Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for July 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
CDC: U.S. Cholera Cases Linked to Hispaniola Epidemic
FRIDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- In the United States, cholera cases caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 are linked to travel to Hispaniola and consumption of seafood from Haiti, according to a report published online July 21 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.
CDC: HIV-2 Infections in the U.S. Rarely Identified
THURSDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- HIV-2 infections in the United States appear to be rare and concentrated in the Northeast, mainly limited to individuals born in West Africa, according to a report in the July 29 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Hepatitis B and C Prevalent in Injecting Drug Users
THURSDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigens (HBsAg) are common in injecting drug users (IDUs), with an estimated 10.0 million IDUs positive for HCV and 1.2 million for HBsAg, according to a review published online July 28 in The Lancet.
Sequencing Shows German E. Coli Related to O104:H4 Strains
THURSDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Genome sequencing results suggest that the genome of the German outbreak Escherichia coli (E. coli) O104:H4 strain is closely related to other enteroaggregative E. coli O104:H4 strains, but can be distinguished by a prophage encoding Shiga toxin 2 and a specific set of virulence and antibiotic-resistance factors, according to a study published online July 27 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Rotavirus Infection Gives Lower Protection in India
WEDNESDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- Rotavirus infection in India tends to occur early in life, has higher reinfection rates, and lower rates of protection against subsequent infection episodes than reported elsewhere, according to a study published in the July 28 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Smoking Tied to Increase in Post-Arthroplasty Complications
WEDNESDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- Pre-operative smoking status is a significant predictor of 30-day postoperative complications and mortality at one year in patients undergoing elective primary total knee replacement or primary total hip replacement surgery (TKR/THR), according to a study published online July 18 in Arthritis Care & Research.
FDA: Methylene Blue and Linezolid Tied to CNS Reactions
TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has notified health care professionals and patients that individuals taking certain psychiatric medications may be at a higher risk of serious central nervous system (CNS) reactions when given reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), including methylene blue or linezolid (Zyvox).
Better UTI Prevention With TMP-SMX Than Cranberries
TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) treatment is more effective than cranberries in preventing recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) among premenopausal women, according to a study published in the July 25 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Non-Receipt of Fluids in Children Tied to Increased Oligoanuria
MONDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Young patients with pre-hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) diarrhea, who do not receive intravenous fluids within the first four days of diarrhea onset, have increased risk of developing oligoanuria, according to a study published online July 22 in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.
High Mortality Decline With One-Dose Varicella Vaccine
MONDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Overall varicella mortality decreased by 88 percent following implementation of the one-dose vaccination program, with a 96 percent decrease in individuals aged younger than 50 years, according to a study published online July 25 in Pediatrics.
Pagibaximab Seems Safe, Well Tolerated in High-Risk Neonates
MONDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Three once-a-week infusions of 90 mg/kg of pagibaximab in neonates who are at high risk for staphylococcal sepsis appears to be safe and well tolerated, with no cases of staphylococcal sepsis occurring, according to a study published online July 25 in Pediatrics.
CDC: Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis C Evaluated
FRIDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) should be screened for hepatitis C virus (HCV), especially those who engage in high-risk sexual behavior, according to a report in the July 22 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Medical Students Support Right to Conscientious Objection
THURSDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of medical students in the United Kingdom, especially Muslims, believe in the right of doctors to conscientiously object to or refuse any procedure, according to a study published online July 18 in the Journal of Medical Ethics.
Triple-Drug Regimen Preferable for Treating H. Pylori
TUESDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- The standard 14-day triple-drug regimen is more effective for treating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in Latin America than newer four-drug regimens, according to a study published online July 20 in The Lancet.
Surgeons Constitute Risk Factor for Infection After Colon Surgery
WEDNESDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- Surgeons are found to constitute a risk factor for surgical site infections (SSI) in patients undergoing colon surgery, independent of other factors linked to the patient, the procedure, or the hospital where the intervention took place, according to a study published online July 18 in the Archives of Surgery.
FDA Approves Vaccine for 2011/2012 Influenza Season
TUESDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that the agency has approved the influenza vaccine formulation for the 2011/2012 influenza season; this formulation will be used by the six manufacturers licensed to manufacture and distribute the vaccine in the United States.
cART Ups Life Expectancy in Ugandan HIV Patients
TUESDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may substantially improve life expectancy in patients with HIV in Uganda, with women having a greater life expectancy then men, according to a study published online July 18 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.
BetaPV Infection Tied to SCC in Transplant Recipients
MONDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- There is a significant association between betapapillomavirus (betaPV) infection and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients who receive organ transplants, according to a study published in the July issue of the American Journal of Transplantation.
