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Category: Family Medicine | Monthly Briefing

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April 2012 Briefing - Family Practice

Last Updated: May 01, 2012.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Family Practice for April 2012. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Screening Benefits Women in 40s With High Breast CA Risk

MONDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Women in their 40s, with at least a two-fold increased risk of breast cancer, benefit from biennial screening mammography; and having extremely dense breasts or first-degree relatives with breast cancer is associated with a two-fold increased risk of breast cancer for women in their 40s, according to two studies published in the May 1 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Abstract - van Ravesteyn
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Abstract - Nelson
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Prenatal Insecticide Exposure Alters Developing Brain

MONDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate insecticide, correlates with structural changes in the developing brain, according to a study published online April 30 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Imaging Provides Clues to Distribution of Fat in Children

MONDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- The use of imaging studies has contributed to an understanding of differences in fat distribution and their link to metabolic disease in childhood, according to research published online April 22 in Obesity Reviews.

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Electronic Reminders Up Meds Adherence in Short Term

MONDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- The use of electronic reminders (short message service [SMS] reminders, electronic reminder devices, or pagers) is associated with improved adherence to chronic medications in the short term, according to a review published online April 25 in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association.

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Levaquin Approved to Treat or Prevent Plague

MONDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Approval of the antibiotic Levaquin (levofloxacin) has been expanded by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to include plague, a rare but deadly bacterial infection.

Levaquin

Stress Reduction Ups Health Status in Type 2 Diabetes

FRIDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- A mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention is effective at improving health status and lowering levels of depression among patients with type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in the May issue of Diabetes Care.

Abstract
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Sleep Measures Do Not Predict Clinical Pain in Fibromyalgia

FRIDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with fibromyalgia, spatial extent of pain, pain aftersensation, and negative mood account for approximately one-third of the variance in clinical pain, but sleep measures do not significantly predict pain, according to a study published in the April issue of The Journal of Pain.

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About Half of Teens Who Self-Harm Were Frequently Bullied

FRIDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- About half of young adolescents who have self-harmed were frequently bullied, and self-harm among the bullied is more likely in those with mental health problems, a family history of suicide, or a history of being physically abused by an adult, according to a study published online April 26 in BMJ.

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Cancer Worry Linked to Continued Symptom Burden

FRIDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Age, fatigue, symptom burden, and risk perception are significantly associated with greater cancer worry three years after completing adjuvant treatment for breast cancer, according to a study published online March 15 in Psycho-Oncology.

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Persistent Constipation Rates May Be Lower Than Reported

FRIDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- The clinical symptoms of persistent and nonpersistent chronic constipation (CC) are similar, with persistent CC estimated to have a prevalence of 3 percent, according to a study published in the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

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Sunscreen Use May Lead to Vitamin D Deficiency

FRIDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Using the amount and sun protection factor (SPF) of sunscreen recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is associated with little or no vitamin D production, suggesting that regular sunscreen use may lead to vitamin D deficiency, according to research published online April 18 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

Abstract
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Antiretroviral Prophylaxis May Cut Breastfeeding HIV Spread

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Breastfeeding HIV-infected mothers are less likely to transmit the virus to their infants when either receive antiretroviral drugs, although weaning at six months may be detrimental, according to updated trial results published online April 26 in The Lancet.

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Sleep of Short Duration Common in U.S. Workers

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- A substantial proportion of workers in the United States get less sleep than recommended by the National Sleep Foundation, according to a report published in the April 27 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Berries May Slow Cognitive Decline in Older Women

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Flavonoid-rich blueberries and strawberries may reduce cognitive decline in elderly women, according to a study published online April 25 in the Annals of Neurology.

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Heart Surgery Safe for Compensated Cirrhosis Patients

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with compensated cirrhosis, defined by a Child-Pugh (CP) score of <8, have no significant increase in postoperative mortality and morbidity following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, according to a study published in the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Abstract
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Nutrition, Exercise Guidelines Updated for Cancer Survivors

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- The American Cancer Society has updated the 2006 guidelines to provide new evidence and clinical practices related to nutrition and physical activity for cancer survivors during the continuum of cancer care, according to a report published online April 26 in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.

