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Category: Pathology | Monthly Briefing

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October 2011 Briefing - Pathology

Last Updated: November 01, 2011.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for October 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Noncarriers of BRCA Do Not Have Increased Breast CA Risk

MONDAY, Oct. 31 (HealthDay News) -- Women testing negative for their family-specific BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation (noncarriers) do not have an increased risk of breast cancer, according to a study published online Oct. 31 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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GERD Symptoms, Site-Specific Dental Erosions Unrelated

MONDAY, Oct. 31 (HealthDay News) -- There is no correlation between location-specific dental erosions and the presence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms, salivary flow, or bacterial load, according to a study published in the November issue of Gastroenterology.

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Proportion of MELD Exceptions Up From 2002 to 2010

MONDAY, Oct. 31 (HealthDay News) -- The proportion of liver transplant candidates who are model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) exceptions increased from 2002 to 2010, and since April 2005, exceptions have been associated with a reduced risk of wait-list mortality, according to a study published in the November issue of the American Journal of Transplantation.

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S100A10 Key for Recruitment of Macrophages to Tumor Sites

MONDAY, Oct. 31 (HealthDay News) -- The plasminogen receptor S100A10 is involved in facilitating movement of macrophages to tumor sites, according to an experimental study published online Oct. 31 in Cancer Research.

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SNPs on C21orf91 Linked to Cold Sore Susceptibility

FRIDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on a gene on chromosome 21 (C21orf91) are associated with herpes simplex labialis (HSL), according to a study published online Oct. 28 in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

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Paternal Fetal IGF2 Variants Up Maternal Glucose Levels

FRIDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Paternally transmitted fetal IGF2 variants are associated with increased maternal glucose concentrations in the third trimester of pregnancy, according to a study published in the November issue of Diabetes.

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Long-Term Aspirin Use Lowers CRC Risk in Lynch Syndrome

FRIDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Long-term use of aspirin reduces the risk for colorectal cancer in carriers of Lynch syndrome, according to a study published online Oct. 28 in The Lancet.

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Fecal Assays Help Identify Food Hypersensitivity in IBS

FRIDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- A quarter of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have food hypersensitivity (FH), which can be detected using fecal assays; most accurately with eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) assay, according to a study published in the November issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Neurogenesis Indicative of Poor Colorectal Cancer Outcomes

FRIDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Neurogenesis is associated with colorectal cancer progression, and is predictive of poor outcomes for patients, according to a study published in the Nov. 1 issue of Cancer.

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Weight Loss in Obese Tied to Low-Order Cognitive Upturn

FRIDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Weight loss in obese individuals is associated with low-order significant improvements in executive/attention functioning and memory, according to a meta-analysis published in the November issue of Obesity Reviews.

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Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy Safe for Selected Patients

FRIDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) can be safe when used for properly-selected women with breast cancer, according to a study published in the November issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

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Cannabinoid Receptor Tied to Cognitive Chaos

THURSDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Disrupted temporal coordination of hippocampal and medial prefrontal cortical networks (mPFC) due to systemic activation of the cannabinoid receptor is associated with impaired accuracy during working-memory task performance in rats, according to an experimental study published in the Oct. 26 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience.

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Adipose Tissue Inflammation Tied to Fat Deposition

THURSDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) inflammation is not correlated with gender or ethnicity, and is associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) deposition, hepatic fat fraction (HFF), hyperinsulinemia, and stimulation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) stress pathway, according to a study published in the November issue of Diabetes.

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Mice Study: Probiotics Do Not Alter Gut Microbiota Makeup

THURSDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Consumption of a commercially available probiotic fermented milk product (FMP) does not induce significant changes in gut microbiota composition in human and gnotobiotic mice, but does induce changes in bacterial metabolic pathways, according to an experimental study published online Oct. 26 in Science Translational Medicine.

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Gene Variation Tied to Rate of Age-Related Mental Decline

THURSDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- A valine-to-methionine substitution at position 66 (val66met) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with the rate of decline in skilled task performance and age-dependent hippocampal volume changes in middle-aged and older healthy individuals, according to a study published online Oct. 25 in Translational Psychiatry.

