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Category: Pediatrics | Monthly Briefing

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July 2008 Briefing - Pediatrics

Last Updated: August 01, 2008.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for July 2008. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Pregestational Diabetes Raises Birth Defect Risk

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women with pregestational diabetes mellitus are more likely than pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus to have a child with birth defects, according to a report published online July 31 in the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Adverse Outcomes in IVF Babies Analyzed

THURSDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Babies conceived spontaneously and as a result of assisted fertilization by the same woman have similar risks of adverse outcomes, meaning that adverse outcomes among assisted fertilization babies may be attributable to the underlying causes of infertility rather than the fertility treatment itself, according to a report published online July 31 in The Lancet.

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Childhood Cancer Survivors Less Likely to Smoke

WEDNESDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- English childhood cancer survivors are significantly less likely to smoke than the general British population, according to an article published online July 29 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Kids' Cancer Survival Low in Many Countries

TUESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Annual per-capita government health expenditures are associated with survival of children with cancer in 10 low- and middle-income countries, and half of these countries offer very poor chances of survival for these children, according to research published in the August issue of The Lancet Oncology.

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Exercise Is Key for Long-Term Weight Loss

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Sustaining a 10 percent or more weight loss requires fairly high levels of physical activity in combination with reduced energy intake, according to an article published in the July 28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Diabetes-Diet Link Examined in Trio of Studies

MONDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of diabetes mellitus, while increased consumption of fruit drinks may increase risk, and diets low in fat have no effect on development of diabetes, according to three articles published in the July 28 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Nevirapine Dosing Studied in Breast-Feeding Moms with HIV

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- In HIV-infected mothers, risk of HIV transmission to their uninfected breast-feeding infants may be reduced by a prolonged postpartum course of nevirapine, according to an article published in the July 26 issue of The Lancet.

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West Nile Virus Cases Reported in 14 States

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- There were 43 cases of West Nile virus reported from 14 states this year up to July 22, according to a report published in the July 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Timing Is Crucial in Measles Vaccination

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- The age at which the protective effect of maternal measles antibodies wears off varies widely from region to region and should be taken into account when formulating optimum immunization strategies, according to an editorial published online July 24 in BMJ.

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On-Site Vaccination Utilized to Control Pertussis Outbreak

FRIDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- A school-based vaccination clinic was set up to control an outbreak of pertussis in a Cook County, Ill., high school after multiple recommendations to get vaccinated went unheeded, according to a report published in the July 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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'Tier 4' Drugs Raise Questions About Affordability

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- The emergence of a fourth tier of copayment for expensive drugs calls into question how Americans are going to handle the rising costs of health care, according to a perspective article in the July 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Consequences of Genetic Non-Discrimination Act Examined

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- The Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act (GINA), recently signed into U.S. law, creates a troublesome distinction between those at genetic risk for a disease and those with other characteristics that predispose them to a condition, according to a perspective article published in the July 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Physicians to Get Bonus for Electronic Prescribing

WEDNESDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors using an electronic prescriptions system will be eligible for a bonus from Medicare from 2009 onwards for four years, according to U.S. health officials.

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Boys with Varicocele May Outgrow Size Disparity

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Many adolescent boys with a varicocele will have "catch-up" growth that reduces their testicular size discrepancy without requiring surgical repair, according to research published in the July issue of Urology.

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Topiramate Therapy During Pregnancy Raises Concerns

TUESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- The use of topiramate as monotherapy or as an adjunct to other treatment for epilepsy during pregnancy raises some concerns about the increased risk of congenital malformation, according to a report published in the July 22 issue of Neurology.

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Maternal Obesity Linked to Obesity in Offspring in Rats

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Offspring of obese mother rats or those overfed after birth are considerably heavier and are more likely to be fatter, glucose intolerant, have high lipid levels and have changes in appetite hormones, according to study findings published online July 17 in Endocrinology.

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Breast-Feeding Lowers Infant Risk of Stomach Infection

MONDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Infants of low-income women who are predominantly breast-fed have a lower risk of gastrointestinal infection but a higher risk of iron deficiency than infants who are partially or entirely formula-fed, according to the results of a study published in the August issue of the Journal of Nutrition.

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Implicit Racial Bias Exists, But Doesn't Affect Treatment

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Implicit racial bias is present in pediatricians, but is not associated with differences in treatment decisions, according to an article published in the July issue of Medical Care.

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Routine Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Cost-Effective

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Routine vaccination of 12-year-old girls against human papillomavirus, combined with an initial catch-up campaign to cover girls up to the age of 18, would likely be cost-effective, according to research published online July 17 in BMJ.

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Report Finds U.S. Health System Lagging Further Behind

FRIDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. health system is operating poorly compared to its potential, with America falling further behind other nations that are leading on performance indicators, according to a report released by The Commonwealth Fund on July 17.

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Bacterial Infection Linked to Reduced Childhood Asthma

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Childhood infection with Helicobacter pylori reduces the likelihood of developing asthma and related illnesses, according to an article published online July 3 in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. A related review in the May issue of Gut discusses the current evidence and possible mechanisms linking H. pylori infection, asthma and allergy.

