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Category: Infections | Monthly Briefing

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December 2011 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Last Updated: January 02, 2012.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for December 2011. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Benefits Beat Risks in Combo Therapy for Crohn's Disease

THURSDAY, Dec. 29 (HealthDay News) -- In Crohn's patients treated for one year in the Study of Biologic and Immunomodulator-Naive Patients With Crohn's Disease (SONIC), infection would have to occur at a rate of 20 percent or greater, and lymphoma at a rate of 3.9 percent or greater, for the risks of combination therapy with infliximab and azathioprine (IFX/AZA) to outweigh the benefits, when compared with IFX monotherapy, according to research published in the January issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Abstract
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Oseltamivir-Resistant H1N1 Identified in Australia

THURSDAY, Dec. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Oseltamivir-resistant prepandemic seasonal influenza 1 (H1N1) viruses with a neuraminidase substitution (H275Y) (A[H1N1]pdm09) have been identified in Australia, according to a letter published in the Dec. 29 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Letter

Enoxaparin Doesn't Reduce Death Rate for Acutely Ill

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 28 (HealthDay News) -- For hospitalized, acutely ill medical patients, use of enoxaparin plus elastic stockings with graduated compressions, does not reduce the rate of death from any cause at 30 days, according to a study published in the Dec. 29 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Rhinoviruses Frequently Cause ARIs in VLBW Premature Infants

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 28 (HealthDay News) -- More than half (55 percent) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with acute respiratory illness (ARI) have infection with human rhinoviruses (HRVs), according to a study published online Dec. 26 in Pediatrics.

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Prevalence of High-Risk HPV, Cytologic Abnormalities ID'd

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Estimates of the baseline prevalence of cytologic abnormalities, high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV; defined as 1 of 14 high-risk types of HPV including HPV 16 and HPV 18), HPV 16, HPV 18, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or greater have been established using the Addressing the Need for Advanced HPV Diagnostics screening trial, according to a study published in the January issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Abstract
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Perceptions of Inappropriate Care Prevalent Among ICU Staff

TUESDAY, Dec. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Perceptions of inappropriate care are prevalent among intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians in Europe and Israel, according to a study published in the Dec. 28 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Extended Nevirapine Reduces Breastfeeding HIV Transmission

FRIDAY, Dec. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Prophylactic nevirapine is safe and can reduce mother-to-child Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) transmission during breastfeeding up to 6 months of age, according to a study published online Dec. 23 in The Lancet.

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CDC Outlines HPV and Hep B Vaccine Recommendations

THURSDAY, Dec. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in young males and hepatitis B in adults with diabetes mellitus is recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for infection control, according to two reports published in the Dec. 23 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

Full Text - HPV
Full Text - HepB

Isentress Approval Expanded to Include Children and Teens

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Approval for the HIV drug Isentress (raltegravir) has been expanded to include children and adolescents ages 2 to 18, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration said Wednesday.

HIV/AIDS

No Complications From MRSA Otorrhea After Tube Placement

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Ear infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) following ear tube placement in children are not associated with the need for additional surgical procedures or other complications, according to a study published in the December issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery.

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Immunosuppression Evidence Identified in Septic Death

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Patients who die with active severe sepsis have reduced cytokine secretion and other changes indicative of immunosuppression, according to a study published in the Dec. 21 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Medical Team Training Program Cuts Surgical Morbidity Rate

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 21 (HealthDay News) -- The Veterans Health Administration Medical Team Training (MTT) program is associated with a significant decrease in the annual surgical morbidity rate, according to a study published in the December issue of the Archives of Surgery.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Palivizumab Often Prescribed Improperly in Primary Practice

TUESDAY, Dec. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Physician oversight and education improves adherence to patient selection guidelines for palivizumab use, but fails to improve improper dosing, according to a study published online Dec. 19 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Initial Wound Debridement Faster With Maggot Therapy

TUESDAY, Dec. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Compared with conventional therapy, wound debridement is significantly faster with maggot therapy during the first week of treatment, but there is no significant difference at day 15, according to a study published online Dec. 19 in the Archives of Dermatology.

Abstract
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Physician Opinions on Benefits of Open Visit Notes Vary

MONDAY, Dec. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Primary care physicians (PCPs) have varied opinions about open access to doctors' notes; and most users of a personal health record (PHR) system are interested in sharing access to their information, according to two studies published in the Dec. 20 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Abstract - Walker
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Abstract - Zulman
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Rule of 7's Sensitive in ID'ing Low Risk of Lyme Meningitis

MONDAY, Dec. 19 (HealthDay News) -- The "Rule of 7's," a Lyme meningitis clinical prediction rule based on clinical and laboratory parameters, identifies children with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis who are at low risk for Lyme meningitis with high sensitivity, according to a study published online Dec. 19 in Pediatrics.

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Patient Isolation During Hospitalization Tied to Delirium

FRIDAY, Dec. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Patients who are newly placed under contact precautions during hospitalization are at a higher risk for delirium, according to a study published in the January issue of Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology.

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Babesiosis Rates Among U.S. Elderly Explored

FRIDAY, Dec. 16 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of babesiosis among elderly Medicare beneficiaries in the United States increased from 2006 to 2008, with significant variations across race, gender, age, and state of diagnosis, according to a study published online Dec. 14 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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2009 Florida Outbreak May Signify Dengue Reemergence

THURSDAY, Dec. 15 (HealthDay News) -- The 2009 dengue-virus (DENV) infection among Florida residents may indicate dengue reemergence, according to a study published online Dec. 14 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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IL-32 Expression Analyzed in Chronic Rhinosinusitis

THURSDAY, Dec. 15 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with nonpolypoid chronic rhinosinusitis (CRSsNP), interleukin (IL)-32 expression is elevated in nasal epithelial cells, while those with polypoid chronic rhinosinusitis (CRSwNP) show increases in IL-32-producing macrophages and T cells, according to research published in the January issue of Allergy.