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Ovarian Stimulation Ups Risk of Ovarian Tumors in Later Life

THURSDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) is associated with an increase in the risk of ovarian malignancies, especially borderline ovarian tumors, according to a study published online Oct. 26 in Human Reproduction.

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Pancreatic Islet Cells Express Serotonergic Genes in Mice

THURSDAY, Oct. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Pancreatic islet cells express all the genes responsible for synthesis, packaging, and secretion of serotonin, including the serotonergic transcription factor Pet1, according to an experimental study published online Oct. 19 in Diabetes.

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No Lung Cancer Mortality Drop With Chest X-Ray Screening

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Annual lung cancer screening with chest radiographs for four years does not significantly decrease lung cancer mortality compared to usual care, according to a study published online Oct. 26 in the Journal of the American Medical Association to coincide with presentation at the annual meeting of the American College of Chest Physicians, held from Oct. 22 to 26 in Honolulu.

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Ghost Authorship Prevalent in About One-Fifth of Articles

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of articles with honorary authorship, ghost authorship, or both is 21 percent, which marks a significant decrease since 1996, according to a study published online Oct. 25 in BMJ.

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Evidence Suggests Variable Effectiveness for Flu Vaccine

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza vaccines provide variable effectiveness and efficacy in young children and adults, according to a study published online Oct. 26 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Smoking Rarely Cited As Cause of Death on Death Certificates

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors rarely cite smoking as the cause of death (COD) on death certificates, even in cases where there is a strong causal link to smoking, according to a study published online Oct. 24 in the Journal of Clinical Pathology.

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Radiographic Osteoarthritis Phenotypes Linked to Race

TUESDAY, Oct. 25 (HealthDay News) -- African-Americans are less likely to have hand radiographic osteoarthritis (rOA) phenotypes, but are more likely to have knee rOA phenotypes involving the tibiofemoral joints (TFJ), according to a study published online Oct. 20 in Arthritis & Rheumatism.

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New Estimates of Rotavirus-Attributable Diarrhea Mortality

TUESDAY, Oct. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Worldwide in 2008, 453,000 deaths in children younger than 5 years old resulted from diarrhea attributable to rotavirus, according to a meta-analysis published online Oct. 25 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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HPV Infection, Cardiovascular Disease in Women Linked

MONDAY, Oct. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women, especially tumor-associated oncogenic HPV, is correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to a study published in the Nov. 1 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Pre-Op Regimen Tolerable for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

MONDAY, Oct. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Use of neoadjuvant oxaliplatin, protracted-infusion fluorouracil (PI-FU), and external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is tolerable for esophageal adenocarcinoma, but fails to achieve the predefined pathologic complete response (pCR) rate, according to a study published online Oct. 24 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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New Method Improves Renal Transplant Biopsy Accuracy

MONDAY, Oct. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Adding molecular phenotyping to histological classification of kidney transplantation biopsies facilitates more accurate classification of borderline rejection biopsies, and helps eliminate this category in most cases, according to a study published online Oct. 12 in the American Journal of Transplantation.

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Excision Margin of 2 cm Safe in Melanoma Thicker Than 2 mm

MONDAY, Oct. 24 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with cutaneous melanoma thicker than 2 mm, a surgical excision margin of 2 cm is sufficient and has similar overall survival as with a 4-cm excision margin, according to a study published online Oct. 24 in The Lancet.

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In Utero Bisphenol A Exposure Impacts Toddler's Behavior

MONDAY, Oct. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure during pregnancy is associated with anxious and depressed behavior and impaired emotional regulation at 3 years of age, especially among girls, according to a study published online Oct. 24 in Pediatrics.

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Cardiac Troponin Predicts Mortality in Acute Heart Failure

FRIDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- A sensitive cardiac troponin I (s-cTnI) assay can predict mortality risk for patients with acute heart failure, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in the Journal of Internal Medicine.

