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Category: Infections | Monthly Briefing

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August 2011 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Last Updated: September 01, 2011.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for August 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Cost-Effective Perinatal HBV Transmission Prevention ID'ed

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- In hepatitis B surface-antigen-positive pregnant women, administration of lamivudine or hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) in the third trimester is a cost-effective method for prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B, according to a study published in the September issue of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Abstract
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AAP Recommends Quadrivalent MMRV for Most Children

TUESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Use of measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (MMRV) is generally preferred over separate injections of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella vaccines, unless there is a personal or family history of seizures, or difficulty communicating the risks involved to parents or caregivers, according to a policy statement by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), published online Aug. 28 in Pediatrics.

Report

Loss of Jobs Means Loss of Health Coverage for Many in U.S.

MONDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- For American adults who lose their health insurance coverage when they lose their jobs, the majority remain uninsured, delay getting needed health care or prescriptions, and report financial difficulties paying medical bills, according to a report published online Aug. 24 by The Commonwealth Fund.

Report

Wide Gaps in Immune Responses Post Flu Infection

MONDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- The wide gap in the antiviral and inflammatory response seen in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals exposed to influenza A infection is mediated by genomic signatures, according to a study published online Aug. 25 in PLoS Genetics.

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IOM: Few Health Issues Caused By Vaccines

FRIDAY, Aug. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Few health issues or illnesses appear to be associated with or caused by vaccines, according to a new report published online August 25 from the Institute of Medicine(IOM).

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Early Plasma Exchange Tied to Improved Course of HUS

FRIDAY, Aug. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Early plasma exchange therapy is associated with increased median platelet count and glomerular filtration rate, decreased median lactate dehydrogenase concentration, and improved neurological status in adults with diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), according to a study published online Aug. 25 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Expedited Partner Therapy Use Benefits Gonorrhea, Chlamydia

FRIDAY, Aug. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Expedited partner therapy should be used in accordance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) guidelines to prevent reinfection by treating partners of patients with gonorrhea and chlamydia who are unable or unwilling to seek medical care, according to a committee opinion published in the September issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Report (subscription or payment may be required)

Complementary Medicine Used More by Health Care Workers

FRIDAY, Aug. 26 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. health care workers, especially health care providers, are more likely to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) than the general, employed U.S. population, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in Health Services Research.

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Pharmaceutical Ads Often Don't Adhere to U.S. FDA Guidelines

THURSDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Physician-targeting pharmaceutical advertisements have low rates of adherence to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and provide inadequate information for safe prescribing, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in PLoS One.

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HPV Test Beats Cytology-Alone in Cervical Cancer Screening

THURSDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for HPV16 and HPV18 strains may be an alternative and more efficient screening method for cervical cancer than liquid-based cytology alone; and bivalent HPV16 and 18 vaccine protects against anal HPV infection, according to two studies published online Aug. 22 in The Lancet Oncology.

Abstract Castle
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)
Abstract Kreimer
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

CDC: HPV Vaccine Rates Lag Behind Other Teen Vaccines

THURSDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Vaccination coverage in adolescents appears to be increasing, however, the increase in human papillomavirus (HPV) coverage among adolescent females has been lagging, according to a report in the August 26 issue of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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S-Nitrosylation of Toxins Prevents Clostridium Infection

THURSDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- S-nitrosylation of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) toxins in the intestines of infected hosts is suggested to attenuate virulence and prevent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), according to an experimental study published online Aug. 21 in Nature Medicine.

Abstract
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CDC: Reporting Delays Occurred in German E. coli Outbreak

THURSDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- During the outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and bloody diarrhea related to shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 (STEC) in Germany during May and June 2011, there was a median delay of 20 days between symptom onset and reporting the cases, according to a study published in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's October Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Parasitic Co-infection Impairs TB Resistance in Mice

THURSDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) transiently impairs resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in mice, according to an experimental study published online Aug. 8 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Abstract
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CDC: Two Salmonella Outbreaks Investigated

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Two outbreaks of Salmonella infections, Salmonella Altona and Salmonella Johannesburg, have been linked to chicks and ducklings from a single mail-order hatchery, according to an update from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

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Azithromycin Decreases COPD Exacerbation Frequency

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- In selected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), daily azithromycin for one year together with usual treatment decreases the frequency of exacerbations but increases the frequency of hearing decrements, according to a study published Aug. 25 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Airway Infections Correlate With Narcolepsy Onset in China

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- In China, narcolepsy onset is significantly associated with seasonal and annual patterns of upper airway infections, including H1N1 influenza, and increased three-fold following the 2009 H1N1 winter influenza pandemic, independent of H1N1 vaccination in the majority of cases, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in the Annals of Neurology.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Dual Hepatitis B, C Infection Ups Lifetime HCC Risk

TUESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- The individual and combined effects of HBV and HCV on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vary according to age and gender, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Abstract
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Methotrexate Lowers Response to Pneumococcal Vaccine

MONDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondylarthropathy (SpA), treatment with methotrexate (MTX), but not with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers, reduces antibody response after vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in Arthritis & Rheumatism.

