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Category: Neurology | Monthly Briefing

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October 2011 Briefing - Neurology

Last Updated: November 01, 2011.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Neurology for October 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Preexisting Dementia in Stroke Patients Ups Disability

MONDAY, Oct. 31 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with stroke, preexisting dementia is associated with increased disability at discharge and lower likelihood of being discharged to prestroke domicile, according to a study published in the Nov. 1 issue of Neurology.

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Switching From IV to Oral Meds Cuts Health Care Costs

MONDAY, Oct. 31 (HealthDay News) -- For patients who are clinically eligible for oral (PO) medication intake, switching from intravenous (IV) to oral medication can substantially reduce the annual cost of health care, according to a study published online Oct. 17 in Clinical Therapeutics.

Abstract
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Disc Herniation Symptom Duration Tied to Outcome

MONDAY, Oct. 31 (HealthDay News) -- Longer pretreatment symptom duration from lumbar disc herniation is associated with poorer outcomes after both surgical and nonsurgical intervention, according to a study published in the Oct. 19 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

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Complete Remission for Many With Nonsyndromic Epilepsy

MONDAY, Oct. 31 (HealthDay News) -- More than half of young patients with nonsyndromic epilepsy (NSE) undergo complete remission, which usually persists, according to a study published in the October issue of the Annals of Neurology.

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Brain Transcriptome Reveals Gender-Biased Gene Expression

FRIDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Generation and analysis of an exon-level transcriptome of the human brain and associated genotyping data shows that the transcriptome is organized into different coexpression networks, and shows gender-biased gene expression and exon usage, according to a study published in the Oct. 27 issue of Nature.

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Weight Loss in Obese Tied to Low-Order Cognitive Upturn

FRIDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Weight loss in obese individuals is associated with low-order significant improvements in executive/attention functioning and memory, according to a meta-analysis published in the November issue of Obesity Reviews.

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Nonclinical Factors Impact Back Pain Treatment Decisions

FRIDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Nonclinical factors, including gender, socioeconomic status, and patient presentation, influence physicians' treatment recommendations for acute nonspecific low back pain, with patient presentation the most influential factor, according to a study published in the Nov. 1 issue of Spine.

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Low Income, Less Health Care Spending Ups Stroke Incidence

THURSDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Lower per-capita gross domestic product and lower total health expenditure per capita are associated with increased stroke incidence, according to a study published online Oct. 27 in Stroke.

Abstract
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Cannabinoid Receptor Tied to Cognitive Chaos

THURSDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Disrupted temporal coordination of hippocampal and medial prefrontal cortical networks (mPFC) due to systemic activation of the cannabinoid receptor is associated with impaired accuracy during working-memory task performance in rats, according to an experimental study published in the Oct. 26 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience.

Abstract
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Bedside Geriatric Assessment Feasible in Elderly With AML

THURSDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Inpatient bedside geriatric assessment (GA) is feasible, and is useful for identifying multiple geriatric impairments in elderly patients initiating chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), according to a study published in the October issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

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Gene Variation Tied to Rate of Age-Related Mental Decline

THURSDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- A valine-to-methionine substitution at position 66 (val66met) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with the rate of decline in skilled task performance and age-dependent hippocampal volume changes in middle-aged and older healthy individuals, according to a study published online Oct. 25 in Translational Psychiatry.

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Bedtime Medications Offer Better BP Control in CKD

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), taking at least one hypertension medication at bedtime results in better blood pressure (BP) control compared to morning medication, according to a study published online Oct. 24 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

Abstract
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Yoga As Effective As Stretching for Chronic Low Back Pain

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- For primary care patients with chronic low back pain, yoga is as effective as conventional stretching exercises and more effective than a self-care book for improving function and reducing symptoms, according to a study published online Oct. 24 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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Ghost Authorship Prevalent in About One-Fifth of Articles

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of articles with honorary authorship, ghost authorship, or both is 21 percent, which marks a significant decrease since 1996, according to a study published online Oct. 25 in BMJ.

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Traumatic Brain Injury Lowers Children's Quality of Life

TUESDAY, Oct. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Children with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and children with mild TBI with an intracranial hemorrhage have a considerable reduction in their quality of life, according to a study published online Oct. 24 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Onfi Approved to Treat Severe Seizures

MONDAY, Oct. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Onfi (clobazam) tablets have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as an add-on treatment for severe seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in people 2 years and older, the agency said Monday in a news release.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Insomnia Moderately Raises Risk of Myocardial Infarction

MONDAY, Oct. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Insomnia symptoms are associated with a moderate increase in the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), according to a study published online Oct. 24 in Circulation.

