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Category: Infections | Monthly Briefing

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November 2011 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Last Updated: December 01, 2011.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for November 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

IL-2 Tied to Regulatory T-Cell Expansion in Graft-Versus-Host

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Daily low-dose interleukin-2 is safe and induces regulatory T (Treg) cell expansion with suppression of clinical manifestations in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and is also associated with Treg recovery and clinical improvement in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced vasculitis, according to two studies published in the Dec. 1 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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U.S. Patients Highly Satisfied With Outpatient Medical Care

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Patients in the United States are, in general, highly satisfied with their outpatient medical care, according to a study published online Oct. 3 in Health Outcomes Research in Medicine.

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Delayed Acyclovir in Neonates With Herpes Ups Mortality

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Delayed initiation of acyclovir therapy in neonates with herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is associated with in-hospital mortality, according to a study published online Nov. 28 in Pediatrics.

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Viral Suppression Low in U.S. Adults With HIV

TUESDAY, Nov. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Although viral suppression is high in HIV-infected individuals who receive ongoing medical care and anti-retroviral treatment (ART), researchers estimate only 28 percent of U.S. adults living with HIV have control over their infection, according to a report published in the Nov. 29 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Concomitant MMRV With PCV-7 Highly Immunogenic, Safe

TUESDAY, Nov. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Concomitant administration of a combined measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine (MMRV) and pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) is immunogenic and safe for healthy 12- to 15-month-old children, according to a study published online Nov. 28 in Pediatrics.

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High-Performing Docs Learn Equally From Success, Failure

MONDAY, Nov. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Among physicians making decisions in a medically-framed learning task, high and low performers show distinct behavioral and neural patterns of learning, according to a study published online Nov. 23 in PLoS One.

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Many Pediatricians OK With Alternative Vaccine Schedules

MONDAY, Nov. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatricians in Washington State are frequently asked to use alternative childhood immunization schedules (ACISs), and the majority are comfortable using them, according to a study published online Nov. 28 in Pediatrics.

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Afternoon Shots Up Post-Immunization Sleep Duration

MONDAY, Nov. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Infants who have immunizations in the afternoon, or have an increased temperature in response to vaccines, have increased sleep duration after immunization, according to a study published online Nov. 28 in Pediatrics.

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Blood Transfusion Services Improve in Africa

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 23 (HealthDay News) -- From 2004 to 2007, 14 countries supported by the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) made rapid progress in the safety and adequacy of their blood supply; during the second phase, incremental progress continued, according to a report published in the Nov. 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Recent Drop Seen in Oral, Pharyngeal Cancer Mortality

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 23 (HealthDay News) -- From 1993 to 2007, mortality rates decreased for black and white men and women with oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer, with a significant decline seen among those with more than 12 years of education, according to a study published in the November issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery.

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Valvular Surgery Tied to Reduced Mortality in Endocarditis

TUESDAY, Nov. 22 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with infective endocarditis complicated by heart failure, valvular surgery is strongly associated with lower in-hospital and one-year mortality, according to a study published the Nov. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Plasma MicroRNA Panel ID'd for Diagnosing Hepatocellular Cancer

TUESDAY, Nov. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed with high accuracy using a microRNA panel, according to a study published online Nov. 21 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Adverse Effects of Pediatric Acupuncture Usually Mild

MONDAY, Nov. 21 (HealthDay News) -- The majority of adverse effects (AEs) associated with pediatric acupuncture are mild in severity, according to a review published online Nov. 21 in Pediatrics.

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Nonpunitive Method Improves Medical Error Reporting

MONDAY, Nov. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Medical error reporting in an academic pediatric ambulatory practice can be improved by a voluntary, nonpunitive, error-reporting system, according to a study published online Nov. 21 in Pediatrics.

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Post-Bat Exposure Prophylaxis Up in New York

FRIDAY, Nov. 18 (HealthDay News) -- During a 10-year period of reporting concurrent with implementation of revised post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) guidelines for bat rabies, there were increases in the number of bats submitted for testing, reports of exposure, and instances of human PEP, according to a letter published online Nov. 16 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Rapid Safety Monitoring of H1N1 Vaccine Feasible

FRIDAY, Nov. 18 (HealthDay News) -- A rapid safety surveillance system using modern technology is feasible for monitoring new H1N1 vaccines given or offered to large numbers of patients under normal conditions within a short period of time, according to a study published online Nov. 15 in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

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Hib Vaccine Has Cut H. influenzae Incidence Dramatically

THURSDAY, Nov. 17 (HealthDay News) -- The introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) serotype b vaccine (Hib) has significantly reduced the incidence of invasive disease, according to a study published in the Dec. 15 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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Patients Without Insurance Have Shorter Hospital Stays

TUESDAY, Nov. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Patients without Medicaid or any other insurance, with ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) or non-ACSCs, have shorter lengths of stay in hospitals than patients with insurance, according to a study published in the November/December issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Delayed Acyclovir Ups Hospital Stay for Eczema Herpeticum

MONDAY, Nov. 14 (HealthDay News) -- For children hospitalized for eczema herpeticum, a delay in acyclovir initiation increases the length of stay (LOS), according to a study published online Nov. 14 in Pediatrics.

