Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Neurology for July 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Traumatic Brain Injury Linked to Increased Stroke Risk
FRIDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at an increased risk of stroke, with more than 10 times higher risk in the first three months, according to a study published online July 28 in Stroke.
Pregnancy-Related Stroke Hospitalizations Rise in the U.S.
THURSDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- The rate of pregnancy-related hospitalizations for stroke have increased in the United States, especially during the postpartum period, from 1994-1995 to 2006-2007, mainly due to changes in prevalence of hypertension and heart disease, according to a study published online July 28 in Stroke.
Coronary Events Are More Heritable Than Cerebral Events
THURSDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Coronary events are more heritable than cerebral events, with myocardial infarction (MI) significantly more likely than stroke to cluster in families, according to a study published online July 26 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.
High Prenatal Milk Intake Tied to Lower Offspring MS Risk
THURSDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Higher milk and vitamin D consumption during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of adult-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) in offspring, according to a study published online July 22 in the Annals of Neurology.
Fatty Acid-Induced Gut-Brain Signaling Lessens Sad Emotion
THURSDAY, July 28 (HealthDay News) -- Fatty acid-induced gut-brain signaling attenuates experimentally induced sad emotion at both the behavioral and neural levels in healthy individuals, according to a report published online July 25 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.
Vascular Changes Contribute to Dementia in Older People
WEDNESDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- Vascular changes contribute to age-related vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia, according to a new American Heart Association/American Stroke Association scientific statement published online July 21 in Stroke.
FDA: Methylene Blue and Linezolid Tied to CNS Reactions
TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has notified health care professionals and patients that individuals taking certain psychiatric medications may be at a higher risk of serious central nervous system (CNS) reactions when given reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), including methylene blue or linezolid (Zyvox).
Apixaban Ups Bleeding Without Reducing Ischemic Events
TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- Adding 5 mg of apixaban twice daily to antiplatelet therapy among high-risk patients after an acute coronary syndrome increases the risk of bleeding events without a significant reduction in recurrent ischemic events, according to a study published online July 24 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
AVI-4658 Safe and Effective for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- The phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer AVI-4658 has been found to safely induce new dystrophin protein expression in a significant dose-dependent manner in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), according to a study published online July 25 in The Lancet.
Crossing Environment Tied to Pedestrian Injury Rates in ADHD
TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined type (ADHD-C) show appropriate pedestrian behavior on the curb but choose riskier pedestrian environments to cross the street, according to a study published online July 25 in Pediatrics.
Optimism Linked to Reduced Risk of Stroke in Older Adults
TUESDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- Increased optimism is associated with a decreased risk of stroke in older adults, even after adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioral, biological, and psychological stroke risk factors, according to a study published online July 21 in Stroke.
Rat Study: Single Vaccine Against Heroin Addiction Feasible
MONDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- A single heroin vaccine producing specific antibody titers against heroin and its psychoactive metabolites successfully blunt the physiological effect of the drug, according to an experimental study published online June 21 in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.
Unexplained Higher Hemorrhage Risk in PAD, CVD Patients
MONDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAD) or cerebrovascular disease (CVD) have a higher risk of hemorrhagic events than those with coronary artery disease (CAD), though this difference cannot be explained by known risk factors, use of antithrombotics, or genetic variations in hemostasis, according to a study published online July 13 in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Propranolol Prevents Cocaine-Associated Memory Retrieval
MONDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- The common β-blocker propranolol has been shown to prevent retrieval of cocaine-associated memories in addiction-models in rats, according to an experimental study published in the August issue of Neuropsychopharmacology.
Mutant Huntingtin(Htt) Activates AMPK-α1 in Mice, Humans
FRIDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- The mutant huntingtin(Htt) (mHtt) gene activates the α1 isoform of adenosine mono phosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK-α1) in the striatal neurons of humans and mice with Huntington's disease (HD), and may be responsible for neuro-degeneration in the disease, according to an experimental study published online July 18 in the Journal of Cell Biology.
Disrupted Thalamic MRI Patterns in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
THURSDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns are disrupted, with significantly increased thalamic resting-state networks (RSNs) and reduced symmetry, according to a study published online July 20 in Radiology.
Medical Students Support Right to Conscientious Objection
THURSDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of medical students in the United Kingdom, especially Muslims, believe in the right of doctors to conscientiously object to or refuse any procedure, according to a study published online July 18 in the Journal of Medical Ethics.
MS Disease-Modifying Therapy Gains Come at High Cost in U.S.
WEDNESDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are not cost-effective for treating patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the United States compared to basic supportive therapy without DMTs, according to a study published online July 20 in Neurology.
Stopping Low Dose Aspirin Ups Cardiac Risk
WEDNESDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- Discontinuation of low dose aspirin among patients with a history of cardiovascular disease appears to increase the risk for heart attack, according to a study published online July 19 in BMJ.
Physical Activity Tied to Reduced Cognitive Decline Risk
WEDNESDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- Regular physical activity reduces the rate of cognitive decline in older women with vascular disease or risk factors; and greater activity energy expenditure (AEE) reduces the incidence of cognitive impairment in older adults, according to two studies published online July 19 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Antidepressants Found Lacking for Seniors With Dementia
TUESDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Seniors with dementia who are prescribed antidepressants may not reap any benefit from the medication, but they do experience some adverse effects, according to research published online July 18 in The Lancet.
Chemo, Trastuzumab, Surgery Up Survival in HER2-Positive MBC
MONDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and central nervous system (CNS) metastases have improved survival with trastuzumab, chemotherapy, and surgical treatment, according to a study published in the July 15 issue of Clinical Cancer Research.