Abstract
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Half of Health Care Providers Recommend HPV Co-Test

FRIDAY, Aug. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Approximately half of health care providers recommend the combination of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Papanicolaou test (HPV co-test) for cervical cancer screening, but fewer than 15 percent follow the recommended guidelines of waiting three years for the next screening, according to a study published online June 13 in the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Abstract
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CDC: Legionellosis Incidence Up During 2000 to 2009

FRIDAY, Aug. 19 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of reported legionellosis in the United States almost tripled between 2000 and 2009; however, the reason for the increase remains unclear, according to a report in the Aug. 19 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Staphylococcal Biofilms Linked to Chronic Rhinosinusitis

FRIDAY, Aug. 19 (HealthDay News) -- The significant association between Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilms and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is attributed to skewing of the T-cell response toward the T-helper2 pathway, independent of superantigen activities, according to a study published online Aug. 11 in Allergy.

Abstract
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CDC: 2010/2011 Flu Vaccination Coverage Studied

THURSDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza vaccination coverage among health care personnel (HCP) and pregnant women in the 2010/2011 influenza season was similar to coverage for the 2009/2010 season, according to two reports in the Aug. 19 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Full Text - Health Care Personnel
Full Text - Pregnant Women

CDC: Flu Vaccine Recommendations Unchanged

THURSDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza vaccination of all persons aged ≥6 months in the United States continues to be recommended for the 2011/2012 influenza season, as in previous influenza seasons, according to an Aug. 18 early-release report in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Increase in Malaria Despite Initial Preventive Success

THURSDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- A rebound in malaria attacks has been seen in Africa, especially among older children and adults, following the initial decrease after distribution of long-lasting insecticide (deltamethrin)-treated nets (LLINs) and artemisinin-based combination therapies, according to a study published online Aug. 18 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

High Cumulative Malpractice Risk for All Physicians

THURSDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians in all specialties have a high cumulative risk of facing a malpractice claim by age 65; although most claims do not lead to indemnity payments, according to a study published in the Aug. 18 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Peanut Butter Products Linked to Salmonellosis Outbreak

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- A nationwide outbreak of human Salmonella Typhimurium infections in the United States in 2008 has been attributed to eating a specific brand of contaminated peanut butter and peanut products, according to a study published in the Aug 18 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Prolonged Tetracycline for Acne Lowers S. aureus Colonization

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with acne, the prolonged use of tetracycline antibiotics lowers the prevalence of colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and does not increase resistance to tetracycline antibiotics, according to a study published in the August issue of the Archives of Dermatology.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Bordetella Infections Rare in Children With Cough Illness

TUESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) and Bordetella parapertussis (B. parapertussis) infections are rarely found in young patients with cough illness, as are concomitant virus/Bordetella infections, according to a study published in the August issue of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal.

Abstract
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Glucocorticoid Reduces Renal Scarring After Pyelonephritis

TUESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment with adjunctive oral methylprednisolone sodium phosphate (MPD) combined with antibiotics significantly reduces the occurrence and severity of renal scarring among children with acute pyelonephritis (APN), according to a study published online Aug. 15 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Chinese Herbal Decoction Cuts Time to H1N1 Fever Resolution

TUESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Chinese herbal decoction maxingshigan-yinqiaosan, alone or in combination with oseltamivir, is associated with a reduced time to fever resolution in patients with H1N1 influenza virus infection, according to a study published in the Aug. 16 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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Clindamycin More Effective in Treating Soft Tissue Infections

MONDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and β-lactams for treatment of pediatric skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) is associated with increased risks of treatment failure and recurrence compared to treatment with clindamycin, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Sexually Abused Children at Risk of Genital HPV Infection

MONDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Detection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is significantly more likely in sexually abused children than those without evidence of child sexual abuse (CSA), and increases with certainty of abuse, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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CDC: Canine Seroprevalence Tied to Lyme Disease Risk

FRIDAY, Aug. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Canine seroprevalence is a sensitive marker of risk of human Lyme disease infection; and risk of infection is lower on pasture land than on meadow or fallow land, according to two studies published online Aug. 10 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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CDC: Lower Socioeconomic Status Tied to Higher HIV Rate

THURSDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of HIV infections appears to be higher among individuals with lower socioeconomic status in urban areas with a high prevalence of AIDS, according to a report in the Aug. 12 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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tPA, DNase Improves Fluid Drainage in Pleural Infection

THURSDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Combined intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and DNase therapy improves fluid drainage in patients with pleural infection and reduces hospital stay duration and the frequency of surgical referral, according to a study published in the Aug. 11 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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CDC: M. haemophilum Infection Possible After Tattooing

THURSDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Mycobacterium haemophilum (M. haemophilum) infection has been identified in at least one immunocompetent adult with a chronic skin infection after tattooing, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Knowledge, Beliefs Affect Judgment of Hand Hygiene Risk

TUESDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Individual differences in knowledge levels and beliefs among health care workers (HCWs) affect their risk perception regarding pathogen transfer, with touching patient skin believed to be riskier than touching objects, according to a study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

Abstract
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Multinational Surveillance IDs Drug-Resistant Salmonella

MONDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Multinational surveillance has facilitated timely identification of ST198 Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky displaying high-level ciprofloxacin resistance (CIPR), which spreads mainly through poultry, according to a study published online Aug. 2 in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Cost of Interacting With Payers Higher in U.S. Than Canada

FRIDAY, Aug. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Physician practices in the United States spend considerably more on interactions with health plans than Canadian practices, according to a study published in the August issue of Health Affairs.

Abstract
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CDC: Age Range Expanded for Meningococcal Vaccine

THURSDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics), a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, appears to be safe and effective for use with the recently extended age indication, and is interchangeable with the other licensed meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-D (Menactra, Sanofi Pasteur), according to a report in the Aug. 5 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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CDC: Neuroinvasive Arboviral Disease Incidence Studied

THURSDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- West Nile Virus (WNV) was the most common cause of neuroinvasive arboviral diseases in the United States in 2010, with La Crosse virus the most common cause of disease among children, according to a report in the Aug. 5 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Text Messages Aid Pediatric Malaria Management in Kenya

THURSDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Text message reminders are associated with substantial improvements in health workers' adherence to national guidelines for the management of outpatient pediatric malaria in Kenya, according to a study published online Aug. 4 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

CDC: HIV Infections Stabilized Between 2006 and 2009

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- The annual number of new HIV infections in the United States was relatively stable between 2006 and 2009; however, infections increased among young men who have sex with men (MSM), especially black MSM, according to a U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention national HIV incidence surveillance assessment published online Aug. 3 in PLoS One.

CDC Press Release
PLoS One Full Text

New Ehrlichia Species Identified in the United States

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Apart from the usual pathogens Ehrlichia chaffeensis (E. chaffeensis) and E. ewingii implicated as the cause of ehrlichiosis in United States, ehrlichiosis can be caused by a new species that closely resembles E. muris, according to a study published in the Aug. 4 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic H1N1 2009 Virus Emerging

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Clinicians should be aware of an emergence of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic H1N1 2009 virus, particularly in immunocompromised patients, according to a study published online July 29 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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High Doses of Zinc Found to Reduce Common Cold Duration

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- In individuals with natural common cold infections, use of lozenges containing a daily zinc dose of over 75 mg significantly reduces cold symptoms, but use of a daily total of less than 75 mg shows no effect, according to a meta-analysis published online June 23 in the Open Respiratory Medicine Journal.

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Syphilis Up in Black, Hispanic Men Having Sex With Men

TUESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- The rates of primary and secondary syphilis in 27 U.S. states have increased more among black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) (compared to white MSM), and also among young MSM, according to a study published in the Aug. 2 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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Infection Incidence After Spinal Tumor Surgery ~10 Percent

TUESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) following spinal tumor surgery ranges from 8.89 to 13.7 percent, and the risk is associated with perioperative factors, including previous spinal surgeries, increased number of comorbidities, previous hospital-acquired infection, and increased hospital stay, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of Spine.

Abstract
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DHA Intake in Pregnancy Tied to Fewer Colds in Infants

MONDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy is associated with reduced occurrence of cold symptoms in infants at 1 month, and influences the duration of certain illness symptoms at 1, 3, and 6 months, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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One-Shot Flu Vaccine Partially Effective After Teen Transplant

MONDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- A single dose of pandemic influenza A (pH1N1/09) vaccine offers a modest rate of seroconversion in pediatric liver transplant patients above the age of 10 years, according to a study published in the August issue of Liver Transplantation.

Abstract
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