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Hyperalgesia Similar With Drug Therapies for Heroin Addiction

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Heroin-addicted patients treated with methadone or buprenorphine have a heightened sensitivity to pain, and the hyperalgesia does not change over the course of treatment, according to a study published in the April issue of The Journal of Pain.

Abstract
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Subtype Best Predictor of Basal Cell Carcinoma Invasion Depth

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) subtype identified on biopsy and excision specimens is the best predictor of depth of invasion, according to a study published online April 16 in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

Abstract
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Age, Life Expectancy Influence Termination of PSA Screening

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Most primary care providers consider both a man's age and life expectancy in deciding whether to discontinue prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screenings, but multiple factors are involved in this decision, according to a study published online April 19 in Cancer.

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Early Menopause Ups Risk of Osteoporosis, Fractures, Death

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- The occurrence of menopause before age 47 correlates with increased osteoporosis at age 77, increased incidence of fragility fractures, and increased mortality, according to a study published online April 25 in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

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Accelerated Aging Evident in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- The brains of individuals addicted to cocaine show accelerated loss of gray matter over and above the loss due to normal aging, according to a letter published online April 24 in Molecular Psychiatry.

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Erosive, but Not Nonerosive, GERD Ups Esophageal CA Risk

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease with a history of esophagitis are at increased risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, although the absolute risk is low, according to a study published in the May issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Abstract
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Warfarin Keeps Stroke Risk Low in Patients With A-Fib

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Use of warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a low risk of stroke or systemic embolism, according to a meta-analysis published in the April 23 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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Primary Enforcement Leads to Higher Teen Seat Belt Use

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Teen drivers and passengers in states with secondary safety belt enforcement laws are less likely to wear seat belts compared with teens in states with primary enforcement, according to a study published in the American Journal of Public Health.

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Low-Dose CT Noninferior for Diagnosing Appendicitis

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- For young adults with suspected appendicitis, low-dose computed tomography (CT) is noninferior to standard-dose CT with respect to negative appendectomy rates, according to a study published in the April 26 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Amyloid-β-Linked Cognitive Decline Linked to Phospho-Tau

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- In cognitively normal older individuals, amyloid-β (Aβ)-associated longitudinal cognitive decline only occurs in the presence of elevated phospho-tau 181 (p-tau181p) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), according to a study published online April 23 in the Archives of Neurology.

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Ultrasound May Safely Rule Out DVT in Pregnancy

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- For pregnant and postpartum women, a single complete compression ultrasonography may safely exclude a diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis, according to a study published online April 24 in BMJ.

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Inducing for Premature Rupture of Membranes Not Better

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- In pregnant women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM), inducing labor and watchful waiting are similarly effective in terms of pregnancy outcomes such as neonatal sepsis and cesarean section, according to a study published online April 24 in PLoS Medicine.

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Exposure to Violence Wears on Children's DNA

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Children who are exposed to violence have significantly more telomere erosion than their unexposed peers, according to a study published online April 24 in Molecular Psychiatry.

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Anatomic Existence of the G-Spot Reported

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- The anatomic existence of the G-spot has been documented, and it has been identified as a distinguishable anatomic structure located on the dorsal perineal membrane, according to a study published in the May issue of The Journal of Sexual Medicine.

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Botox Modestly Improves Chronic Headaches, Migraines

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Botulinum toxin A provides a modest benefit for patients with chronic migraine headaches and chronic daily headaches, compared with placebo, according to a meta-analysis published in the April 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Nursing Excellence Ups Very Low Birth Weight Baby Outcomes

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- For very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, hospitals with recognition for nursing excellence (RNE) have significantly lower rates for hospital infection, seven-day mortality, and severe intraventricular hemorrhage, but not 28-day mortality or hospital stay mortality, according to a study published in the April 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Resistance Training Aids Memory in Senior Women

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- For senior women with mild cognitive impairment, twice-weekly resistance training (RT) for six months is associated with improved cognition and brain plasticity compared with balance and tone (BAT) exercises, according to a research letter published in the April 23 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Mortality High for Cardiac Device Infective Endocarditis

TUESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with infective endocarditis involving implanted cardiac devices experience high in-hospital and one-year mortality rates, particularly if there is valve involvement, according to a study published in the April 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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USPSTF Guidelines Haven't Changed PSA Screening Practice

TUESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- Despite the 2008 changes in U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations against prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening for prostate cancer in men 75 years or older, screening rates remained unchanged for men of all ages between 2005 and 2010, according to a research letter published in the April 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Text Messages to Parents Promote Flu Shots for Children

TUESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- A text messaging-based intervention increases influenza vaccination compared with usual care in a low-income, urban population, although overall rates of vaccination remain low, according to a study published in the April 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Tied to Coronary Heart Disease

TUESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality; and treatment with levothyroxine for subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with fewer ischemic heart disease (IHD) events in patients aged 40 to 70 years, according to two studies published online April 23 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Abstract - Razvi
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Patients With Acute Low Back Pain Have Poor Prognosis

TUESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- Few patients with acute low back pain (LBP), with or without sciatica, declare sick leave; however, approximately half have one or more recurrences and a considerable proportion experience chronic pain six months or longer after the initial episode, according to a study published in the April 15 issue of Spine.

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2001 to 2010 Saw 74 Percent Drop in Global Measles Mortality

TUESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- From 2001 to 2010, there was a 74 percent decrease in estimated global measles mortality, with mortality in India and the World Health Organization (WHO) African region accounting for most of the estimated cases in 2010, according to a study published online April 24 in The Lancet.

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Meds, Clinic Noncompliance Linked to Mortality in Diabetes

TUESDAY, April 24 (HealthDay News) -- Insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes who are noncompliant with their medication or clinic appointments face increased all-cause mortality, according to a study published online April 17 in Diabetes Care.

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S. Aureus, Enterotoxins ID'd in Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis

MONDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and S. aureus-secreted enterotoxins (SE) are frequently found in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), particularly in those with corneal ulceration, according to a study published online April 10 in Allergy.

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Bladder Cancer Diagnosis Encourages Smokers to Quit

MONDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Smokers with a new diagnosis of bladder cancer are significantly more likely to quit compared with smokers in the general population, according to a study published online April 23 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Abstract
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Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Reduce No-Reflow Post-PCI

MONDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), pretreatment with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is linked with reduced incidence of the no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), according to a study published online April 10 in Cardiovascular Therapeutics.

Abstract
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Shingles Vaccine Generally Well Tolerated in Older Adults

MONDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- The zoster vaccine is safe and well tolerated in older adults, despite an increased risk of allergic reaction in the days following vaccination, according to a study published in the Journal of Internal Medicine.

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Metabolites Linked to Insulin Resistance in Normoglycemia

MONDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Twenty metabolites, including amino acids, intermediates in glucose synthesis, ketone bodies, and fatty acids, are associated with insulin resistance, according to a study published online April 17 in Diabetes.

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Massachusetts Saw Recent Drop in Pediatric Obesity

MONDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of obesity among children younger than 6 years in a Massachusetts cohort was stable from 1999 to 2003, and decreased from 2004 to 2008, according to a study published online April 23 in Pediatrics.

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Reliability, Validity of Clinical Dehydration Scale Questioned

MONDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- A previously derived clinical dehydration scale (CDS) is characterized by moderate interobserver reliability and weak links with objective measures of disease severity for children administered intravenous rehydration, according to a study published online April 23 in Pediatrics.

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High BMI Tied to Non-Specific Foot Pain, Plantar Heel Pain

MONDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Increased body mass index (BMI) correlates with non-specific foot pain in the general population, and with chronic plantar heel pain in a non-athletic population, according to a meta-analysis published online April 13 in Obesity Reviews.

Abstract
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Insulin Resistance Cut-Off Established From Clamp Data

MONDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Cut-offs for predicting insulin resistance based on hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp data and routinely measured clinical and biochemical variables have been determined, according to a study published online April 17 in Diabetes Care.

Abstract
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Pain Coping Ability Impacts Lupus Symptomology

MONDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Pain coping strategies can significantly impact the physical symptoms and psychological distress experienced by patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), according to a study published online April 13 in Arthritis Care & Research.

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Pediatric Regimen Beats Adult Chemo for Young Adults With ALL

MONDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescent and young adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who are treated with pediatric-inspired regimens exhibit lower all-cause mortality, higher complete remission and event-free survival rates, and lower relapse rates compared with those treated with conventional adult-chemotherapy regimens, according to a study published in the May issue of the American Journal of Hematology.

