Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for February 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Failure Much More Likely in Transmitted Drug-Resistant HIV
MONDAY, Feb. 28 (HealthDay News) -- A substantial portion of antiretroviral-naive patients are infected with transmitted drug-resistant HIV with one or more drug-resistant mutations, and they are much more likely to experience treatment failure, according to research published online Feb. 28 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
Pulmonary Fibrosis Flare-Ups Often Not Due to Viruses
MONDAY, Feb. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Acute viral infection is not detected in the majority of cases of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), according to a study published online Feb. 25 in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Necrotizing Fasciitis Pathogen Can Predict Urgency
MONDAY, Feb. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus progresses faster and is more clinically fulminant than infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, according to a study published in the Feb. 2 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteomes Differentiate Diseases
FRIDAY, Feb. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Neurologic post-treatment Lyme disease (nPTLS) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) can be differentiated by group-specific and individual cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein complements, according to a study published online Feb. 23 in PLoS ONE.
Herpes Zoster Risk Tied to COPD
WEDNESDAY, Feb. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially those using oral steroids, are at increased risk of developing herpes zoster, according to a study published online Feb. 22 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.
Children With Hepatitis C May Benefit From Ribavirin
TUESDAY, Feb. 15 (HealthDay News) -- The combination of pegylated interferon (PEG) plus ribavirin is better than PEG plus placebo for treating children infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), according to a study published in the February issue of Gastroenterology.
New Therapy for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication
TUESDAY, Feb. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Compared to standard therapy, quadruple therapy is better at eliminating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in adults and should be considered as the first-line treatment in clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori, according to a study published online Feb. 22 in The Lancet.
Low Pay for New Female Doctors Tied to Gender, Not Job
MONDAY, Feb. 21 (HealthDay News) -- In 2008, male physicians who were newly trained in New York State made an average of $16,819 more than newly trained female physicians, compared to a $3,600 difference in 1999, according to a study published in the February issue of Health Affairs.
Pediatric Kingella Kingae Cases Require Vigilance
FRIDAY, Feb. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Despite the subtle clinical presentation of Kingella kingae (K. kingae) infection, it is increasingly becoming recognized as a common cause of pediatric diseases, highlighting the importance of a high index of suspicion, according to a review published online Feb. 14 in Pediatrics.
CDC: U.S. Influenza Activity Rates Up Since Mid-December
THURSDAY, Feb. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza activity rates began increasing in mid-December 2010, and influenza-related hospitalizations have been highest among very young children and the elderly, according to a report in the Feb. 18 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Clean Uniforms Have Same Bacteria As Dirty White Coats
THURSDAY, Feb. 17 (HealthDay News) -- After an eight-hour work day, there is no difference in bacterial colonization of physicians' infrequently laundered white coats or freshly laundered short-sleeved uniform shirts, according to a study published online Feb. 10 in the Journal of Hospital Medicine.
New U.S. Report on the Nation's Health 2010 Released
WEDNESDAY, Feb. 16 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics' 34th annual report, presenting the latest information on health status and determinants, utilization of health care, health care resources, expenditures, and a special feature on death and dying, was published Feb. 16.
Child Outpatient Pneumonia Rates Unaffected by Vaccine
WEDNESDAY, Feb. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Despite introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2000, incidence rates of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) did not change between 1997 and 2004, according to a study published online Feb. 14 in Pediatrics.
Vero-Cell-Derived Influenza Vaccine Safe and Effective
WEDNESDAY, Feb. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Vero-cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine offers protection from influenza viruses antigenically matched to the vaccine strains, according to a study published online Feb. 16 in The Lancet.
Blood-Borne Infection Risk Dropping Among Drug Users
TUESDAY, Feb. 15 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of HIV infection among injection drug users (IDUs) declined from 1988 to 2008, while infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) has decreased but is still significant, according to a study published online Jan. 31 in The Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Most Recalled Medical Devices Given Lenient Approval
TUESDAY, Feb. 15 (HealthDay News) -- The majority of medical devices recalled from 2005 to 2009 for risk of serious health hazard or death were approved by the less strict 510(k) process intended for devices considered low or moderate risk, according to a study published online Feb. 14 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Dietary Fiber Consumption Linked to Reduced Mortality
TUESDAY, Feb. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Dietary fiber consumption is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause death in both men and women, according to a study published online Feb. 14 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Researchers Explore Nature of Difficult Clinical Encounters
MONDAY, Feb. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Both patients and physicians can bring qualities to a clinical encounter that result in its being perceived as difficult, and patients involved in these types of encounters have worse short-term outcomes, according to research published online Jan. 25 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.