Abstract - Journal of Infectious Diseases
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Exception Reporting Improves Pay-for-Performance Benefits

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Pay-for-performance programs benefit from use of exclusion reporting, whereby certain patients are excluded from quality calculations, and the practice of excluding patients to disguise missed targets, known as gaming, is rare, according to study findings published in the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Most Breech Infants Born by Caesarean in United States

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- More than 80 percent of breech infants in the United States are born by Caesarean section, although rates vary widely by state, researchers report in the July issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Medical Education Must Adapt to Changing Times

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Medical schools must adapt their admission requirements and curricula to changes in scientific theory, and are also facing a challenge to the traditional definition of who is suited to the study of medicine, according to two articles published in the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Menthol Levels Changed to Promote Teen Smoking

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Menthol content in cigarettes is one of the ways in which tobacco companies manipulate the sensory characteristics of cigarettes to appeal to adolescents and young adults, according to the results of a study published online July 16 in the American Journal of Public Health.

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Importance of Adolescent Vaccines Highlighted

THURSDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- The United States must focus on effective delivery if adolescents are going to benefit from the development of recent vaccines, according to two articles published in the August issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Early Births Linked to Difficulties in Adulthood

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Decreased gestational age at birth was associated with a higher risk of severe medical disabilities in adulthood, as well as a lower likelihood of reaching several educational milestones or having a high income, according to research published in the July 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Maternal Diet May Affect Childhood Asthma Risk

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Children whose mothers ate nuts on a daily basis during pregnancy may be at increased risk of asthma, according to the results of a study published in the July 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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Perceived Access to Tobacco Predicts Youth Smoking

WEDNESDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Young adolescents who believe that they have easy access to cigarettes are more likely to become regular smokers, especially if they have friends who smoke, according to study findings published in the July/August issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Physical Activity Falls Sharply During Adolescence

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Between the ages of 9 and 15, physical activity fell steeply for American boys and girls in a geographically diverse sample, according to research published in the July 16 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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AMA Actions Fostered U.S. Medical Racial Divide

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- From the post-Civil War years to the civil rights era a century later, the American Medical Association (AMA) made decisions that helped support a division between white and black Americans in the field of medicine in the United States, according to an article in the July 16 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Simvastatin Not Linked to Neurofibromatosis Benefits

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- The use of simvastatin was not associated with cognitive improvements in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), contrary to findings in mouse models suggesting efficacy of this treatment, according to research published in the July 16 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Exposure to Violence Aggravates Health Inequalities

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to violence makes a direct contribution to health inequalities by restricting people's ability to exercise outdoors and inhibiting delivery of health-related services, according to a report published online July 15 in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

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Statewide Care Program May Be National Model

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- In North Carolina, an innovative community care program improves quality and reduces costs and may be a model for other states to follow, according to an article published in the July/August issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Adult Arthritis Drug Also Effective in Children

TUESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Abatacept, a drug effective for adults with rheumatoid arthritis, is also effective compared with placebo in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis who had already shown an initial response to the drug and failed other treatments, according to an article published online July 15 in The Lancet.

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Melanoma Incidence Up Among Younger Whites

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of invasive cutaneous melanoma among white men and women aged 15 to 39 has significantly increased since 1973, and has more than doubled among younger women, according to a letter published online July 10 in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.

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Shoulder Dystocia Training Improves Neonatal Outcomes

MONDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- The introduction of shoulder dystocia training for all hospital maternity staff can significantly improve management of the complication as well as neonatal outcomes, according to research published in the July issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Physicians Can Help Violence-Prevention Efforts

FRIDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- An office-based intervention by primary care physicians can contribute to violence-prevention efforts by reducing children's media exposure and improving safe storage of firearms, researchers report in the July issue of Pediatrics.

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Abnormal Scan Predicts Poor Prognosis in Mild Brain Injury

FRIDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Children with normal computed tomography (CT) findings perform better in multiple cognitive domains one year after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) than children with CT evidence of intracranial pathology, according to an article published in the June issue of the Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics.

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Educating Parents in Workplace Improves Teen Sex Education

FRIDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Parents who take part in a workplace-based education program aimed at helping them communicate with their adolescent children about sex are more likely to broach new topics, teach their children how to use a condom and report better lines of communication about sexual health, according to research published July 10 in BMJ Online First.

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Birth Weight May Affect Adult Personality Traits

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Young adults who were born at extremely low birth weights may be more cautious, shy, risk aversive and introverted than their normal birth weight peers, traits that could increase their risk for future psychiatric and emotional problems, according to study findings published in the July issue of Pediatrics.

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Vitamin A Linked to Lower Infant Mortality

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Administering a one-time vitamin A supplement to newborns in Bangladesh within a few days of birth was associated with a lower risk of mortality through six months, according to research published in the July issue of Pediatrics.

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Relationship Violence Common in College Students

THURSDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of all college-age students have experienced relationship violence at some point in their lives, according to an article published in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Health Cash Incentives for Poor People Debated

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Should disadvantaged people be paid to take care of their health? That's the question of a "Head to Head" debate published online July 8 in BMJ.

