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Category: Infections | Monthly Briefing

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June 2011 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Last Updated: July 01, 2011.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for June 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Fewer Complications With NAFLD Than Hepatitis C Virus

THURSDAY, June 30 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis may have fewer liver-related complications and less hepatocellular cancer than patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but may have similar overall mortality, according to a study published online June 17 in Hepatology.

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Mutations Affect Susceptibility to Fungal Infection

WEDNESDAY, June 29 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with autosomal dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) may be associated with increased susceptibility to fungal infections, according to a study published online June 29 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Hemochromatosis Linked to Death From Yersinia Exposure

WEDNESDAY, June 29 (HealthDay News) -- Attenuated strains of virulent laboratory organisms like Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) may pose a risk to researchers with undiagnosed hemochromatosis, according to a letter published in the June 30 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Letter to the Editor

Flu Vaccine Safe for Sunitinib, Sorafenib Treated Patients

TUESDAY, June 28 (HealthDay News) -- Patients undergoing chemotherapy with sunitinib or sorafenib develop seroprotection rates similar to healthy controls following vaccination against influenza, according to a study published online June 28 in Clinical Cancer Research.

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Harmful Fungi Found to Reside in Dishwasher Seals

MONDAY, June 27 (HealthDay News) -- Dishwashers, with high temperatures, moisture, and alkaline pH values, provide a habitat for pathogenic fungi, according to a study published online May 7 in Fungal Biology.

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Liver Fibrosis Tied to Hep C-Related Vasculitis Prognosis

FRIDAY, June 24 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related systemic vasculitis, severity of liver fibrosis and vasculitis at baseline are associated with disease prognosis, according to a study published in the June issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.

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Glow Gel Enhances Hand-Washing Ability in Children

FRIDAY, June 24 (HealthDay News) -- The use of glow gel to wash hands is an effective way to improve hand hygiene in children, even without specific education, according to a study published in the July issue of Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology.

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Combined Virulence Identified in E. coli O104:H4

THURSDAY, June 23 (HealthDay News) -- The high virulence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O104:H4 may be due to the strain having combined virulence of Shiga-toxin-producing and enteroaggregative E. coli, and augmented adherence to intestinal cells, according to a study published online June 23 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

CDC: Expanded HIV Testing Initiative Effective

THURSDAY, June 23 (HealthDay News) -- Initiatives to expand HIV testing, including an opt-out HIV screening approach used among inmates during prison medical intake evaluation, appear to be effective in identifying new HIV cases, according to two reports in the June 24 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Higher Antibiotic Use Among Younger Home Care Patients

THURSDAY, June 23 (HealthDay News) -- Home care patients younger than 65 years and those with poor health are more likely to receive antibiotic treatment, according to a study published in the July issue of Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology.

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Syndrome Caused by E. coli Mostly in Adults, Women

WEDNESDAY, June 22 (HealthDay News) -- A large, ongoing outbreak of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome caused by Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) in Germany is occurring mostly in adults, primarily women, according to a study published online June 22 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Telaprevir Linked to Sustained Virologic Response in Hep C

WEDNESDAY, June 22 (HealthDay News) -- The addition of telaprevir to peginterferon and ribavirin is associated with significantly improved and sustained virologic response in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection who have not received previous treatment, or have a history of failed viral eradication, according to two studies published in the June 23 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Full Text - Jacobson (subscription or payment may be required)
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Anti-TNF Doesn't Increase Complication Risk in Early RA

TUESDAY, June 21 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy do not have an increased risk of serious infections and malignancies compared to those treated with methotrexate (MTX), according to a meta-analysis published in the June issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.

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Generic Versions of Levofloxacin Approved

MONDAY, June 20 (HealthDay News) -- The first generic versions of levofloxacin, prescribed under the brand name Levaquin, have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

National Library of Medicine

NAT Screening May Lower Undetected Hep C in Donors

MONDAY, June 20 (HealthDay News) -- Nucleic acid testing (NAT) screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in organ donors may be more effective than serology alone for detecting infection during the window period, according to a study published in the June issue of the American Journal of Transplantation.

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Coffee May Improve Virologic Response to Hep C Treatment

FRIDAY, June 17 (HealthDay News) -- Patients receiving hepatitis C therapy who drink three or more cups of coffee per day are more likely to respond to treatment compared to nondrinkers, according to a study published the June issue of Gastroenterology.

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Low Use of Screenings by Sexual Minority Young Women

FRIDAY, June 17 (HealthDay News) -- Routine reproductive health screenings, including Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and sexually transmitted infection (STI) tests, are underutilized by sexual minority adolescent and young adult women, according to a study published online June 7 in the Journal of Adolescent Health.

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HPV Vaccination Program Tied to Fewer Cervical Abnormalities

FRIDAY, June 17 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities (HGAs) has decreased in girls younger than 18 years, within three years of the implementation of a population-wide human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program in Australia, according to a review published in the June 18 issue of The Lancet.

