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Category: Oncology | Monthly Briefing

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August 2011 Briefing - Hematology & Oncology

Last Updated: September 01, 2011.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Hematology & Oncology for August 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Deletion in β-Globin ID'd in Fetal Hemoglobin Silencing

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- A small intergenic region required for γ-globin (fetal hemoglobin) gene silencing has been identified near the 5' end of the δ-globin gene, according to a study published in the Sept. 1 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Cord Colitis Syndrome Distinct From Other Post-HSCT Diarrhea

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- For patients undergoing hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT), cord colitis syndrome is clinically and histopathologically distinct from acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and other causes of diarrhea, and responds to empirical therapy of antibiotics, according to a study published in the Sept. 1 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Variable Survival Benefit of Radioembolization in HCC

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- The survival benefit for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with radioembolization with yttrium-90-labeled resin microspheres is affected by numerous factors with the most significant, independent prognostic factors including Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, international normalized ratio >1.2, tumor burden and extrahepatic disease, according to a study published online June 30 in Hepatology.

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Saffron ID'ed as Potential Therapy for Liver CA

TUESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Saffron reduces the number and incidence of hepatic dyschromatic nodules and the number and area of placental glutathione S-transferase-positive foci in livers of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-treated rats, according to an experimental study published online July 19 in Hepatology.

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BCL2L1 Linked to Colorectal Cancer-Related Processes

TUESDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- BCL2L1 is involved in several colorectal cancer-related processes and its protein expression is associated with chromosome 20q gain, according to a study published online Aug. 18 in The Journal of Pathology.

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Public Sector Funds Large Part of State Obesity-Related Costs

MONDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Between 22 and 55 percent of U.S. state-level obesity-related costs are financed by the public sector via Medicare and Medicaid, according to a study published online June 16 in Obesity.

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Xalkori Approved for Advanced Lung Cancer

MONDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Xalkori (crizotinib) and a companion diagnostic test have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that express an abnormal anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, the agency said in a news release.

this approval

Erythropoietin Alfa Therapy Safe Addition in Cervical Cancer

MONDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Erythropoietin alfa (EPO) can be safely used in addition to adjuvant chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy (CRT) for patients with cervical cancer, but it does not provide a significant benefit in recurrence-free survival (RFS) or overall survival (OS), according to a study published online Aug. 22 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Addition of Oxaliplatin Ups Survival in Stage II/III Colon CA

MONDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with stage II/III colon cancer, the addition of oxaliplatin to fluorouracil plus leucovorin (FULV) therapy (FULV plus oxaliplatin [FLOX]) is superior to FULV in improving disease-free survival (DFS), but not overall survival (OS), but in patients younger than 70 years, oxaliplatin improves OS, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Loss of Jobs Means Loss of Health Coverage for Many in U.S.

MONDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- For American adults who lose their health insurance coverage when they lose their jobs, the majority remain uninsured, delay getting needed health care or prescriptions, and report financial difficulties paying medical bills, according to a report published online Aug. 24 by The Commonwealth Fund.

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Extended-Release Opioid Pain Medication Approved

FRIDAY, Aug. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Nucynta ER (tapentadol extended release) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat moderate-to-severe chronic pain in adults, maker Janssen Pharmaceuticals said.

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ACOG Guidelines Issued for Thromboembolism in Pregnancy

FRIDAY, Aug. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism, which can be prevented, diagnosed, and managed according to clinical guidelines published in the September issue of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

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Substantial Chemo Exposure Rates Among Oncology Nurses

FRIDAY, Aug. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Oncology nurses practicing outside of hospital inpatient units report considerable rates of chemotherapy exposure to skin and eyes, which are lowered with adequate staffing and resources, and adherence to recognized practice standards, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in BMJ Quality & Safety.

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Clinical, Lab Variables Predict Survival in Advanced CA

FRIDAY, Aug. 26 (HealthDay News) -- A combination of clinical and laboratory variables can effectively predict two-week and two-month survival in patients with advanced cancer who are no longer being treated, according to a study published online Aug. 25 in the BMJ.

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Complementary Medicine Used More by Health Care Workers

FRIDAY, Aug. 26 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. health care workers, especially health care providers, are more likely to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) than the general, employed U.S. population, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in Health Services Research.