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Handwashing May Lower Neonatal Mortality in Nepal

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Compared to not washing their hands, maternal and birth attendant handwashing prior to handling neonates significantly lowers neonatal death, according to an article published in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Tuberculosis Risk for Children Adopted Internationally

WEDNESDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- It is common for internationally adopted children to have latent tuberculosis infection and to have an initial false negative result from a tuberculin skin test, according to a report published in the July issue of Pediatrics.

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Early Nutrition Associated with Later Cognitive Function

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- In resource-poor environments, providing a protein-rich nutritional supplement to children from birth to age 2 was associated with improved assessments of cognitive function later in life, according to an article published in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.

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Clinical Report Emphasizes Pediatric Lipid Screening

TUESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatricians should focus on cholesterol screenings for children and improving lipid and lipoprotein concentrations to reduce the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease, according to a clinical report published in the July issue of Pediatrics. The report -- "Lipid Screening and Cardiovascular Health in Childhood" -- replaces the 1998 policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics on cholesterol in childhood.

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Attention-Deficit Disorder Linked to Weight

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Among children and adolescents with either attention-deficit disorder (ADD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), overweight is more common in those who do not take any medication for their condition while underweight is more common in those who do take medication, according to a report published in the July issue of Pediatrics.

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Preschoolers' Autism Disrupts Parental Employment

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Almost all parents of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder rely on a variety of child-care services, and these arrangements are often associated with disruptions in parental employment, according to a report published in the July issue of Pediatrics.

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Cortical Subarachnoid Space Important in Hydrocephalus

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- In the management of hydrocephalus, the role of the cortical subarachnoid space has been largely ignored and the use of a shunt with an adjustable valve does not prevent the development of slit-like ventricles, according to two studies published in the July issue of the Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics.

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Serotonin Levels May Play Role in Sudden Infant Death

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Abnormalities in serotonin balance in mice can lead to drops in heart rate and body temperature, and death within months of birth, and the findings may aid research on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), according to the results of a study published in the July 4 issue of Science.

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Mutations Found in Autosomal Dominant Brachyolmia

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Mutations in the TRPV4 gene have been linked to an autosomal dominant form of brachyolmia marked by severe kyphoscoliosis and irregular, flattened cervical vertebrae, according to research published online June 29 in Nature Genetics.

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Electrocardiography Effective in Pre-Athletic Screenings

MONDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Among people seeking to obtain clinical eligibility for participation in competitive sports, exercise electrocardiography (ECG) screening can identify silent cardiovascular disorders that are undetected by resting ECG, according to the results of a study published July 3 in BMJ Online First.

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Conventional Secondhand Smoke Assessment Faulted

FRIDAY, July 4 (HealthDay News) -- In the assessment of patients exposed to secondhand smoke, measurements of biological markers may be better indicators of exposure and lung cancer risk than conventional assessment methods, researchers report in the July issue of The Lancet Oncology.

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Only Six New Pediatric Neurosurgeons A Year

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- Although the infrastructure exists to train more than 20 pediatric neurosurgeons a year in the United States, the current system is only producing approximately six surgeons a year with American Board of Pediatric Neurological Surgery certification, raising concerns about the sufficiency of expertise in this area, according to an article published in the June issue of the Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics.

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Bar-Coded Medication System Has Shortcomings

THURSDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- Bar-coded medication systems, used to reduce administration-stage medication errors, are circumvented using various methods for over 10 percent of charted medications, according to study findings published in the July/August issue of the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association.

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Environmental Factors In Utero May Trigger Adult Illness

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- The long latency period between exposure to an environmental trigger and cancer has already been recognized, but the same phenomenon may apply to chronic diseases such as metabolic disease and osteoporosis, with exposure to triggers in utero and early life causing disease in adulthood, according to a report published in the July 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Exercise Capacity Impaired in Survivors of Heart Procedure

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Survivors of the Fontan procedure, performed to correct anomalies in a functional single ventricle, still have deficits in exercise capacity but generally are doing well, according to three studies published in the July 8 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Abstract - Paridon
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Smoke-Free Policies Linked to Many Health Benefits

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- Smoke-free policies -- such as legislation to protect individuals from secondhand smoke -- can lead to health improvements including reduction of respiratory symptoms, and may help reduce adult and youth tobacco use, according to a report published in the July issue of The Lancet Oncology.

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Spray Reduces Cannulation Pain Quickly in Children

WEDNESDAY, July 2 (HealthDay News) -- A vapocoolant spray provides quick pain relief for children undergoing intravenous cannulation with a higher cannulation success rate than a placebo, according to research published in the July 1 issue of CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Some Infants Undergo Many Painful, Stressful Procedures

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Many painful and stressful procedures are performed in neonatal intensive care units in Paris, and most of them are not accompanied by analgesia, researchers report in the July 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Liver Disease in Overweight Children Linked to More Risks

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Overweight children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are more likely to have metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors than overweight children without NAFLD, according to research published online June 30 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Population-Based Programs Key to Battling Obesity

TUESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Population-based initiatives aimed at preventing excess weight gain complement clinical preventive strategies and treatment for obese people, according to an article published online June 30 in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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