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Patient-Centered Approach Key for T2DM Management

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment of type 2 diabetes should be personalized in a patient-centered approach, with diet, exercise, and education forming the basis of any treatment program, supplemented by medications as necessary, according to a joint position statement issued by the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, published online April 19 in Diabetes Care.

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Marijuana and Tobacco Co-Use Common in Young Adults

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Half of young adult tobacco smokers also have used marijuana in the last 30 days, and co-use occurs on nearly half of the days either substance is used, according to a study published online April 19 in Addiction Science & Clinical Practice.

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Computerized Therapy Equal to Usual Care for Depressed Teens

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- For adolescents presenting with depressive symptoms, use of a computerized cognitive behavior therapy intervention (SPARX; Smart, Positive, Active, Realistic, X-factor thoughts) is a potential alternative to usual care, according to a study published online April 19 in BMJ.

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Metformin + Insulin Comparable to Insulin Alone in T2DM

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment with metformin and insulin has no significant effect on all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, compared with insulin alone, although data are limited and suffer from bias, according to a meta-analysis published online April 19 in BMJ.

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Impaired Fasting Glucose Affects Male Sexual Health

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly 20 percent of men with sexual dysfunction have impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and are more likely than men with normal glucose levels to have severe erectile dysfunction (ED), reduced penile blood flow, and overt hypogonadism as well as increased overall cardiovascular (CV) risk, according to a study published online April 10 in The Journal of Sexual Medicine.

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QRS Width on ECG Linked to Sudden Cardiac Arrest in CAD

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), QRS width on electrocardiogram and echocardiographic evidence of heart failure are associated with out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), regardless of whether they have a history of previous myocardial infarction (MI), according to a study published in the May 1 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.

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Study Compares Effectiveness of Psoriasis Treatments

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- The effectiveness of therapies for psoriasis is variable, and may be lower in real-world settings than in trial settings, according to a study published in the April issue of the Archives of Dermatology.

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Race, Location Affect Probability of Survival to Age 70

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- The probability of a person surviving from birth to age 70 varies according to geographic location and gender, with a set of 22 socioeconomic and environmental factors accounting for almost all the variation, according to a study published online April 17 in PLoS One.

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Letting Go of Regret Linked to Healthy Aging

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Emotionally healthy aging is associated with an ability to let go of regrets and not dwell on missed opportunities, according to a study published online April 19 in Science.

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Prisoners at Risk for Non-Communicable Diseases

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of obesity, inadequate exercise, and poor diet among prisoners may put them at risk for non-communicable diseases (NCDS), according to a review published online April 20 in The Lancet.

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Eating Low-Fat Dairy Linked to Reduced Stroke Risk

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Eating low-fat dairy products is associated with a reduced risk of total stroke and cerebral infarctions, according to a study published online April 19 in Stroke.

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Pulmonary HTN Predicts Heart Failure After Acute MI

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a strong independent predictor of heart failure in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), according to a study published in the May 1 issue of The American Journal of Cardiology.

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CDC: HPV-Associated Cancers Strike More Than 30,000 Yearly

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Cancers associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV) are diagnosed in nearly 11 out of 100,000 men and women in the United States annually, and HPV vaccines play an important role in reducing the incidence of those cancers for which screening is not approved, according to a report published in the April 20 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Speed, Ecstasy Use in Teens Predicts Future Depression

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Use of meth/amphetamine and ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) among adolescents is associated with an increased risk of subsequent depressive symptoms, according to study published online April 19 in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.

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Use of PICU Beds for Non-Critical Care Found to Be Significant

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) beds are used for critical care services the majority of the time, but even when new patients are waiting for floor beds, at least one PICU bed is usually in use for non-critical care services, according to a study published in the April issue of the Journal of Hospital Medicine.

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Review Shows Gum Disease Does Not Cause Heart Disease

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Periodontal disease (PD) and atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) share common risk factors, but there is no evidence for a causal relationship between the two, nor evidence that treating PD prevents or alters the outcomes of ASVD, according to a scientific statement from the American Heart Association (AHA) published online April 18 in Circulation.

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Room for Improvement in Knowledge of ABC Levels, Goals

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Many individuals with diabetes do not know their last hemoglobin A1C (A1C), blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels (ABC levels), although the correlation between such knowledge and meeting targets for ABC control is unclear, according to a study published online April 12 in Diabetes Care.