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Pharmaceutical Ads Often Don't Adhere to U.S. FDA Guidelines

THURSDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Physician-targeting pharmaceutical advertisements have low rates of adherence to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and provide inadequate information for safe prescribing, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in PLoS One.

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HPV Test Beats Cytology-Alone in Cervical Cancer Screening

THURSDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for HPV16 and HPV18 strains may be an alternative and more efficient screening method for cervical cancer than liquid-based cytology alone; and bivalent HPV16 and 18 vaccine protects against anal HPV infection, according to two studies published online Aug. 22 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Dual Targeting Approach Reduces Tumor Volume in Rats

THURSDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- A dual targeting approach, using combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P)-induced necrosis and iodine 131 radiolabeled necrosis-avid agent hypericin (131I-hypericin), successfully reduces tumor volume and increases tumor doubling time (TDT) in rats with liver rhabdomyosarcomas, according to an experimental study published in the September issue of Radiology.

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Radiotherapy Ups Lymph Node-Positive Gastric Cancer Survival

THURSDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Both preoperative radiotherapy (Pre-RT) and postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) are associated with a survival benefit for patients with lymph node-positive gastric cancer, according to a study published in the September issue of Cancer.

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Stereotactic Radiotherapy Treats Colorectal Liver Mets

THURSDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Stereotactic body radiotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for colorectal liver metastases, with a strong association between local control and overall survival even for heavily pretreated patients, according to a study published in the September 1 Cancer.

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Olaparib Promising Option for Ovarian Cancer Treatment

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment with olaparib offers a promising therapeutic option for patients with ovarian cancer, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Six Factors Impact Survival in Elderly Asians With Cancer

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Six domains of comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) including age, albumin level, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, geriatric depression scale (GDS) status, malnutrition risk, and disease stage are important predictors of overall survival (OS) in elderly Asian patients with cancer, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Hospitalization Ups Unintentional Discontinuation of Meds

TUESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with unintentional discontinuation of medication for chronic diseases, according to a study published online Aug. 23 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Drinkers, Smokers Less Likely to Adhere to Chemoprevention

TUESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Women at high risk of breast cancer who drink alcohol each day are less likely to adhere fully to chemoprevention at one month, and cigarette smokers are less likely to adhere adequately at 36 months, according to a study published online Aug. 23 in Cancer Prevention Research.

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Incidental Screening Has No Impact on Adrenocortical CA

TUESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Detection rates and clinical outcomes in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) show no improvement due to incidental screening resulting from scans done for other purposes, according to a study published in the September issue of The Journal of Urology.

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Predictor of Recurrence-Free Survival in Breast Cancer ID'ed

TUESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with postmenopausal breast cancer, elevated pre-treatment serum beta C-terminal telopeptide (B-CTx) levels are significantly associated with shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) for bone-only metastases, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Allan Lipton, M.D., from the Penn State Hershey Medical Center in Pennsylvania, and colleagues investigated the association of bone-only relapse with pretreatment serum B-CTx of type 1 collagen in 621 patients with primary breast cancer, enrolled in a phase III adjuvant trial of tamoxifen with or without octreotide. Continuous or categorical serum B-CTx was analyzed (0.71 ng/mL cut point) in a stepwise forward multivariate Cox regression model, and adjusted for trial stratification factors. B-CTx and bone-relapse were examined by pretrial chemotherapy status. Participants were followed up for an average of 7.9 years. Bone-only relapse and RFS were primary and secondary endpoints, respectively.

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Dual Hepatitis B, C Infection Ups Lifetime HCC Risk

TUESDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- The individual and combined effects of HBV and HCV on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vary according to age and gender, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Five Strategies Suggested to Reduce HCC Recurrence

MONDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence in patients who have undergone liver transplantation may be reduced by following potential strategies in five steps before and after transplant surgery, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in the American Journal of Transplantation.

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Distinct Features ID'd in Nasal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

MONDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Nasal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has distinct clinical features and factors affecting prognosis, according to a study published online Aug. 11 in Cancer.

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Follow-Up Time Affects Age-Related CA Survival Difference

MONDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- The relative survival of children and adults with medulloblastomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) is affected by the length of follow-up, with adults having a worse prognosis four years after diagnosis, according to a study published online Aug. 11 in Cancer.