Drinking Hot Tea, Coffee Tied to Lower MRSA Nasal Carriage
MONDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals who drink hot tea or coffee have half the likelihood of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage as those who do not drink hot tea or coffee, according to a study published in the July/August issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.
Rilpivirine Has Non-Inferior Efficacy to Efavirenz for HIV-1
FRIDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Rilpivirine offers a safe profile and non-inferior efficacy to efavirenz in treatment-naive patients infected with HIV-1, according to a study published in the July 16 HIV special issue of the The Lancet.
Overall Number, Not Concurrent Partners Tied to HIV Incidence
FRIDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- The overall number of men's sexual partners, not partnership concurrence, is associated with the risk of women's HIV acquisition in sub-Saharan Africa, according to a study published in the July 16 HIV special issue of The Lancet.
Vaccination Rates Up for Those With Liver Disease, Diabetes
FRIDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Vaccination rates for hepatitis A (HepA) and hepatitis B (HepB) in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and diabetes increased from 1999 to 2008, but remain low, according to a study published online July 2 in Hepatology.
Severe Asthma Not Linked to Persistent Viral Presence
FRIDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Respiratory-virus detection rates in the airways of patients with clinically stable and severe asthma are not significantly different from those of healthy controls, according to a study published in the August issue of Allergy.
CDC: Travelers to Haiti at Risk for Dengue Virus Infections
THURSDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Travelers to Haiti may be at risk for infection with the mosquito-transmitted dengue virus (DENV), according to a report in the July 15 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
H1N1 2009 Vaccine Not Tied to Guillain Barré Syndrome Risk
THURSDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- The adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine is not associated with an increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome, according to a study published July 12 in the BMJ.
Treatment of Syndromes Linked to Spider Bites Ineffective
THURSDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Latrodectism and loxoscelism are important worldwide clinical syndromes associated with spider bites, but the effectiveness of antivenom treatment is unclear, according to a review published online July 14 in The Lancet.
Antiretroviral Drugs May Halt HIV Spread in Heterosexuals
WEDNESDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- A daily oral dose of antiretroviral drugs used for the treatment of HIV infection may reduce HIV acquisition among uninfected individuals exposed to the virus through heterosexual sex, according to the results of a new U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study, the TDF2 study, along with the results of a separate trial (Partners Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis [PrEP] study).
Stress ECHO Effectively Stratifies CAD Risk in Patients With HIV
WEDNESDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- Stress echocardiography (SE) can effectively stratify risk and offer prognostic value for patients with HIV at risk for cardiovascular events, according to a study published online July 12 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging.
Boostrix OK'd to Prevent Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis in Seniors
MONDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Approval for the Boostrix vaccine has been expanded by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to prevent tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis (whooping cough) in people 65 and older, the agency said in a news release.
Increase in Staph Pneumonia in Children Mainly Due to MSRA
MONDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- The number of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) pneumonia cases in children increased between August 2001 and April 2009, with methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) responsible for 74 percent of the cases, according to a study published in the July issue of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.
Maternal Vaccination Tied to Fewer Flu Hospitalizations
FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal influenza vaccination during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations among infants aged less than 6 months, according to a study published in the June issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Factors in Acinetobacter Infection Transmission ID'd
FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- The identification of themes involved in the transmission of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter infections, sources of transmission, and interventions to reduce infections offer new insight into MDR Acinetobacter infections in war injuries, according to a review published in the July issue of the AORN Journal.
H1N1, Seasonal Flu Vaccines From 2009 to 2010 Were Safe
FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- The pandemic H1N1 influenza and seasonal influenza vaccines administered during the 2009 to 2010 season had no associated major safety problems, according to a study published online July 5 in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Drug Susceptibility in Gonorrhea May Be Declining
THURSDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Cephalosporin susceptibility among Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) isolates appears to be declining; however, cephalosporins remain an effective treatment for gonorrhea, according to a report in the July 8 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
New Regimens Equal to Standard Isoniazid for Adults With HIV
WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Novel secondary regimens to prevent tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults are no more effective than standard isoniazid for achieving tuberculosis-free survival; and isoniazid prophylaxis is not effective for improving tuberculosis-free survival in HIV-infected or uninfected children, according to two studies published in the July 7 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Fewer Clinical Capabilities in Critical Access Rural Hospitals
TUESDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Rural critical access hospitals (CAHs) have fewer clinical capabilities, significantly poorer performance on process measures, and higher 30-day mortality rates than non-CAHs for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure, and pneumonia, according to a study published in the July 6 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
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