Secondary Seizure Frequency Higher in Anovulatory Cycle
FRIDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- In women with intractable focal onset seizures, seizure frequency for secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) is significantly greater during anovulatory cycles than during ovulatory cycles, according to a study published online July 14 in Epilepsia.
Vascular Disease Tied to Higher Stroke or Death Risk in A-Fib
THURSDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- The presence of a vascular disease, either peripheral artery disease (PAD) or prior myocardial infarction (MI), or both, is associated with increased risk of stroke or death in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), independent of Cardiac failure, Hypertension, Age, Diabetes, Stroke (doubled) (CHADS2) risk score, according to a study published in the July issue of the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Faster Movement in Response to Moving Target in Parkinson's
THURSDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- In both virtual reality (VR) and physical reality, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) reach more slowly for stationary objects than controls, but have movement speeds similar to controls for moving targets, according to a study published online July 1 in the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.
Age-Associated Health Decline Risk Factor for Alzheimer's
THURSDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- A frailty index of 19 deficits not previously reported to predict dementia is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a study published online July 13 in Neurology.
Low Bone Mass Seen Early in Multiple Sclerosis
THURSDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Newly diagnosed patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with no or minor physical disability seem to have low bone mass, according to a study published in the July 12 issue of Neurology.
Timely Surgery in Traumatic Brain Injury Halves Death Rate
THURSDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), shorter time from emergency department (ED) arrival to surgery significantly lowers mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS), according to a study published in the July issue of the Journal of Emergency Nursing.
H1N1 2009 Vaccine Not Tied to Guillain Barré Syndrome Risk
THURSDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- The adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine is not associated with an increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome, according to a study published July 12 in the BMJ.
Half of Parkinson's Patients With Psychosis Use Antipsychotics
WEDNESDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- The overall use of antipsychotics in Parkinson's disease (PD) remained unchanged from the 2002 fiscal year (FY) to the 2008 FY, with 50 percent of patients with PD and psychosis (PDP) prescribed an antipsychotic in routine clinical care in the 2008 FY, according to a study published in the July issue of the Archives of Neurology.
PET Detection of Amyloid Levels Equal to Immunohistochemistry
TUESDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- Detection of amyloid levels by positron emission tomography (PET), measuring fluorine 18-labeled flutemetamol (florbetapir) uptake by the brain cortex, is in concordance with immunohistochemical estimation; and the florbetapir-PET standard uptake value ratios (SUVRs) help characterize amyloid levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), according to two studies published online July 11 in the Archives of Neurology.
Therapeutic Hypothermia Care Improves STEMI Outcomes
TUESDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- A comprehensive therapeutic hypothermia (TH) protocol integrated into regional ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treatment improves survival and neurological outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), according to a study published in the July 12 issue of Circulation.
Secondhand Smoke Tied to Child Neurobehavioral Issues
MONDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Postnatal exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is associated with an increase in the risk of neurobehavioral disorders among children, according to a study published online July 11 in Pediatrics.
Folate Intake Positively Linked to Academic Achievement
MONDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Folate intake is positively associated with academic achievement in 15-year-old children, according to a study published online July 11 in Pediatrics.
Combination Therapy for A-Fib Increases Bleeding Risk
FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- Combination antithrombotic therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of bleeding and no reduction in the risk of stroke, according to a study published in the July issue of Chest.
H1N1, Seasonal Flu Vaccines From 2009 to 2010 Were Safe
FRIDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- The pandemic H1N1 influenza and seasonal influenza vaccines administered during the 2009 to 2010 season had no associated major safety problems, according to a study published online July 5 in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Breast-Feeding Does Not Affect MS Postpartum Relapse Rate
THURSDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- Breast-feeding is not associated with a lower risk of postpartum relapses in women with multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a study published online July 6 in Neurology.
Sudden Unexpected Death Risk Higher in Epilepsy
WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with epilepsy have an increased risk of sudden death compared to the general population, with the most important risk factor being the frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), according to a review published online July 6 in The Lancet.
Stroke Burden Shows Substantial Global Variation
WEDNESDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Stroke burden shows substantial global variation compared to ischemic heart disease (IHD), with countries with lower national income having disproportionately higher stroke death and disease burden than IHD, according to a study published online July 5 in Circulation.
First Trimester Antidepressant Use Tied to Childhood ASD
TUESDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), especially during the first trimester of pregnancy, may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children, according to a study published online July 4 in the Archives of General Psychiatry.
Shared Environment Tied to Autism Risk in Healthy Twin
TUESDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- In twins, shared environment may have a greater impact on susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than genetic inheritance, according to a study published online July 4 in the Archives of General Psychiatry.
Memory Blackouts Predictive of Alcohol-Related Injury
MONDAY, July 4 (HealthDay News) -- A significant increase in alcohol-related injury (ARI) is seen in college drinkers who have memory blackout, with those suffering from more blackouts having a higher likelihood of ARI, according to a study published online June 27 in Injury Prevention.
Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Adults on the Wane
FRIDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- The presence of elevated adult blood lead levels (BLLs) has fallen overall since the mid-1990s, but the highest prevalence of elevated BLLs is found in the manufacturing, construction, and mining industries, according to a report published in the July 1 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Aspirin As Primary Prevention Strategy Investigated
FRIDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Aspirin may prevent the risk of total cardiovascular (CV) events and nonfatal myocardial infarctions (MI), but it does not significantly reduce the risk of stroke, CV mortality, all-cause mortality, or total coronary heart disease, according to a meta-analysis published in the June 15 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.
Multiple Sclerosis Not Tied to Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes
FRIDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- For pregnant women, multiple sclerosis (MS) is not associated with adverse pregnancy or birth outcomes, according to a study published online June 27 in the Annals of Neurology.
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