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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Syphilis Screening May Reduce Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

THURSDAY, June 16 (HealthDay News) -- Screening interventions may reduce the incidence of perinatal death and stillbirth attributed to syphilis, according to a review published online June 16 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Infectious Patients on Flights May Raise Influenza Risk

THURSDAY, June 16 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza-like illness (ILI) may be transmitted during a flight, with disease incidence being clustered closely around a passenger who was symptomatic or infectious during the flight, according to a study published online June 16 in Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Unequal Care Access for Children With Public Insurance

THURSDAY, June 16 (HealthDay News) -- Access to outpatient care is restricted for children with public insurance compared to those with private insurance, according to a study published in the June 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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New Meningococcal A Conjugate Vaccine Is Effective

WEDNESDAY, June 15 (HealthDay News) -- A new meningococcal A (MenA) conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) has been found to have a stronger antibody response to group A meningococci than a quadrivalent polysaccharide reference vaccine (PsACWY), according to a study published in the June 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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New Rotavirus Vaccine Reduces Cases of Infant Diarrhea

WEDNESDAY, June 15 (HealthDay News) -- In Mexico and Brazil, use of the new monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) is associated with a short-term risk of intussusception in vaccinated infants but prevents a far higher number of hospitalizations and deaths from diarrhea, according to a study published in the June 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Immunodeficient Patients May Be at Risk for Polio

WEDNESDAY, June 15 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with long-standing immunodeficiency are susceptible to chronic infection with poliovirus, which may develop into poliomyelitis, according to a case report published in the June 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Life Expectancy in U.S. Counties Below Many Nations

WEDNESDAY, June 15 (HealthDay News) -- Most counties within the United States fall behind the international frontier with the best life expectancies in the world, according to a study published online June 15 in Population Health Metrics.

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Similar Number for Outpatient, Inpatient Malpractice Claims

TUESDAY, June 14 (HealthDay News) -- The number of paid malpractice claims is similar in both inpatient and outpatient settings, according to a study published in the June 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Intraoperative Noise Linked to Surgical-Site Infection

FRIDAY, June 10 (HealthDay News) -- Intraoperative noise is significantly associated with the occurrence of subsequent surgical-site infection (SSI), according to a study published online May 27 in the British Journal of Surgery.

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CDC: Ocular Toxocariasis Often Causes Permanent Vision Loss

THURSDAY, June 9 (HealthDay News) -- Ocular toxocariasis (OT) continues to occur in the United States, and it frequently leads to permanent vision loss that primarily affects children, according a report in the June 10 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Most Parents Vaccinate Their Children Despite Concerns

THURSDAY, June 9 (HealthDay News) -- Although the majority of U.S. parents vaccinate their children, most have questions and concerns, according to a study published in the June issue of Health Affairs.

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CDC: Incidence of Several Foodborne Infections Declines

TUESDAY, June 7 (HealthDay News) -- Although the incidence of several foodborne infections -- including Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 -- has declined over the past several years, the incidence of Salmonella infection has not decreased, according to a Vital Signs report in the June 7 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Youth Bear Large Burden of Global Death, Disease

TUESDAY, June 7 (HealthDay News) -- Youths between the ages of 10 and 24 years carry 15.5 percent of the global burden of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), according to a study published online June 7 in The Lancet.

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Patients' Mobile Phones Carry Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

TUESDAY, June 7 (HealthDay News) -- Mobile phones of patients carry more multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria than mobile phones of health care workers, according to a study published in the June issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

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New MRSA Strain Detected in Cow's Milk

FRIDAY, June 3 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have identified a novel methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain in cow's milk that is genetically different from existing MRSA strains; their research has been published online June 3 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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CDC: More Than One Million Living With HIV in U.S. in 2008

FRIDAY, June 3 (HealthDay News) -- Despite declines in AIDS diagnoses and deaths with the advent of antiretroviral therapy, more than one million people in the United States were living with HIV in 2008, according to a report in the June 3 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Ban on Organs From HIV Donors Limits Availability

FRIDAY, June 3 (HealthDay News) -- Reversing the ban on the transplantation of organs from deceased donors infected with HIV (HIVDD) would have a far-reaching public health impact due to the existence of a substantial pool of potential donors who could potentially donate to HIV-positive recipients, according to a study published online March 28 in the American Journal of Transplantation.

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Primary Care Providers Can Treat HCV Effectively

THURSDAY, June 2 (HealthDay News) -- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can be effectively treated by primary care providers trained in the Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO) program, according to a study published online June 1 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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PCR Assay Useful for Early Detection of CMV in Infants

THURSDAY, June 2 (HealthDay News) -- Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of both liquid- and dried-saliva specimens may represent a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in newborns, according to a study published in the June 2 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Murine Viruses Not Linked to Human Infection

WEDNESDAY, June 1 (HealthDay News) -- Murine-like gammaretroviruses (MLVs), including xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), are unlikely to cause either prostate cancer or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in humans, and their detection in human beings is likely due to sample contamination, according to two studies published online May 31 in Science.

Abstract - Paprotka
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Corticosteroids May Shorten Pneumonia Hospital Stay

WEDNESDAY, June 1 (HealthDay News) -- Non-immunocompromised patients with community-acquired pneumonia treated with intravenous dexamethasone in addition to antibiotic therapy may have a shorter hospital stay, according to a study published online June 1 in The Lancet.

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Viral Breakthrough After Nucleos(t)ide Analog Therapy

WEDNESDAY, June 1 (HealthDay News) -- Virological breakthrough (VBT) is common in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) undergoing nucleos(t)ide analog (NUC) treatment, but is not always related to antiviral drug resistance, according to a study published in the May issue of Hepatology.

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Maternal Influenza Vaccination Tied to Reduced Prematurity

WEDNESDAY, June 1 (HealthDay News) -- Receipt of vaccination against influenza during any trimester of pregnancy reduces the likelihood of prematurity and of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births during local and widespread influenza activity periods, according to a study published online May 31 in PloS Medicine.

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