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Dalteparin Sodium Effective, Safe in Upper-Extremity DVT

MONDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with upper-extremity deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) may be treated safely with either dalteparin sodium followed by warfarin or dalteparin sodium monotherapy for three months with a successful outcome, according to a study published online Aug. 12 in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

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Polymorphisms Tied to Smoking Behavior Up Lung Cancer Risk

MONDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Genetic variations in the CYP2A6 and CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 (CHRNA5-A3-B4) genes are together associated with an increase in cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence, and can independently and additively increase lung cancer risk, according to a study published online July 11 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Adcetris Approved to Treat Lymphomas

FRIDAY, Aug. 19 (HealthDay News) -- A new treatment called Adcetris (brentuximab vedotin) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and a rare type of lymphatic-system cancer called systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL).

this approval

Pre-Surgery Factor VIII in Hemophilia A Ups Inhibitor Risk

FRIDAY, Aug. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with hemophilia A treated with intensive factor VIII (FVIII) treatment for surgery at first exposure are at an increased risk of developing inhibiting antibodies toward FVIII (inhibitors), as compared to those treated for bleeding and given prophylactic FVIII, according to a review published online Aug. 12 in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

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Sarcoma Characteristics ID'd in TP53 Mutation Carriers

FRIDAY, Aug. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with a TP53 germline mutation have an increased risk of developing sarcoma, which depends on the type of mutation, with rhabdomyosarcoma more likely before 5 years of age, osteosarcoma developing in carriers at any age, and leiomyosarcoma occurring after 20 years of age, according to a study published online Aug. 11 in Cancer.

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CDC: 2010/2011 Flu Vaccination Coverage Studied

THURSDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza vaccination coverage among health care personnel (HCP) and pregnant women in the 2010/2011 influenza season was similar to coverage for the 2009/2010 season, according to two reports in the Aug. 19 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Sniffer Dogs May Be Used to Detect Lung Cancer

THURSDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Sniffer dogs may be used for the early detection of lung cancer, according to a study published online Aug. 18 in the European Respiratory Journal.

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High Cumulative Malpractice Risk for All Physicians

THURSDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians in all specialties have a high cumulative risk of facing a malpractice claim by age 65; although most claims do not lead to indemnity payments, according to a study published in the Aug. 18 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Mesothelin Antibodies ID Ovarian Cancer Risk in Infertile

THURSDAY, Aug. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Antibodies to mesothelin, a well characterized ovarian cancer antigen, are significantly more frequent in women with increased epidemiologic risk for ovarian cancer, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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New Drug Approved for Advanced Skin Cancer

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Zelboraf (vemurafenib) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat a certain form of metastatic (spreading) melanoma, or cases that cannot be removed surgically, the agency said Wednesday.

this approval

High Vitamin D Levels Up Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Risk

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Higher baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels are significantly and positively associated with an increased risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), according to a study published online Aug. 15 in the Archives of Dermatology.

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New Study Links Smoking to Higher Bladder Cancer Risk

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- The relative risk for bladder cancer from tobacco smoking is higher than reported in previous studies, with population attributable risks (PARs) for women comparable to those for men, according to a study published Aug. 17 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Large Variation in Reoperation Rate After Colorectal Surgery

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Reoperation rates after colorectal surgery vary significantly between hospitals and among surgeons in England, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in BMJ.

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AdV-tk Plus Valacyclovir Safe in New Malignant Gliomas

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- The administration of an adenoviral vector containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (AdV-tk), plus valacyclovir, is safe and can be delivered with surgery and accelerated radiation in patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Parity, Breastfeeding Tied to ER/PR Breast Cancer Risk

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Higher parity is associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative/progesterone receptor (PR)-negative (ER/PR) breast cancer in African-American women, but breastfeeding ameliorates this adverse effect, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Coronary Stents and Peri-Op Antiplatelet Drug Use Reviewed

TUESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- In patients on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) undergoing non-cardiac surgery (NCS) within one year of coronary stenting, APT withdrawal should be decided after assessing the risk of perioperative bleeding and cardiac ischemic events, particularly stent thrombosis (ST), according to a review published online Aug. 5 in the Journal of Thrombosis & Haemostatis.

