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Category: Infections | Monthly Briefing

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October 2011 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Last Updated: November 01, 2011.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for October 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Switching From IV to Oral Meds Cuts Health Care Costs

MONDAY, Oct. 31 (HealthDay News) -- For patients who are clinically eligible for oral (PO) medication intake, switching from intravenous (IV) to oral medication can substantially reduce the annual cost of health care, according to a study published online Oct. 17 in Clinical Therapeutics.

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SNPs on C21orf91 Linked to Cold Sore Susceptibility

FRIDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on a gene on chromosome 21 (C21orf91) are associated with herpes simplex labialis (HSL), according to a study published online Oct. 28 in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

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CDC to Discontinue Provision of Botulinum Toxoid Vaccine

THURSDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will stop providing botulinum toxoid (PBT) for the vaccination of people whose occupations put them at risk for exposure to botulinum serotypes A, B, C, D, and E, according to a report published in the Oct. 28 issue of the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Obesity Tied to Impaired Immunity After Flu Vaccine

THURSDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Obese individuals have reduced levels of influenza antibody titers and decreased CD8+ T-cell responses 12 months after influenza vaccination, according to a study published online Oct. 25 in the International Journal of Obesity.

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Ghost Authorship Prevalent in About One-Fifth of Articles

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of articles with honorary authorship, ghost authorship, or both is 21 percent, which marks a significant decrease since 1996, according to a study published online Oct. 25 in BMJ.

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Evidence Suggests Variable Effectiveness for Flu Vaccine

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza vaccines provide variable effectiveness and efficacy in young children and adults, according to a study published online Oct. 26 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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CDC Recommends HPV Vaccination in Males

TUESDAY, Oct. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Young males should receive routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), according to a recommendation announced Oct. 25 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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FDA: Xigris Pulled From Global Market

TUESDAY, Oct. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Xigris (drotrecogin alfa [activated]), used in the treatment of patients with severe sepsis, is being voluntarily pulled from the market by its manufacturer, Eli Lilly and Company, after failing to show a survival benefit in these patients, according to a drug safety notification issued Oct. 25 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

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New Estimates of Rotavirus-Attributable Diarrhea Mortality

TUESDAY, Oct. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Worldwide in 2008, 453,000 deaths in children younger than 5 years old resulted from diarrhea attributable to rotavirus, according to a meta-analysis published online Oct. 25 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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HPV Infection, Cardiovascular Disease in Women Linked

MONDAY, Oct. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women, especially tumor-associated oncogenic HPV, is correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to a study published in the Nov. 1 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Tdap Vaccinations Recommended for Families With Newborns

THURSDAY, Oct. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Infants 2 years old and younger cannot be vaccinated against pertussis, so other strategies are needed to protect this age group from the potentially fatal condition; therefore, tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) booster vaccines are being recommended for those who have close contact with infants, according to a report published in the Oct. 21 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Early Initiation of ART After TB Treatment Ups Survival

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 19 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with HIV and tuberculosis, initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) early after starting tuberculosis treatment improves survival in those with CD4+ T-cell counts of less than 50/mm³, according to three studies published in the Oct. 20 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Readmission Risk Models Display Poor Predictive Ability

TUESDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Most hospital readmission risk models have poor predictive ability, according to a review published in the Oct. 19 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Vaccine Shows Promise in Preventing Malaria

TUESDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- An anti-malaria vaccine undergoing rigorous testing in seven African countries appears to be effective against the mosquito-born illness, according to the preliminary results of a phase 3 trial published online Oct. 18 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Rare Disorders ID'd by NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program

THURSDAY, Oct. 13 (HealthDay News) -- The extensive application of genomic technology under the U.S. National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH-UDP) helps diagnose complex and rare multisystem disorders, according to a report published online Sept. 26 in Genetics in Medicine.

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Vitamin D Dependent Pathway Key in Immunity Against TB

THURSDAY, Oct. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) released by T cells induces multiple macrophage responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in in a vitamin D-dependent pathway, according to a study published in the Oct. 12 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Teen Sexual Activity Unchanged, but Condom Use Up Slightly

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Sexual activity, contraceptive use, and sexual experiences in teenagers were similar in 2002 and in 2006-2010, according to a study published online Oct. 12 in the Vital and Health Statistics Series.

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Flu Vaccine With Adjuvant MF59 Efficacious in Infants

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Administration of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) with the oil-in-water-based adjuvant MF59 is efficacious against confirmed influenza in young children and infants, according to a study published in the Oct. 13 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Financial Conflicts of Interest Prevalent, Under-Reported

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Conflicts of interest (COI) are prevalent among members and chairs of guideline panels, and are under-reported, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in BMJ.

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High Yield of Viral Diagnoses for RT-PCR in Respiratory Infection

TUESDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing has a high yield of viral diagnoses, but rapid communication of results to clinicians has no positive impact on hospital admissions, length of hospital stay, or duration of antibiotic use for children with acute respiratory infections (ARI), according to a study published online Oct. 10 in Pediatrics.