Screening Patients for MRSA Is Cost-Effective
MONDAY, Feb. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Interventions that prevent the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are likely to be cost-effective, according to a study published in the February issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.
Enteric Sickness in Schools Often Has Foodborne Source
FRIDAY, Feb. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Outbreaks of gastrointestinal illnesses among students frequently stem from a foodborne source and are mostly bacterial in nature; hand washing is often recommended to prevent outbreaks, according to a study published in the December issue of the Journal of School Health.
Shunt Increases Infection Risk in Scoliosis Surgery
THURSDAY, Feb. 10 (HealthDay News) -- The presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is a significant risk factor for developing a wound infection following surgery for neuromuscular scoliosis, according to a study published in the Feb. 1 issue of Spine.
Public Sector Plays Big Role in Drug Research
WEDNESDAY, Feb. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Public-sector research institutions (PSRIs) appear to play a bigger role in drug discovery than was previously thought, contributing to the discovery of about 10 to 20 percent of drugs approved for new drug applications since 1990, according to research published in the Feb. 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Antenatal HIV Exposure Tied to Lower Infant Antibodies
TUESDAY, Feb. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Infants exposed to HIV in the womb, but not infected at birth, have lower infant-specific antibody responses against some diseases, compared to infants not exposed to HIV, according to a study published in the Feb. 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Strong Association Between Enterovirus and Diabetes Found
FRIDAY, Feb. 4 (HealthDay News) -- A review of molecular studies has found a strong association between enterovirus infection and the development of type 1 diabetes; the research has been published online Feb. 3 in BMJ.
Single Dose of H1N1 Vaccine Highly Effective in Young
FRIDAY, Feb. 4 (HealthDay News) -- A single dose of H1N1 vaccine administered during the fall of 2009 in Canada appears to have been more than 90 percent effective in protecting recipients, particularly children and young adults, from the pandemic, according to research published online Feb. 3 in BMJ.
Half of HIV Diagnoses in Blacks/African-Americans
THURSDAY, Feb. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Blacks/African-Americans have been disproportionately affected by HIV since early in the epidemic, and striking disparities have persisted in the last decade, according to research published in the Feb. 4 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).
H1N1 Vaccine Appears Safe
WEDNESDAY, Feb. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Adverse events associated with influenza A (H1N1) vaccine appear to be limited and relatively rare, and there is no evidence of an increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with the virus, according to research published online Feb. 2 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Vaccine Prevents Human Papillomavirus in Males
WEDNESDAY, Feb. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) appears effective in preventing HPV-6, 11, 16, and 18 as well as the development of external genital lesions in boys and men, according to research published in the Feb. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Fidaxomicin Reduces C. difficile Recurrence
WEDNESDAY, Feb. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Fidaxomicin, a macrocyclic antibiotic, may offer greater protection than vancomycin against recurrence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection associated with non-North American Pulsed Field type 1 strains, and rates of clinical cure after fidaxomicin treatment are noninferior to those after vancomycin treatment, according to research published in the Feb. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Bacteria May Play a Role in Pustular and Ocular Rosacea
WEDNESDAY, Feb. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) may be involved in pustular and ocular rosacea, according to research published in the January issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.
Cause of Fever in Febrile Seizures Needs to Be Identified
WEDNESDAY, Feb. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Clinicians evaluating infants or young children following a simple febrile seizure should focus on identifying the cause of the fever, according to new guidelines published in the February issue of Pediatrics.
Immunization Schedules for Children, Adolescents Updated
TUESDAY, Feb. 1 (HealthDay News) -- The American Academy of Pediatrics has released its 2011 recommended childhood and adolescent immunization schedules, which have been published in the February issue of Pediatrics.
Long-Term Sequelae Affect Childhood Meningitis Survivors
TUESDAY, Feb. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Survivors of childhood bacterial meningitis may have long-term academic and behavioral limitations, and other long-term sequelae, according to a review published in the January issue of The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.
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