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Category: Infections | Monthly Briefing

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April 2011 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Last Updated: May 02, 2011.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for April 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Flu Vaccination Safe for Post-Transplant Patients

THURSDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza vaccination in the first year after renal transplantation is not associated with transplant rejection or loss, according to a study published online April 21 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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CDC: Injuries Cause More Missed Days in Older Workers

THURSDAY, April 28 (HealthDay News) -- While older workers, aged ≥55 years, represented just 17 percent of employer-reported nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses in 2009, the median number of days older workers spent absent from work exceeded that of younger age groups, according to a report in the April 29 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Leprosy in Southern U.S. May Be a Zoonosis

WEDNESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- In the Southern United States, wild armadillos and many humans with leprosy are infected with the same strain, and leprosy may be a zoonosis in the region, according to a study published in the April 28 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Researchers Explore Genetic Basis for BCG Disease

WEDNESDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Genetic mutations affecting interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) may thwart the development of monocytes and dendritic cells and impair antimycobacterial immunity, according to research published online April 27 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Health Behavior Interventions Increase Healthy Behaviors

TUESDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Interventions targeting multiple health-related behaviors are successful at increasing health-related behaviors in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual African-American couples, according to a study published in the April 25 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Those With HIV at Higher Risk for Heart Failure

TUESDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with HIV may be at higher risk for heart failure, particularly if they have higher levels of ongoing viral replication, according to research published in the April 25 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Approval for Meningitis Vaccine Expanded to Include Toddlers

MONDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Use of the Menactra vaccine has been expanded by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to prevent meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease in children as young as 9 months, the agency said in a news release.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

P. falciparum Infection May Confer Long-Term Protection

MONDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Artificially induced immunity against infection with Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) may last for 2.5 years or longer, according to a study published online April 25 in The Lancet.

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It Pays to Screen Immigrants for Tuberculosis

THURSDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Screening immigrants to the United Kingdom for latent tuberculosis infection based on the incidence in their countries of origin is a cost-effective way of preventing future active cases of tuberculosis, according to a study published online April 21 in The Lancet.

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Intravaginal Probiotic May Lower UTIs in Premenopausal Women

THURSDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment with an intravaginal suppository probiotic may help prevent recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) in premenopausal women, according to research published online April 14 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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Behavioral Interventions Succeed in Promoting Condom Use

THURSDAY, April 21 (HealthDay News) -- Behavioral interventions in young women to promote safer sexual behaviors to protect against transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be effective, primarily at encouraging condom use, according to a review published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

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Triple-Class Viral Failure Low in HIV-Infected Children

WEDNESDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- The rate of triple-class virological failure to three or more antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs in children infected perinatally with HIV is low, but higher than the rate in adults, according to a study published online April 20 in The Lancet.

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New Test Effective for Detection of Tuberculosis

TUESDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance (RIF), detected by the MTB/RIF test, is accurate and feasible in resource-poor countries, according to a study published online April 19 in The Lancet.

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Multiple Sclerosis Variance Linked to UVB Rays, Epstein-Barr

TUESDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Much of the variance of multiple sclerosis (MS) in England can be explained by exposure to infectious mononucleosis (IM), caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB), according to a study published in the April 19 issue of Neurology.

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AIDS-Free Survival Affected by CD4 Count at Start of cART

TUESDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiated at a threshold of 0.500 × 109 cells/L may increase the rate of AIDS-free survival compared to initiation at lower thresholds, but does not affect mortality, according to a study published in the April 19 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Room for Improvement in Polio Surveillance Observed

FRIDAY, April 15 (HealthDay News) -- Surveillance and reporting standards for polio are below par in many world regions and vary at subnational levels, according to a report published in the April 15 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Incidence of and Hospitalization for Dengue Fever Escalate

THURSDAY, April 14 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of and hospitalization for dengue fever increased significantly from 2000 to 2007, according to a study published online April 13 in Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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MRSA Prevention Programs Have Conflicting Results

WEDNESDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- A program involving intensive efforts to prevent the incidence and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in health care facilities does not appear to be effective, though another program involving the same types of efforts does seem to be, according to two studies with conflicting findings published in the April 14 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Full Text - Huskins (subscription or payment may be required)
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Antibiotics for Acne May Not Up Prevalence of S. aureus

WEDNESDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- Contrary to common ideology, use of long-term tetracycline antibiotics for acne treatment does not appear to increase the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) or resistance to the antibiotics, according to research published online April 11 in the Archives of Dermatology.