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Vulvar Lesions Should Always Be Indication for Treatment

FRIDAY, Oct. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), a problem that appears to be on the rise in women in their 40s, should always receive treatment, according to a joint committee opinion issued by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology and published in the November issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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CLIP-170 Mediates Paclitaxel Sensitivity in Breast Cancer

FRIDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- CLIP-170 regulates paclitaxel sensitivity in breast cancer cells by mediating the effects of paclitaxel on microtubule assembly, mitosis, and apoptosis, according to a study published online Oct. 12 in The Journal of Pathology.

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Multiple Hormones Influence Breast Cancer Risk

FRIDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of sex and growth hormones are known to increase the risk of breast cancer, and it appears that other hormones circulating at high levels may also have a profound influence on the likelihood that a woman will develop postmenopausal breast cancer, according to research published online Oct. 21 in Breast Cancer Research.

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No Link Found Between Cell Phone Use and Cancer

FRIDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- In what may be the largest study to date evaluating cancer risk in cell phone subscribers, Danish researchers have found no evidence of increased central nervous system tumor rates in long-term holders of cell phone subscriptions; their findings have been published online Oct. 20 in BMJ.

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Social Network Size Associated With Brain Structure

THURSDAY, Oct. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The size of a person's online social network is associated with the gray matter density of specific regions in the brain, and these regions are specific to Web-based networks rather than real-world social networks, according to a study published online Oct. 19 in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

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Article Collection Sheds Light on U.S. Melanoma Trends

THURSDAY, Oct. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States, and melanoma, the third-most common form of skin cancer, may strike more than 45,000 people annually, according to a recent supplement published in the November issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Platelet-Rich Fibrin Matrix Shots Induce Cellular Changes

THURSDAY, Oct. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Administration of platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) into the deep dermis and immediate subdermis stimulates cellular changes, including activated fibroblasts, new collagen deposition, new blood vessel development, intradermal adipocyte collection, and subdermal adipocyte stimulation, according to a study published online Oct. 17 in the Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery.

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IBD Increases Risk of Post-Op Thromboembolism

THURSDAY, Oct. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), with a higher risk in those undergoing nonintestinal surgery, according to a study published online Oct. 17 in the Archives of Surgery.

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Low Lethal Potential for Atypical Spitz Tumors

THURSDAY, Oct. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Atypical Spitz tumors (ASTs) are associated with a favorable prognosis, an increased melanoma risk, and a moderate risk of metastasis to regional nodes, according to a study published in the October issue of the Archives of Dermatology.

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Deletion in ADAM17 Connected to Skin, Bowel Disease

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 19 (HealthDay News) -- A deletion mutation in ADAM17 may be the cause of a neonatal-onset inflammatory skin and bowel disease, according to a study published in the Oct. 20 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Different CD8+ T-Cell Targets in New, Established Diabetes

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Autoreactive CD8+ T cells specific for preproinsulin (PPI) include central and effector memory cells and show different specificities for epitopes in patients with recent-onset and long-standing type 1 diabetes (T1D), according to a study published online Oct. 13 in Diabetes.

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H. pylori Not Detected in Hyperplastic Adenoids

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and other Helicobacteraceae family members do not majorly contribute toward development of hyperplastic adenoids in children, according to a study published in the October issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery.

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Distinct Risks for Superficial Spreading, Lentigo Melanomas

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) and superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) have distinct risk profiles, with the strongest determinants of LMM and SSM being the number of solar lentigines and the number of nevi, respectively, according to a study published online Oct. 17 in the Archives of Dermatology.

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Readmission Risk Models Display Poor Predictive Ability

TUESDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Most hospital readmission risk models have poor predictive ability, according to a review published in the Oct. 19 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Shift Work Tied to Increased Multiple Sclerosis Risk

TUESDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Working shifts, particularly before the age of 20 years, is associated with increased occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a review published online Oct. 17 in the Annals of Neurology.

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Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Characteristics Identified

TUESDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- There are unique characteristics associated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in both BRCA1 mutation carriers and non-carriers, according to a study published online Oct. 17 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Urinary Marker ID'd for Long-Term Mortality in Diabetes

TUESDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with type 2 diabetes, urinary excretion of the marker of the RNA oxidation (8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine [8-oxoGuo]) predicts long term all-cause and diabetes-related mortality, but excretion of markers of DNA oxidation (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-oxodG]) do not, according to a study published online Oct. 12 in Diabetes Care.