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U.S. Teen Vaccination Coverage Up From 2006 to 2009

MONDAY, Nov. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescent vaccination coverage in the United States increased from 2006 to 2009, and could be further improved, according to a study published online Nov. 14 in Pediatrics.

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Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Effective in Two, Three Doses

MONDAY, Nov. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Three doses of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) provide sustained protection against rotavirus disease, while two doses offer good protection, according to a study published online Nov. 14 in Pediatrics.

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Recurrent Pelvic Inflammation Ups Infertility, Pelvic Pain

FRIDAY, Nov. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is associated with a nearly two-fold increase in infertility and more than four-fold increase in chronic pelvic pain (CPP), according to a study published in the September issue of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

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Community-Based Treatment Improves Pneumonia Outcomes

FRIDAY, Nov. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Implementation of community case management by lady health workers (LHWs) is associated with decreased treatment failure rates for children with severe pneumonia in Pakistan, according to a study published online Nov. 11 in The Lancet.

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Estimated Flu Incidence of 90 Million for 2008 in Under-5s

FRIDAY, Nov. 11 (HealthDay News) -- In 2008, there were an estimated 90 million new cases of influenza in children younger than 5 years of age, according to a review published online Nov. 11 in The Lancet.

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Zostavax Still Recommended Only for Those 60 and Over

THURSDAY, Nov. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Despite the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's expansion of the indication for herpes zoster vaccination to include a younger cohort, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) still recommends the vaccine only for adults 60 and older, according to a report published in the Nov. 9 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Glove Use Linked to Reduced Hand Hygiene Compliance

THURSDAY, Nov. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Glove usage among healthcare workers is often inappropriate, and hand hygiene compliance is worse when gloves are worn, according to a study published online Oct. 17 in Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology.

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TNF-α Antagonists Do Not Up Infection Hospitalizations

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 9 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with autoimmune diseases, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonist use is not associated with a significant increase in serious infections requiring hospitalization, compared to nonbiologic medication use, according to a study published online Nov. 6 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Great Achievement at Young Age Function of Time, Not Field

MONDAY, Nov. 7 (HealthDay News) -- The frequency of great scientific achievements at young age is a function of time, and not related to the field, according to a study published online Nov. 7 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Lab Variables Predict Clinical Outcomes in Hepatitis C

MONDAY, Nov. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Clinical outcomes of patients with advanced hepatitis C can be predicted by models using baseline values of routine laboratory variables along with magnitude of change in their values over time, according to a study published in the November issue of Hepatology.

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Receptionists Contribute to Safety of Repeat Prescriptions

FRIDAY, Nov. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Receptionists and administrative staff of general practices in the United Kingdom make important contributions to quality and safety in repeat prescribing, which are often unknown to clinicians, according to a study published online Nov. 3 in BMJ.

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Hepatitis C Birth Cohort Screening is Cost-Effective

FRIDAY, Nov. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Birth cohort screening can be a cost-effective strategy to identify individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), according to a study published online Nov. 4 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Rooms of Patients With A. baumannii Often Contaminated

FRIDAY, Nov. 4 (HealthDay News) -- A considerable proportion of rooms of patients colonized or infected with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) (MDR-AB) have surfaces which are positive for A. baumannii, even in patients with a remote history of infection, according to a study published in the November issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

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Children Not Vaccinated Against Pneumonia Remain Vulnerable

THURSDAY, Nov. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Some children are not receiving the current recommended 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), a replacement for the 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) in all children and a supplement for those aged 14 to 59 months, leaving them susceptible to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and death, according to research published in the Nov. 4 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Major Progress Made in the Effort to Eradicate Polio in India

THURSDAY, Nov. 3 (HealthDay News) -- As of Oct. 31, only one case of wild poliovirus (WPV) was reported in India in 2011, compared with the 50,000 cases that were occurring each year when eradication initiatives were initiated in 1995. If this level of progress is sustained, India may be polio-free by 2012, according to research published in the Nov. 4 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Risks for C. difficile Infection, Colonization Identified

THURSDAY, Nov. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Health care-associated Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection and colonization are differentially associated with defined host and pathogen variables, according to a study published in the Nov. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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No Medicare Savings From Disease-Management Hotline

THURSDAY, Nov. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Commercial disease-management companies using nurse-based call centers modestly improve quality-of-care measures in Medicare fee-for-service programs with no evident reduction in costs of care or acute care utilization, according to a study published in the Nov. 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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No Concerning Patterns Seen With H1N1 Vaccine in Pregnancy

THURSDAY, Nov. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Administration of the influenza A (H1N1) vaccine to pregnant women seems to be safe and is not associated with an increase in adverse maternal or fetal outcomes, according to a study published in the November issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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CDC: Opioid Overdoses Have Reached Epidemic Proportions

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Opioid pain relievers (OPR) are involved in most drug overdose deaths; and OPR-related deaths, sales, and treatment admissions have increased in the last decade, according to a report published in the Nov. 1 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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HPV Testing in Self-Collected Samples Has High Sensitivity

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing of self-collected vaginal specimens is more sensitive than clinic-based cervical cytology for detection of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse, but has lower positive predictive value, according to a study published online Nov. 3 in The Lancet.

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