Abstract
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Ultrasound, Shock Wave Not Effective for Low Back Pain

FRIDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- The available evidence does not support the effectiveness of ultrasound or shock wave for treating low back pain (LBP), according to a review published in the October issue of The Spine Journal.

Abstract
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Dopamine Polymorphisms Tied to Methylphenidate Response

FRIDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) polymorphisms may be correlated with dose-response variability to methylphenidate (MPH) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a study published online Sept. 19 in the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.

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No Link Found Between Cell Phone Use and Cancer

FRIDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- In what may be the largest study to date evaluating cancer risk in cell phone subscribers, Danish researchers have found no evidence of increased central nervous system tumor rates in long-term holders of cell phone subscriptions; their findings have been published online Oct. 20 in BMJ.

Abstract
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Social Network Size Associated With Brain Structure

THURSDAY, Oct. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The size of a person's online social network is associated with the gray matter density of specific regions in the brain, and these regions are specific to Web-based networks rather than real-world social networks, according to a study published online Oct. 19 in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Abstract
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IBD Increases Risk of Post-Op Thromboembolism

THURSDAY, Oct. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), with a higher risk in those undergoing nonintestinal surgery, according to a study published online Oct. 17 in the Archives of Surgery.

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3-D CT Useful for Classification of Ligament Ossification

THURSDAY, Oct. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Use of three-dimensional computed tomography (3-D CT) to visualize ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) can aid with classification of lesions, according to a study published in the October issue of The Spine Journal.

Abstract
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Adolescent IQ Changes Tied to Alterations in Brain Structure

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Verbal and non-verbal intelligence in adolescence changes with corresponding structural and functional alterations in speech and motor-related regions of the brain, according to a letter published online Oct. 19 in Nature.

Abstract
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Readmission Risk Models Display Poor Predictive Ability

TUESDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Most hospital readmission risk models have poor predictive ability, according to a review published in the Oct. 19 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Shift Work Tied to Increased Multiple Sclerosis Risk

TUESDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Working shifts, particularly before the age of 20 years, is associated with increased occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a review published online Oct. 17 in the Annals of Neurology.

Abstract
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Topotecan Induction Feasible for High-Risk Neuroblastoma

TUESDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Addition of dose-intensive topotecan and cyclophosphamide to induction therapy is feasible for patients with newly diagnosed high-risk neuroblastoma (HRNB), according to a study published online Oct. 17 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Abstract
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Editorial

Exercise Shows Potential for Migraine Prophylaxis

MONDAY, Oct. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Exercising for 40 minutes three times a week shows similar efficacy for preventing migraines as topiramate, or relaxation, according to a study published in the October issue of Cephalalgia.

Abstract
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Marker IDs Injury in Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

MONDAY, Oct. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with whole-body cooling have increased serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) during the first week of life, which may be predictive of brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), according to a study published in the September issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Autism More Prevalent in Low Birth Weight Individuals

MONDAY, Oct. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Low birth weight (LBW) has been considered a risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and the results of a new prospective study suggest ASDs are indeed more prevalent in people born at low birth weights; the findings have been published online Oct. 17 in Pediatrics.

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Aspirin Response in Acute Coronary Syndrome Up Post PCI

FRIDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- The laboratory response to aspirin improves significantly in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and clopidogrel loading, and correlates with improved clinical outcomes, according to a study published in the Oct. 15 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.

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Hypoglycemic Brain Function Different in Type 1 Diabetes

FRIDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- During hypoglycemia, patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who perform a working-memory task (WMT) have more activation of brain regions and less deactivation of the default-mode network (DMN) than control subjects, according to a study published online Oct. 7 in Diabetes.

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Halo Immobilization Superior to Fusion for C2 Fractures

FRIDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with C2 fractures, treatment with fusion is associated with increased overall complication rates, increased length of stay, and greater resource utilization compared to halo-vest immobilization, but mortality rates are similar for the two procedures, according to a study published online Sept. 30 in Spine.

Abstract
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Patients Remain Seizure-Free Long After Epilepsy Surgery

FRIDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Approximately half of patients with refractory focal epilepsy who undergo surgery remain seizure-free in the long term following epilepsy surgery, with seizure recurrence varying with the type of surgery, according to a study published in the Oct. 15 issue of The Lancet.

Abstract
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Same Cognition With Cerebral Perfusion, Hypothermic Arrest

FRIDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- For patients undergoing pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) confers no additional benefits over deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) for improving cognitive function, according to a study published in the Oct. 15 issue of The Lancet.