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Evidence Favors Cytology, Not HPV Screening, for Cervical CA

MONDAY, Oct. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Evidence favors the use of liquid-based cytology (LBC) or conventional cytology rather than human papillomavirus (HPV) screening for cervical cancer; and cervical cancer screening should begin at age 21 years and end at age 65 years, according to two reviews published online Oct. 17 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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False-Positive Recall for Most After 10 Years of Mammograms

MONDAY, Oct. 17 (HealthDay News) -- After 10 years of annual mammography screening for breast cancer, more than 60 percent of women will receive at least one false-positive recall; and, breast cancer detection rates in women aged 50 to 79 years are similar with digital or film-screen mammography, according to two studies published in the Oct. 18 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Autism More Prevalent in Low Birth Weight Individuals

MONDAY, Oct. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Low birth weight (LBW) has been considered a risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and the results of a new prospective study suggest ASDs are indeed more prevalent in people born at low birth weights; the findings have been published online Oct. 17 in Pediatrics.

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Alopecia Areata Linked With Other Autoimmune Diseases

MONDAY, Oct. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Alopecia areata (AA) appears to be associated with various autoimmune diseases, which vary according to age at onset of AA, according to research published in the November issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Oral Microflora Tied to Chronic Pancreatitis, Pancreatic Cancer

MONDAY, Oct. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Variations in salivary microbiota are associated with pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis, according to a study published online Oct. 12 in Gut.

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Evidence Suggests Obesity Tied to Altered Iron Metabolism

MONDAY, Oct. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Evidence suggests that obesity is associated with higher hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations and lower transferrin saturation, according to a review published online Oct. 9 in Obesity Reviews.

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High-Volume Liver Transplant Centers Up Recipient Survival

MONDAY, Oct. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Liver transplant centers with high annual procedure volumes use donors with higher mean donor risk index (DRI) livers and have better risk-adjusted recipient and allograft survival than centers with low annual procedure volumes, according to a study published in the October issue of Liver Transplantation.

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Aspirin Response in Acute Coronary Syndrome Up Post PCI

FRIDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- The laboratory response to aspirin improves significantly in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and clopidogrel loading, and correlates with improved clinical outcomes, according to a study published in the Oct. 15 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.

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DNA Fragmentation in Sperm Tied to Repeat Pregnancy Loss

FRIDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Sperm from men whose partners have a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) have increased DNA fragmentation and poor motility compared with sperm from men whose partners had recent term pregnancies, according to a study published in the October issue of Urology.

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New Enrichment Technique for Detecting Mutant DNA ID'd

FRIDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Mutant enrichment with 3'-modified oligonucleotides (MEMO) is a highly sensitive technique for detecting cancer mutations, according to a study published online Oct. 5 in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics.

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Vitamin D-Gene Interaction Tied to Food Sensitization

FRIDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) increases the risk of food sensitization (FS) in children carrying specific genotypes, according to a study published in the November issue of Allergy.

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Serum N-Acetylaspartate Level Potential Biomarker in ALS

THURSDAY, Oct. 13 (HealthDay News) -- The level of serum N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is significantly higher in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) than healthy individuals, according to a study published in the October issue of the Archives of Neurology.

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Rare Disorders ID'd by NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program

THURSDAY, Oct. 13 (HealthDay News) -- The extensive application of genomic technology under the U.S. National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH-UDP) helps diagnose complex and rare multisystem disorders, according to a report published online Sept. 26 in Genetics in Medicine.

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Raw Fruit and Vegetable Intake Modifies 9p21 CVD Risk

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Following a diet high in raw vegetables and fruits modifies the influence of chromosome 9p21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to a study published online Oct. 11 in PLoS Medicine.

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Incidence of Adenocarcinoma with Barrett's Esophagus Estimated

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- The relative risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma is significantly higher in patients with Barrett's esophagus compared to the general population, with an annual risk of 0.12 percent, according to a study published in the Oct. 13 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Financial Conflicts of Interest Prevalent, Under-Reported

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Conflicts of interest (COI) are prevalent among members and chairs of guideline panels, and are under-reported, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in BMJ.