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Septicemia Most Costly Reason for Hospitalization in 2009

MONDAY, Oct. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Septicemia was the single most expensive condition treated in U.S. hospitals in 2009, with expenditure totaling nearly $15.4 billion, according to an October statistical brief based on Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) data published by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).

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Improved Virologic Response After Triple Class Failure in HIV

MONDAY, Oct. 10 (HealthDay News) -- There has been a considerable improvement in viral load suppression and a decrease in the rate of AIDS for patients with HIV who had triple-class virological failure (TCVF) with the three original classes of antiretroviral drugs between 2000 and 2009, according to a study published online Oct. 10 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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One Peds Dose of H1N1 Vaccine Prevents Child Hospitalizations

MONDAY, Oct. 10 (HealthDay News) -- A single pediatric dose of the AS03-adjuvanted vaccine against pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) in children aged 6 months to 9 years confers substantial protection against influenza-related hospitalization beginning 10 days after vaccination, according to a study published online Oct. 10 in Pediatrics.

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Recurrent Child UTIs Rarely Cause Chronic Kidney Disease

MONDAY, Oct. 10 (HealthDay News) -- The etiologic fraction of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) as the main cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is very small, according to a study published online Oct. 10 in Pediatrics.

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Racial Disparity Persists in Nursing Home Flu Shot Rates

FRIDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- The rate of flu vaccination in nursing homes improved from 2006 to 2009, particularly for blacks, but they remain less likely to receive and more likely to refuse vaccination than white residents, according to a study published in the October issue of Health Affairs.

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More Minority Patients in Low-Quality, High-Cost Hospitals

THURSDAY, Oct. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Hospitals where the quality is low and costs high (worst hospitals) in the United States care for a higher proportion of elderly black, Hispanic, and Medicaid patients than high-quality, low-cost institutions (best hospitals), according to a study published in the October issue of Health Affairs.

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Oral Acyclovir Improves Outcomes in Neonatal Herpes

THURSDAY, Oct. 6 (HealthDay News) -- The neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates with herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and central nervous system (CNS) involvement improve with six months of acyclovir suppressive therapy, according to a study published in the Oct. 6 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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CDC: I221V Mutation ID'd in North Carolina Influenza B Virus

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza B viruses carrying the I221V mutation, which have reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir, have been identified in North Carolina, according to a study published in the November issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Model Projects Smoking Will Up TB Cases, Deaths by 2050

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Assuming that current smoking trends will continue, it is estimated that tobacco smoking will cause 18 million tuberculosis cases and 40 million deaths from tuberculosis worldwide from 2010 to 2050, according to a study published online Oct. 4 in BMJ.

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Membrane Oxygenation Reduces Mortality in H1N1-Related ARDS

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with H1N1-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), referral and transfer to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) center is associated with lower hospital mortality, according to a study published online Oct. 5 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Advance Directives Linked to Regional Medical Expenditures

TUESDAY, Oct. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Advance directives (living wills) specifying limitations in end-of-life care are associated with significantly lower levels of Medicare spending, lower likelihood of in-hospital death, and higher use of hospice care during the last six months of life for patients living in regions with high medical expenditures but not in other regions, according to a study published in the Oct. 5 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Hormonal Contraceptives May Up HIV-1 Acquisition by Women

TUESDAY, Oct. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Use of hormonal contraceptives is associated with an increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition by women, and an increased risk of HIV-1 transmission from HIV-infected women to HIV-1 seronegative men, according to a study published online Oct. 4 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Prior DNA Priming Ups Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness

TUESDAY, Oct. 4 (HealthDay News) -- H5-DNA priming 24 weeks prior to H5N1 monovalent inactivated vaccine (MIV) is safe, enhances H5-specific antibody titers, and induces protective hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers, according to a study published online Oct. 4 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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HPV 16 Diagnostic Tests Vary in Accuracy, Prognostic Value

TUESDAY, Oct. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Diagnostic tests for human papillomavirus-16 (HPV16) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) differ in accuracy and prognostic value, with a combination of p16 immunohistochemistry (p16 IHC) and DNA quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) proving to be the best discriminator of favorable outcome, according to a study published in the Oct. 1 issue of Clinical Cancer Research.

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Recent Rise in Oropharyngeal Cancer Incidence Due to HPV

MONDAY, Oct. 3 (HealthDay News) -- The recent increase in population-level incidence and survival of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) in the United States from 1984 to 2004 is due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, according to a study published online Oct. 3 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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About One in 10 Parents Use Alternate Vaccination Schedule

MONDAY, Oct. 3 (HealthDay News) -- More than 10 percent of parents of young children follow an alternative vaccination schedule for their child, and approximately a quarter of parents think delaying vaccines is safer or disagree with the recommended schedule, according to a study published online Oct. 3 in Pediatrics.

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