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Five SNPs Validated As Linked to Lethal Prostate Cancer

TUESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes have been validated as being significantly associated with lethal prostate cancer, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

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Radioactive Iodine for Thyroid Cancer Rises From 1999 to 2008

TUESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- The proportion of patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer receiving radioactive iodine following a total thyroidectomy increased significantly from 1999 to 2008, with much of the variation in use associated with hospital characteristics, according to a study published in the Aug. 17 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Bevacizumab, Chemo Beneficial in Advanced Gastric Cancer

TUESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- The addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy is linked to improved progression-free survival and overall response rate in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Early Neurolysis Reduces Pain in Inoperable Pancreatic CA

TUESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Early endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) is associated with reduced pain and may decrease morphine consumption in patients with painful, inoperable pancreatic adenocarcinoma, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Model Estimates Neutron Leak From Japanese Nuclear Plant

TUESDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- A model based on measurements of radioactive 35S in sulfate aerosols and SO2 gas estimates that 35SO42− concentrations at the Fukushima marine boundary are around 365 times higher than normal, and that the radioactive sulphate reached Southern California, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Quality Indicators Developed for Children With Sickle Cell

MONDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- A set of 41 quality-of-care indicators, which can measure and improve care among children with sickle cell disease (SCD), has been developed by an expert panel, according to a study published online Aug. 15 in Pediatrics.

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Distance Caregivers Face Lack of Communication, Control

MONDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Lack of communication and control are the major issues that distance caregivers of patients with advance cancer experience, according to a study published in the May issue of the Oncology Nursing Forum.

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Biofield Healing Tied to Less Fatigue for Cancer Survivors

MONDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Biofield healing is associated with a significant reduction in fatigue and cortisol slope in breast cancer survivors, independently of belief, according to a study published online Aug. 5 in Cancer.

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Unrealistic Functional Expectations Post-Prostatectomy

FRIDAY, Aug. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Many men have unrealistic expectations of their urinary and sexual function following prostatectomy, according to a study published in the August issue of The Journal of Urology.

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miR-200s Target Sec23a to Promote Breast CA Metastasis

FRIDAY, Aug. 12 (HealthDay News) -- A new role has been suggested for micro-RNA (miR)-200s in breast cancer metastasis, involving suppression of Sec23a, thereby inhibiting Sec23a-dependent regulation of tumor secretome, according to an experimental study published online Aug. 7 in Nature Medicine.

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Trastuzumab Ups Cardiotoxicity Risk in Some Elderly Women

FRIDAY, Aug. 12 (HealthDay News) -- In elderly women with breast cancer and a history of cardiac disease or diabetes, treatment with trastuzumab is associated with an increased risk of cardiotoxicity, according to a study published online Aug. 9 in the Annals of Oncology.

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Pillar Formation Mechanism ID'd in Intussusceptive Angiogenesis

THURSDAY, Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- A simple mechanism, coined 'inverse sprouting,' is suggested for pillar formation, generating a connection between the processes of endothelial bridging and intussusceptive angiogenesis, according to an experimental study published online Aug. 10 in The American Journal of Pathology.

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Chimeric Receptor-Modified T-Cells Show Potential in CLL

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Autologous T-cells expressing an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CART19) have the potential for in vivo proliferation, and long-term persistence in patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL), according to a study published online Aug. 10 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Higher Diagnostic Blood Loss Tied to Higher Anemia Risk

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Increased blood loss from diagnostic phlebotomy increases the risk for moderate to severe hospital-acquired anemia (HAA) among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), according to a study published online Aug. 8 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Most Colostomies After Anal Cancer Therapy Tumor Related

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Most colostomies performed following radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer are tumor related, with one-third therapy related, according to a study published online Aug. 8 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Chromosome 19q, 1p Mutations ID'd in Oligodendrogliomas

TUESDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Somatic mutation of the homolog of the Drosophila gene capicua (CIC) on chromosome 19q and of far upstream element binding protein (FUBP1) on chromosome 1p have been identified in a considerable fraction of oligodendrogliomas in adults, according to a study published online Aug. 4 in Science.