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BRCA2 Mutations Indicate Better Ovarian Cancer Survival

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- For women with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, BRCA2, but not BRCA1 mutation is associated with significantly better overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and chemotherapy response than BRCA wild-type, according to a study published in the Oct. 12 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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High False-Negative Rate for HER2 Status Using Oncotype DX

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Genomic Health's (GHI) Oncotype DX test, a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) assay for breast cancer that uses a method of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), has an unacceptable false-negative rate, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Women Remain Distress-Free Long After Genetic Test Results

TUESDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Most women do not experience distress several years after receiving BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) genetic test results, but mutation carriers are significantly more likely to experience distress, according to a study published online Oct. 10 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Colon Inflammation Markers Lower With Ginger Extract

TUESDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- For individuals at normal risk for colon cancer, ginger extract may decrease certain markers of colon inflammation, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 5-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 12-, and 15-HETE), when the eicosanoids are normalized to free arachidonic acid, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in Cancer Prevention Research.

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Placental Protein 13 Clusters Facilitate Trophoblast Invasion

TUESDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Placental protein 13 (PP13 or galectin 13) forms perivenous aggregates that attract and activate maternal immune cells to create decidual zones of necrosis (ZONEs), which facilitate trophoblast invasion and conversion of the maternal spiral arterioles in preeclampsia, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in Reproductive Sciences.

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High Yield of Viral Diagnoses for RT-PCR in Respiratory Infection

TUESDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing has a high yield of viral diagnoses, but rapid communication of results to clinicians has no positive impact on hospital admissions, length of hospital stay, or duration of antibiotic use for children with acute respiratory infections (ARI), according to a study published online Oct. 10 in Pediatrics.

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Children More Likely to Have SLN Mets Than Young Adults

TUESDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Children and adolescents are more likely to have sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases than young adults, and SLN biopsy use is predicted by tumor thickness and ulceration, according to a study published online Oct. 5 in Cancer.

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ERα Autoantibodies Affect Disease Activity in Lupus

TUESDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), autoantibodies specific to estrogen receptor α (anti-ERα Abs) interfere with T lymphocyte homeostasis and are significantly associated with disease activity, according to a study published online Oct. 3 in Arthritis & Rheumatism.

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Physical Activity Cuts Mortality Risk in Metabolic Syndrome

TUESDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- For individuals with metabolic syndrome, physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular causes, according to a study published online Sept. 29 in BMC Medicine.

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Glycemic Extremes Affect Brain Development in Type 1 Diabetes

TUESDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), more exposure to hyperglycemia is associated with a decrease in whole brain gray matter, and severe hypoglycemia is associated with greater decreases in occipital/parietal white matter volume, according to a study published online Sept. 27 in Diabetes.

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Septicemia Most Costly Reason for Hospitalization in 2009

MONDAY, Oct. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Septicemia was the single most expensive condition treated in U.S. hospitals in 2009, with expenditure totaling nearly $15.4 billion, according to an October statistical brief based on Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) data published by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).

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Restless Legs Syndrome Ups Hypertension Risk in Women

MONDAY, Oct. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Middle-aged women with restless legs syndrome (RLS) are more likely to develop hypertension than women without the condition, and this prevalence increases with the frequency of restless legs symptoms, according to a study published online Oct. 10 in Hypertension.

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Recurrent Child UTIs Rarely Cause Chronic Kidney Disease

MONDAY, Oct. 10 (HealthDay News) -- The etiologic fraction of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) as the main cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is very small, according to a study published online Oct. 10 in Pediatrics.

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Shift Work Ups Cortisol Levels, BMI in Young Adults

MONDAY, Oct. 10 (HealthDay News) -- For young adults, shift work (work performed out of standard working hours) is associated with long-term elevated cortisol levels and increased body mass index (BMI), according to a study published online Aug. 31 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Plasma Sphingolipids Predict Alzheimer's Progression

FRIDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Higher plasma levels of ceramides, dihydroceramides (DHCer), sphingomyelins (SM), and dihydrosphingomyelins (DHSM), and ratios of SM/ceramide and DHSM/DHCer are associated with progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a study published online Aug. 12 in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.