Abstract
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School-Based Clinics Feasible for ID'ing Chronic Fatigue

THURSDAY, Dec. 15 (HealthDay News) -- School-based clinics can identify children with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), and may be useful for diagnosing children with less severe symptoms, according to a study published online Dec. 12 in BMJ Open.

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Statins Lower Death Risk in Adults Hospitalized With Flu

THURSDAY, Dec. 15 (HealthDay News) -- In adults hospitalized for influenza virus infections, administration of statins before or during the hospitalization is associated with a reduced risk of mortality, according to a study published online Dec. 13 in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Concurrent-, Staged-Bilateral Knee Arthroplasty Compared

THURSDAY, Dec. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Simultaneous-bilateral arthroplasty is associated with reduced incidence of periprosthetic joint infection and malfunction, and with increased cardiovascular risk, compared with staged-bilateral arthroplasty, according to a study published in the Dec. 7 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

Abstract
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Regional Rehospitalization Rate Tied to Overall Admissions

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 14 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with congestive heart failure or pneumonia, regional rates of rehospitalizations are substantially associated with overall admission rates at 30, 60, and 90 days, according to a study published in the Dec. 15 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Three-Year Post-Op Trichiasis Lower With Azithromycin

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 14 (HealthDay News) -- A single dose of oral azithromycin is better than, but not significantly superior to, topical tetracycline for protection against recurrence of trichiasis for up to three years post-surgery, according to a study published online Dec. 12 in the Archives of Ophthalmology.

Abstract
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Gene Polymorphisms Not Tied to Flu Deaths in Young Adults

TUESDAY, Dec. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Influenza-related deaths among children and young adults are not associated with polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genes, according to a study published in the December issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Single First-Trimester Malaria Episode Ups Miscarriage Risk

TUESDAY, Dec. 13 (HealthDay News) -- There is an increased risk of miscarriage for women who have a single episode of Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria during their first trimester of pregnancy, according to a study published online Dec. 13 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Infection Prevention Up in VA, Non-Federal Hospitals

TUESDAY, Dec. 13 (HealthDay News) -- From 2005 to 2009, there was a significant increase in the use of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) prevention practices in non-federal and Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals, according to a study published online Dec. 6 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

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Histologic Chorioamnionitis Protects Against Sepsis

TUESDAY, Dec. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) has been implicated in preterm delivery and is a risk factor for early-onset sepsis, but may be protective against late-onset sepsis (LOS) by modulating postnatal immunity, according to research published online Dec. 12 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Microbial Diversity ID'd in Gut of Low Birth Weight Infants

FRIDAY, Dec. 9 (HealthDay News) -- The gut-associated microbiome of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants has microbial diversity and includes fungal species, bacteria, molds, viruses, parasitic organisms, and roundworms, according to a study published online Dec. 8 in PLoS One.

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Chronic Migraine Most Common Headache in HIV/AIDS Patients

FRIDAY, Dec. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Headache is prevalent among patients with HIV/AIDS, with chronic migraine being the most common type of primary headache disorder, according to a study published online Nov. 11 in Headache.

Abstract
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Factors Affecting Micro-RNA Detection Accuracy Identified

FRIDAY, Dec. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Accurate detection and quantitation of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) is affected by inherent differences in plasma samples, methods used for their collection and analysis, and the presence of specific inhibitors in plasma, according to a study published online Dec. 9 in the Journal of Molecular Diagnostics.

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Seasonal Flu Activity Low in the United States So Far

THURSDAY, Dec. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Reports of influenza virus in the Unites States have been low for the first part of the influenza season, according to a summary published in the Dec. 9 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Intranasal Vaccine Effective Against Norwalk Virus Illness

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Two doses of an intranasally delivered norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine with adjuvants (chitosan and monophosphoryl lipid A), provides protection against challenge with a homologous Norwalk virus in healthy adults, according to a study published in the Dec. 8 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Rifapentine Plus Isoniazid Noninferior to Isoniazid Alone

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 7 (HealthDay News) -- In individuals at high-risk for tuberculosis, three months of combination therapy with rifapentine plus isoniazid is as effective as nine months of isoniazid alone, and has significantly higher treatment completion rates, according to a study published in the Dec. 8 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Transplant Patients Want a Role in Liver Quality Decisions

TUESDAY, Dec. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Patients waiting for liver transplantation want to be involved in decisions about organ quality, and the level of risk they are prepared to tolerate is influenced by the presentation format, according to a study published in the December issue of Liver Transplantation.

Abstract
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Medical Students Fail to ID Hand Hygiene Indications

MONDAY, Dec. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Medical students who are about to start the clinical phase of their education have a lack of knowledge regarding the correct indications for hand disinfection, according to a study published in the December issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

Abstract
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C. difficile Infection Ups Duration of Hospital Stay

MONDAY, Dec. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Hospital-acquired infection with Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) significantly and independently lengthens the duration of stay in the hospital, according to a study published online Dec. 5 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Green Tea Polyphenol Inhibits HCV Entry Into Hepatocytes

MONDAY, Dec. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol, strongly inhibits the entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV) into primary human hepatocytes, according to a study published in the December issue of Hepatology.

Abstract
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Cold Sore Susceptibility Linked to SNPs on C21orf91

FRIDAY, Dec. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on C21orf91 are associated with herpes simplex labialis (HSL) susceptibility, according to a study published in the Dec. 1 issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

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