Abstract
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Serum N-Acetylaspartate Level Potential Biomarker in ALS

THURSDAY, Oct. 13 (HealthDay News) -- The level of serum N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is significantly higher in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) than healthy individuals, according to a study published in the October issue of the Archives of Neurology.

Abstract
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Rare Disorders ID'd by NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program

THURSDAY, Oct. 13 (HealthDay News) -- The extensive application of genomic technology under the U.S. National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH-UDP) helps diagnose complex and rare multisystem disorders, according to a report published online Sept. 26 in Genetics in Medicine.

Abstract
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Cerebral Cortical Growth Predicts Cognitive Function

THURSDAY, Oct. 13 (HealthDay News) -- After preterm birth, perinatal cortical growth between 24 to 44 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA) is associated with global cognitive, but not motor functions in later childhood, according to a study published online Oct. 12 in Neurology.

Abstract
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One in Five With Cerebral Glioma Develops Depression

THURSDAY, Oct. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Approximately 20 percent of patients with cerebral glioma have major depressive disorder (MDD) in the six months after starting radiotherapy, with a previous history of functional impairment or depression predicting MDD, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Abstract
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Polytherapy With Valproate Ups Fetal Malformation Risk

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of malformations among infants born to women exposed to antiepileptic drug (AED) polytherapy with carbamazepine or lamotrigine in their first trimester is significantly higher than the risk for those treated with the corresponding monotherapies, but only when valproate is included in the polytherapy, according to a study published in the October issue of the Archives of Neurology.

Abstract
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Multidisciplinary Intervention Ups Outcomes in Acute Stroke

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Stroke patients who receive a multidisciplinary intervention targeting management of fever, hyperglycemia, and swallowing dysfunction are less likely to be dead or dependent at 90 days and more likely to have better physical functioning, according to a study published online Oct. 12 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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Financial Conflicts of Interest Prevalent, Under-Reported

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Conflicts of interest (COI) are prevalent among members and chairs of guideline panels, and are under-reported, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in BMJ.

Abstract
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Bicycle Sign Aids Differential Diagnosis of Parkinsonism

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- The bicycle sign may be useful in differentiating atypical parkinsonism (AP) from Parkinson's disease (PD) in a hilly country like Japan, with the majority of patients with AP ceasing to ride a bicycle around the time of disease onset, according to a study published online Oct. 4 in the Journal of Parkinson's Disease.

Abstract
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Prenatal Folic Acid Cuts Severe Language Delay in Offspring

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal use of prenatal folic acid supplementation before conception and in early pregnancy is correlated with a reduced risk of severe language delay in offspring at age 3 years, according to a study published in the Oct. 12 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Gantenerumab Lowers Brain Amyloid Levels in Alzheimer's

TUESDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Gantenerumab therapy induces dose-dependent reduction of brain amyloid levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly by phagocytosis, according to a study published online Oct. 10 in the Archives of Neurology.

Abstract
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Physical Activity Cuts Mortality Risk in Metabolic Syndrome

TUESDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- For individuals with metabolic syndrome, physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular causes, according to a study published online Sept. 29 in BMC Medicine.

Abstract
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Good Long-Term Outcomes With Selective Thoracic Fusion

TUESDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Selective thoracic fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) yields long-term stable spinal balance and lumbar curve correction, with outcome measures comparable to long instrumented fusion, according to a study published online Sept. 30 in Spine.

Abstract
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Glycemic Extremes Affect Brain Development in Type 1 Diabetes

TUESDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), more exposure to hyperglycemia is associated with a decrease in whole brain gray matter, and severe hypoglycemia is associated with greater decreases in occipital/parietal white matter volume, according to a study published online Sept. 27 in Diabetes.

Abstract
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Leg Crossing After Stroke Indicates Favorable Outcomes

MONDAY, Oct. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Early leg crossing after severe stroke is a favorable prognostic marker associated with better clinical outcomes, according to a study published in the Oct. 11 issue of Neurology.

Abstract
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Natalizumab Effective for Relapsing-Remitting MS

MONDAY, Oct. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Natalizumab (NTZ) is well tolerated and reduces relapses and disability at two years in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), according to a review published online Oct. 5 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Abstract
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Septicemia Most Costly Reason for Hospitalization in 2009

MONDAY, Oct. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Septicemia was the single most expensive condition treated in U.S. hospitals in 2009, with expenditure totaling nearly $15.4 billion, according to an October statistical brief based on Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) data published by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).