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UVA1 Induces Thymine Dimers in DNA of Human Skin in Vivo

FRIDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Ultraviolet A1 (UVA1) rays induce thymine dimers (TTs) but not pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs) in the DNA of human epidermis in vivo, and the level of induced TTs increases with the epidermal depth, according to a study published online Oct. 6 in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.

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Two HIV Variants Identified in HIV-Linked Dementia

FRIDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with HIV-type 1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD) have two genetically distinct HIV-1 variants in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): CCR5-tropic (R5) T-cell-tropic and macrophage-tropic, which differ in terms of replication and evolution in the central nervous system (CNS), according to a study published online Oct. 6 in PLoS Pathogens.

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Men Are Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes at Lower BMIs

FRIDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Men are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at a lower body mass index (BMI) than women, with a steeper inverse relationship between BMI and age at diagnosis for women, according to a study published online Sept. 30 in Diabetologia.

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Adding HLA-C Matching Cuts Cord Blood Transplant Death

FRIDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Umbilical-cord blood transplantation-related deaths can be reduced by matching donor units with recipients at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C locus in addition to the HLA-A, B, and DRB1 loci, even if there is a single mismatch at these loci, according to a study published online Oct. 7 in The Lancet Oncology.

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Multiple Benefits From Regular Exercise in Renal Disease

FRIDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Regular exercise significantly improves physical fitness, cardiovascular dimensions, some nutritional parameters, and health-related quality of life (QOL) in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and kidney transplant recipients, according to a review and meta-analysis published online Oct. 5 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

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Healthier Maternal Diet Lowers Risk of Certain Birth Defects

THURSDAY, Oct. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Higher quality of maternal diet is associated with lower risks of neural tube defects (NTDs) and orofacial clefts, according to a study published online Oct. 3 in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Feasible to Stop Post-Renal Transplant Anti-Rejection Meds

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Most patients undergoing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched kidney-transplantation are able to discontinue anti-rejection medications, after receiving enriched CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, total lymphoid irradiation, and anti-T-cell antibodies, according to a letter published in the Oct. 6 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Health Risks for Women Exposed to DES in Utero

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Women who were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES) have a higher lifetime risk for several adverse health outcomes, according to a study published in the Oct. 6 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Oral Teriflunomide Effective in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS), oral teriflunomide significantly reduces relapse rates, disability progression, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of disease, according to a study published in the Oct. 6 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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CDC: I221V Mutation ID'd in North Carolina Influenza B Virus

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza B viruses carrying the I221V mutation, which have reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir, have been identified in North Carolina, according to a study published in the November issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Neonatal ICU Stressors Alter Brain Structure, Function

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to stressors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is associated with alterations in regional brain structure and function in preterm infants, according to a study published online Oct. 4 in the Annals of Neurology.

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5-HTTLPR Gene Linked to Positive Affect in Youth

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Youth carrying two short alleles of 5-HTTLPR are more susceptible to parenting as environmental context, according to a study published online Oct. 4 in Translational Psychiatry.

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Eating Disorders in Children Tied to Serious Health Consequences

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of early-onset restrictive eating disorders is 2.6 cases per 100,000 person-years in children, is increased in girls, and can result in serious medical consequences, according to a study published in the October issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Model Projects Smoking Will Up TB Cases, Deaths by 2050

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Assuming that current smoking trends will continue, it is estimated that tobacco smoking will cause 18 million tuberculosis cases and 40 million deaths from tuberculosis worldwide from 2010 to 2050, according to a study published online Oct. 4 in BMJ.

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Lower Overall Survival for Men Than Women With Breast Cancer

TUESDAY, Oct. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Male patients with breast cancer have later onset and more advanced disease, and worse overall survival than female patients, according to a study published online Oct. 3 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Hormonal Contraceptives May Up HIV-1 Acquisition by Women

TUESDAY, Oct. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Use of hormonal contraceptives is associated with an increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition by women, and an increased risk of HIV-1 transmission from HIV-infected women to HIV-1 seronegative men, according to a study published online Oct. 4 in The Lancet Infectious Dise

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