Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for January 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Tonofovir Appears Effective, Safe Long-Term for HBV
MONDAY, Jan. 31 (HealthDay News) -- Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), which has been identified as superior to adefovir dipivoxil for treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) through 48 weeks, also appears safe and effective as a long-term monotherapy, according to research published in the January issue of Gastroenterology.
Biosensor May ID Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria
FRIDAY, Jan. 28 (HealthDay News) -- A biosensor-based antimicrobial susceptibility test (b-AST) may enable the rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility of urinary tract pathogens, according to a study published in the January issue of The Journal of Urology.
Few Older Adults Receive Herpes Zoster Vaccination
THURSDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Although the herpes zoster vaccine (HZV) was approved for prevention of shingles by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2006 and recommended for adults aged 60 and older, uptake for the preventive vaccine remains well under 10 percent, according to research published in the February issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Peginterferon Promising for Hepatitis Delta Virus
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Peginterferon alfa-2a, with or without adefovir, shows promise in the treatment of hepatitis delta virus (HDV), according to research published in the Jan. 27 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Treatments for Spine Infection After Surgery Assessed
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Anterior spine infection may occur following posterior pedicle screw instrumentation but can be successfully treated with combined posterior surgery and anterior debridement with fusion, according to a study published in the January issue of The Spine Journal.
Electronic Health Records May Not Improve Care Quality
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Electronic health records (EHRs) and clinical decision support (CDS) do not appear to improve the quality of clinical care, according to a study published online Jan. 24 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Rotavirus Vaccination Prevents Hospital-Acquired Infection
TUESDAY, Jan. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Implementation of community-based rotavirus vaccination is linked to a reduction in the number of children who are hospitalized with community-acquired rotavirus infection, and may prevent hospitalized children from getting infected with rotavirus, according to research published online Jan. 24 in Pediatrics.
CDC: Reported Influenza-Like Illness Widespread in 2009-10
THURSDAY, Jan. 20 (HealthDay News) -- A relatively large proportion of the U.S. population reported experiencing symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI) during the 2009 to 2010 influenza season, and many of them reported seeking health care for those symptoms, according to data published in the Jan. 21 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Pneumonia Guidelines May Need Adjustment
THURSDAY, Jan. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Mortality rates appear to be higher in intensive care patients at risk for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pneumonia who are treated by a protocol in compliance with current American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines, according to research published online Jan. 20 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
Hepatitis B Virus Identified by Nucleic Acid Testing
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Triplex nucleic acid testing detected potentially infectious, non-seroconverted hepatitis B virus (HBV), HIV, and hepatitis C virus DNA in blood donations, according to a study published in the Jan. 20 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Malaria Vaccine Offers Children Long-Lasting Protection
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 19 (HealthDay News) -- The lead candidate malaria vaccine, RTS,S/AS01E, offers long-lasting protection against clinical malaria in healthy African children, according to a study published online Jan. 14 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
HIV Transmission During Breast-Feeding Can Be Reduced
TUESDAY, Jan. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Triple antiretroviral prophylaxis given during late pregnancy and breast-feeding reduces the risk of HIV transmission to infants, according to a study published online Jan. 14 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
CDC Report Highlights Important Health Disparities
THURSDAY, Jan. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Among Americans, disparities in income, race and ethnicity, gender, and other social attributes have an impact on whether an individual is healthy or ill or will die prematurely, according to a report by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, released as a supplement to the Jan. 14 issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Men More Open to HPV Vaccine If Framed As Averting Cancer
THURSDAY, Jan. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Men are more willing to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine when they learn that it also prevents HPV-related cancers as opposed to solely genital warts, according to research published in the August issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.
High Cost of Hospitalization for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
THURSDAY, Jan. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Ambulatory treatment, either in emergency rooms or outpatient clinics, was more cost-effective than hospitalizing teen girls with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), according to a study published online Nov. 5 in Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
Evidence Used for Clinical Guidelines May Be Weak
THURSDAY, Jan. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Most clinical practice guidelines put out by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) are based on weaker, expert opinion-based evidence rather than more robust, randomized trial-based evidence, according to research published in the Jan. 10 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Private Room ICU May Reduce Infection Acquisition
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Patients in single-room intensive care units (ICUs) acquire fewer infectious organisms than those treated in multibed ICUs, according to research published in the Jan. 10 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Vaccine Reduces Risk of Herpes Zoster
TUESDAY, Jan. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Receipt of the herpes zoster vaccine among immunocompetent community-dwelling adults aged 60 and older is associated with a reduced incidence of herpes zoster, ophthalmic herpes zoster, and hospitalizations for herpes zoster, according to a study published in the Jan. 12 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Corticosteroid Use May Shorten Children's Hospital Stays
TUESDAY, Jan. 11 (HealthDay News) -- The use of adjunct corticosteroids in children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with shortened lengths of stay (LOS) in the hospital, especially those patients who receive concomitant β-agonist therapy, according to a study published online Jan. 10 in Pediatrics.
Obesity Prevalent Among 2009 H1N1-Infected Californians
TUESDAY, Jan. 11 (HealthDay News) -- One-half of Californians ≥20 years of age hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 infection were obese, with extreme obesity associated with increased odds of death, according to a study published online Jan. 4 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
Burnout Levels Particularly High in Residents
MONDAY, Jan. 10 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of burnout and risk for burnout are high in physicians, particularly residents, and more than a quarter of anesthesiology chairs meet criteria for high burnout, according to two articles published in the January issue of Anesthesiology.
New Guidelines for Treatment of Pulmonary Fungal Infections
MONDAY, Jan. 10 (HealthDay News) -- The American Thoracic Society has issued a new official clinical policy statement introducing new guidelines for treating fungal infections in adult pulmonary and critical care patients; the statement has been published in the Jan. 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Guidelines for MRSA Infection Treatment Published
FRIDAY, Jan. 7 (HealthDay News) -- The Infectious Diseases Society of America has assembled the first guidelines for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), published online Jan. 4 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
FDA: One Lot of Metronidazole Tablets Recalled
FRIDAY, Jan. 7 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Teva Pharmaceuticals have notified health care professionals and consumers of a recall of metronidazole tablets (250 mg, lot #312566, expiration date 05/2012), as the tablets may be underweight and not contain the full amount of active ingredient and patients may not receive the prescribed dose.
Male Circumcision Reduces HPV Transmission
FRIDAY, Jan. 7 (HealthDay News) -- In HIV-negative individuals, male circumcision appears to reduce the transmission of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to female partners, according to research published online Jan. 7 in The Lancet.
Behavioral Interventions in Youths Lower STI Risk
THURSDAY, Jan. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Comprehensive behavioral interventions in adolescents can decrease risky sexual behavior and prevent incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs), according to research published online Jan. 3 in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.
Vitamin D Helpful in Subset of Tuberculosis Patients
THURSDAY, Jan. 6 (HealthDay News) -- A genetic subgroup of people with pulmonary tuberculosis may experience an enhanced response to therapy when supplemented by high-dose vitamin D, according to research published online Jan. 6 in The Lancet.
α-Blockers/Antibiotics May Be Best for Prostatitis
TUESDAY, Jan. 4 (HealthDay News) -- A combination of α-blockers and antibiotics may result in the greatest relief in symptoms for people with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), according to a literature analysis published in the Jan. 5 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Clostridium Difficile Infection Up in Hospitalized Children
TUESDAY, Jan. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) appears to be increasing among hospitalized children, with especially high risk among children with inflammatory bowel disease or other conditions requiring antibiotics or immunosuppression, according to a study published online Jan. 3 in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.
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