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Training Improves Oncologists' Communication Skills

TUESDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Oncologists who participated in COM-ON-p (concise and individualized communication skills training [CST]), have significantly improved communication skills during consultations with patients with cancer, according to a study published online Aug. 8 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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V600E BRAF Mutations Indicate Poor Prognosis in NSCLC

TUESDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), V600E BRAF mutations are more common in women and are associated with aggressive tumor histology and poor prognosis, according to a study published online Aug. 8 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Doublet Chemo Improves Survival in Elderly With NSCLC

TUESDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Despite more toxic effects, doublet chemotherapy with carboplatin and weekly paclitaxel is associated with significantly higher survival benefits than monotheraphy with either vinorelbine or gemcitabine in elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to a study published online Aug. 9 in The Lancet.

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Short Time to First Cigarette Ups Head and Neck Cancer Risk

MONDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking the first cigarette of the day within 60 minutes of waking increases the risk of head and neck cancer and of lung cancer, according to two studies published online Aug. 8 in Cancer.

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Cost of Interacting With Payers Higher in U.S. Than Canada

FRIDAY, Aug. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Physician practices in the United States spend considerably more on interactions with health plans than Canadian practices, according to a study published in the August issue of Health Affairs.

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Fusion Transcript, PCA3 in Urine Predict Prostate Cancer Risk

FRIDAY, Aug. 5 (HealthDay News) -- A urine test that detects the presence of a fusion transcript of transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian) (ERG) genes can predict the risk of prostate cancer in men with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), according to a study published in the Aug. 3 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Intrinsic Subtypes of Gastric Cancer Linked to Survival

THURSDAY, Aug. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Intrinsic subtypes of gastric cancer (GC) with distinct gene expression patterns are correlated with patient survival and response to chemotherapy, according to a study published in the August issue of Gastroenterology.

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Horse ATG Superior to Rabbit ATG for Severe Aplastic Anemia

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with severe aplastic anemia, rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine is inferior to horse ATG and cyclosporine as a first-line treatment, according to a study published in the Aug. 4 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Prognostic Value of p53 in Early Urothelial Cancers Unconfirmed

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with pT1/T2N0M0 urothelial bladder cancer, the predictive value of p53 and the benefit of methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC) adjuvant chemotherapy could not be demonstrated, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Functional Gene Profiling IDs Breast CA Therapeutic Targets

TUESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- The large-scale functional profiling of genes validates established targets for breast cancer therapy and identifies potential new therapeutic targets, including those for PTEN-mutated and estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers, according to a study published online Aug. 2 in Cancer Discovery.

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Cetuximab Effective, Safe for Squamous Cell Skin Carcinoma

TUESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCCS), first-line treatment with single-agent cetuximab has an overall disease control rate (DCR) of 69 percent, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Bortezomib Combo Effective in Advanced Follicular Lymphoma

TUESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Bortezomib, given in combination with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (BR-CVP), is feasible for treating patients with advanced-stage follicular lymphoma (FL), and the combination of bortezomib, bendamustine, and rituximab is active in patients with FL who have received previous treatment, according to two studies published online Aug. 1 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Subset of Regulatory T Cells Suppresses Germinal Center

MONDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- A subset of regulatory Foxp3+ T cells (T-reg), which express CXCR5 and Bcl-6, localizes to the germinal center in mice and humans and may inhibit germinal center reactions, according to an experimental study published online July 24 in Nature Medicine.

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Tamoxifen Chemoprophylaxis Offers Cost-Effective Benefits

MONDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Tamoxifen chemoprophylaxis is a cost-effective policy which reduces breast cancer incidence, and improves life expectancy for postmenopausal women younger than 55 years, following active treatment, according to a study published in the Aug. 1 issue of Cancer.

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CA 19-9, Ultrasound Feasible for Pancreatic Cancer Detection

MONDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Screening for tumor marker CA 19-9 followed by targeted endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) when the level is elevated represents a feasible approach for identifying early pancreatic adenocarcinoma in a high-risk population, according to a study published in the July issue of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

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Higher Breast Density Tied to Higher Breast Cancer Risk

MONDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Increased breast densities are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, especially in tumors with more aggressive characteristics, and in in-situ tumors, according to a study published online July 27 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Editorial

Alternative DHT Synthesis Pathway Key in Prostate Cancer

MONDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) synthesis from adrenal precursor steroids in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) bypasses testosterone synthesis, and occurs through an alternative pathway involving conversion of Δ4-androstenedione (AD) to 5α-androstanedione (5α-dione) by 5α-reductase isoenzyme-1 (SRD5A1), according to an experimental study published online July 27 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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