Severity Studied
TUESDAY, March 9 (HealthDay News) -- Asthma is not likely to worsen during pregnancy as long as women continue to take the appropriate medication, according to a study in the March issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology; however, if medication is discontinued, even mild asthma is likely to significantly worsen.
Personalized Mesothelioma Vaccine Tested in Humans
TUESDAY, March 9 (HealthDay News) -- A personalized vaccine for mesothelioma derived from the patients own dendritic cells (DCs), and antigens from their own tumor, safely and effectively induces a T-cell response against tumor cells, according to a study published online Feb. 18 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Severe Liver Injury Still a Concern in Isoniazid Treatment
MONDAY, March 8 (HealthDay News) -- While nine months of isoniazid (INH) therapy remains the mainstay of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment, severe liver injuries can occur and patients should remain under close clinical supervision, per a report published in the March 5 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Beliefs About Lung Cancer Differ Along Racial Lines
FRIDAY, March 5 (HealthDay News) -- Although African-Americans and Caucasians have many similar beliefs about lung cancer, African-Americans are more likely to report beliefs that could be detrimental to the prevention and treatment of the disease, according to research published online Feb. 22 in Cancer.
Airway Obstruction Common in World Trade Center Workers
FRIDAY, March 5 (HealthDay News) -- Obstructive airways disease and air trapping may explain the declines in lung function observed in New York City Fire Department (FDNY) rescue workers who were at the World Trade Center on Sept. 11, 2001, according to a study in the March issue of Chest.
Adult Asthma Linked to Adverse Mental Health Impact
THURSDAY, March 4 (HealthDay News) -- Adults with asthma -- especially those who have a lower socioeconomic status or have modifiable risk factors -- may be at increased risk of serious psychological distress, according to research published in the March issue of Chest.
Effect of Bystander CPR for Children Assessed by Type
WEDNESDAY, March 3 (HealthDay News) -- For children who have cardiac arrest outside of a hospital attributable to non-cardiac causes, conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with rescue breathing is preferable, while either conventional or compression-only CPR are similarly effective for arrests of cardiac causes, according to a study published online March 3 in The Lancet.
Lung Structure Assessment Standards Released
MONDAY, March 1 (HealthDay News) -- Standards for the quantitative assessment of lung structure were published in the Feb. 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
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