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Adalimumab Antibodies Linked to Treatment Failure

WEDNESDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- Development of antibodies against adalimumab may have an effect on treatment discontinuation, disease activity, and remission in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), according to a study published April 13 in an infectious disease and immunology themed issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers Increase Among HIV Patients

WEDNESDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- In the last 15 years, there has been a large increase in the number of non-AIDS-defining cancers among HIV-infected individuals, according to a study published online April 11 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Alternative HPV Dosing Schedules Effective in Girls

TUESDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Human papillomavirus (HPV) standard schedule vaccine or alternative dosing schedules (zero, three, and nine months and zero, six, and 12 months) are well tolerated with comparable immunogenicity in adolescent girls, according to a study published April 13 in an infectious disease and immunology themed issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Fixed-Dose Combos Equally Effective in TB Treatment

TUESDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Compared with separately administered drugs, a four-drug fixed-dose combination (FDC) regimen partially satisfies noninferiority criteria for tuberculosis treatment, according to a study published April 13 in an infectious disease and immunology themed issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Increased Genital Shedding in Symptomatic HSV-2 Patients

TUESDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is less frequent in individuals with asymptomatic infection who also have less frequent genital lesions, according to a study published April 13 in an infectious disease and immunology themed issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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First U.S. Test to Diagnose Dengue Fever Approved

MONDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- The first test to help diagnose people with symptoms of the mosquito-borne virus dengue fever has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

dengue fever

H. pylori Therapy Effective in Half of Treated Children

MONDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- A novel eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was effective in only half of asymptomatic children tested; regardless, there were no changes in iron stores among all members of the four-arm group, though children whose infection was eradicated had higher serum ferritin levels, according to two articles published in the March issue of the Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition.

Abstract - Prieto-Jimenez
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FDA OKs Rapid Test to Spot C. difficile Infection

FRIDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- A test designed to rapidly detect the genetic fingerprint of Clostridium difficile bacterial infection has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Telaprevir Increases Second-Phase Hepatitis C Decline

FRIDAY, April 8 (HealthDay News) -- Analysis of the kinetics of telaprevir treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) shows a rapid second-phase viral decline, which may allow for shorter duration of treatment, according to a study published online March 7 in Hepatology.

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Drinking Water in New Delhi Contaminated With NDM-1

THURSDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- The New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) gene has been found in drinking and seepage water in New Delhi, according to a study published online April 7 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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'Global Trigger Tool' Identifies 10 Times More Errors

THURSDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- Use of the new Global Trigger Tool, developed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, detects at least 10 times more adverse events than other methods currently in use, according to a study published in the April issue of Health Affairs.

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Imported Measles Cases in 2011 on Par With Recent Years

THURSDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- The total number of reported measles cases in the United States in the first two months of 2011 appears to be comparable to the number of reported cases each year between 2001 and 2010, according a report in the April 8 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Asian Ethnicity May Predict Hep B-Dominant Dual Infection

THURSDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- Asians who are infected with both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are more likely to have HBV-dominant disease, compared to dually infected non-Asians, according to a study published online March 21 in Hepatology.

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New Yellow Fever Vaccine Safe and Effective

THURSDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- A new vaccine against yellow fever that contains inactivated yellow fever antigen shows promise as a safe alternative to live vaccine, according to research published in the April 7 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Genital HIV RNA Quantity Predicts HIV Transmission Risk

THURSDAY, April 7 (HealthDay News) -- Higher genital HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with greater risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission, independent of plasma HIV-1 quantity, according to a study published in the April 6 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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HIV Drug Resistance Mutations Increase Virologic Failure

WEDNESDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- Low-frequency HIV-1 drug resistance mutations are associated with increased risk of virologic failure with first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART), according to a review published in the April 6 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Community-Associated MRSA Infections Are Seasonal

MONDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- During the summer and autumn months, community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections peak in all ages; whereas hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) peaks are seen in pediatric patients only, according to a study published March 23 in PLoS ONE.

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Rapid Tuberculosis Diagnostic Methods Inaccurate Alone

MONDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Rapid microbial and immunological diagnostic methods are not accurate enough to diagnose or exclude pulmonary tuberculosis, according to a study published online March 21 in the Journal of Internal Medicine.

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