Report

High Chocolate Consumption Tied to Lower Risk of Stroke

MONDAY, Oct. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Consumption of high levels of chocolate is associated with a reduced risk of stroke, according to a letter published in the Oct. 18 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Full Text

Restless Legs Syndrome Ups Hypertension Risk in Women

MONDAY, Oct. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Middle-aged women with restless legs syndrome (RLS) are more likely to develop hypertension than women without the condition, and this prevalence increases with the frequency of restless legs symptoms, according to a study published online Oct. 10 in Hypertension.

Abstract
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Plasma Sphingolipids Predict Alzheimer's Progression

FRIDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Higher plasma levels of ceramides, dihydroceramides (DHCer), sphingomyelins (SM), and dihydrosphingomyelins (DHSM), and ratios of SM/ceramide and DHSM/DHCer are associated with progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a study published online Aug. 12 in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.

Abstract
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Juvisync Approved for Type 2 Diabetics With High Cholesterol

FRIDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Juvisync (sitagliptin and simvastatin) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for people with type 2 diabetes who also have high cholesterol.

American Diabetes Association

Two HIV Variants Identified in HIV-Linked Dementia

FRIDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with HIV-type 1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD) have two genetically distinct HIV-1 variants in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): CCR5-tropic (R5) T-cell-tropic and macrophage-tropic, which differ in terms of replication and evolution in the central nervous system (CNS), according to a study published online Oct. 6 in PLoS Pathogens.

Abstract
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Adults With Mental Distress More Likely to Be Uninsured

FRIDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Lack of insurance is more likely among nonelderly adults in the United States with frequent mental distress only or with both frequent mental and physical distress than in those with frequent physical distress only, according to a study published in the October issue of Psychiatric Services.

Abstract
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Sports-Related Brain Injury Rates Climbing in Youths

THURSDAY, Oct. 6 (HealthDay News) -- The number of sports- and recreation-related, nonfatal traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children and adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, according to research published in the Oct. 7 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Full Text

Healthier Maternal Diet Lowers Risk of Certain Birth Defects

THURSDAY, Oct. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Higher quality of maternal diet is associated with lower risks of neural tube defects (NTDs) and orofacial clefts, according to a study published online Oct. 3 in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

More Minority Patients in Low-Quality, High-Cost Hospitals

THURSDAY, Oct. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Hospitals where the quality is low and costs high (worst hospitals) in the United States care for a higher proportion of elderly black, Hispanic, and Medicaid patients than high-quality, low-cost institutions (best hospitals), according to a study published in the October issue of Health Affairs.

Abstract
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Self-Rating of Health As Poor, Fair Ups Risk of Dementia

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of incident dementia is significantly higher in individuals who rate their health as poor or fair, especially in those with no cognitive complaints or with functional disability, according to a study published online Oct. 5 in Neurology.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Oral Teriflunomide Effective in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS), oral teriflunomide significantly reduces relapse rates, disability progression, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of disease, according to a study published in the Oct. 6 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Neonatal ICU Stressors Alter Brain Structure, Function

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to stressors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is associated with alterations in regional brain structure and function in preterm infants, according to a study published online Oct. 4 in the Annals of Neurology.

Abstract
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Early Identification of Ischemic Stroke With DWI-FLAIR Mismatch

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- The mismatch between acute ischemic lesion visibility on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (DWI), and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI (DWI-FLAIR mismatch) can identify patients with acute ischemic lesions within 4.5 hours of symptom onset, according to a study published online Oct. 5 in The Lancet Neurology.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Father's Age Tied to Intellectual Disability in Offspring

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- A large majority of rare de novo copy number variations (CNVs) in intellectual disability (ID) have a paternal origin, and certain CNVs are generated with advanced paternal age, according to a study published online Oct. 3 in the Journal of Medical Genetics.

Abstract
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Head Circumference Growth Up in Infancy in Boys With Autism

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Boys with autism experience accelerated head circumference (HC) growth, and have increased height and weight in the first year of life, according to a study published in the October issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

Abstract
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Advance Directives Linked to Regional Medical Expenditures

TUESDAY, Oct. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Advance directives (living wills) specifying limitations in end-of-life care are associated with significantly lower levels of Medicare spending, lower likelihood of in-hospital death, and higher use of hospice care during the last six months of life for patients living in regions with high medical expenditures but not in other regions, according to a study published in the Oct. 5 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Preterm Birth Associated With Epilepsy in Swedish Adults

MONDAY, Oct. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Preterm birth before 37 weeks is strongly associated with epilepsy in Swedish adults aged 25 to 37 years, and is not mediated by cerebral palsy or other comorbidities, according to a study published online Oct. 3 in Neurology.

Abstract
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