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Bariatric Surgery Effective Therapy for Diabetes in Obese

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- For morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes, bariatric surgery is more efficacious than conventional medical treatment, leading to improvement or remission of diabetes and associated comorbidities, according to a study published online April 16 in the Archives of Surgery.

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Magnetically-Controlled Rod Shows Promise for Scoliosis

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Use of a magnetically-controlled growing rod (MCGR) procedure may be effective and safe for non-invasive outpatient distraction in children with scoliosis, according to research published online April 19 in The Lancet.

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Hospital Readmission Within 30 Days More Likely in Men

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Male gender is associated with increased hospital utilization within 30 days after index discharge, with hospital utilization in the preceding six months a risk factor for both males and females, according to a study published online April 3 in BMJ Open.

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Blood Test IDs Depressive Disorder in Adolescents

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- A blood test which measures transcriptomic markers may be useful for distinguishing early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents, according to a study published online April 17 in Translational Psychiatry.

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FDA: Clinicians Urged to Stop Using Certain Ultrasound Gel

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Hospitals, clinics, and health care professionals should immediately discontinue using Other-Sonic Generic Ultrasound Transmission Gel due to risk of bacterial contamination in certain batches, according to a safety communication issued April 18 by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration.

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Albendazole Cuts Enteric Parasite Prevalence in Refugees

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- The administration of a single 600-mg dose of albendazole to United States-bound refugees prior to departure from Africa and Southeast Asia reduces the prevalence of intestinal nematodes, according to a study published in the April 19 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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CV Autonomic Neuropathy Risk for CVD Despite Albumin Status

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) appears to affect the risk of cardiovascular disease even in type 1 diabetes patients with normal albumin excretion rates, according to a study published online April 12 in Diabetes.

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Higher Daily Physical Activity Reduces Alzheimer's Risk

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Higher total daily physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and with a lower rate of cognitive decline, according to research published online April 18 in Neurology.

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Basal Cell Carcinoma on Ear Significantly More Aggressive

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) on the ear is significantly more likely to be aggressive, and occurs more frequently in men, according to a study published in the May issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Numerous Genetic Variants Linked to Bone Mineral Density

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Pooling the results of numerous studies, 56 genetic variants associated with bone mineral density have been identified, of which 14 are associated with fracture risk, according to a study published online April 15 in Nature Genetics.

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Addicted Teens Benefit From 12-Step Meetings Attendance

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- For adolescents with substance use disorder, attendance at 12-step programs is low, although more frequent attendance correlates with greater abstinence, according to a study published online April 16 in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research.

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Medicare Coverage Gap Leads to Drug Discontinuation

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Part D Medicare beneficiaries who do not have financial assistance during the coverage gap are at increased risk for cardiovascular drug discontinuation, according to research published online April 17 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes.

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Study Looks at Patient Perception of Harm During Cancer Care

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Cancer patients may often experience what they believe to be a preventable, harmful event during the diagnosis or treatment of their cancer, but rarely do they formally report these events, according to research published online April 16 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Omega-3 Supplements Don't Benefit Patients With MS

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid supplements do not improve disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a study published online April 16 in the Archives of Neurology.

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Testosterone Ups Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure

TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Testosterone supplementation is associated with improved exercise capacity in patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure, according to a meta-analysis published online April 17 in Circulation: Heart Failure.

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New Fibrate Use Ups Serum Creatinine Levels in Elderly

TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- For elderly adults, new fibric acid derivative (fibrate) use is associated with an increase in serum creatinine levels, in hospitalizations for these levels, and in nephrologist consultations, according to a study published in the April 17 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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ICD-9 Codes Underestimate Statin-Linked Rhabdomyolysis

TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Use of diagnostic codes, such as International Classification of Diseases -- Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes, may result in misclassification of rare, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), including the risk of rhabdomyolysis from high-dose simvastatin, according to a research letter published in the April 18 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on comparative effectiveness research.

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Fewer Complications With IMRT for Prostate Cancer

TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer, treatment with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is associated with fewer complications than proton therapy or conformal radiation therapy, according to a study published in the April 18 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on comparative effectiveness research.

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Evidence Lacking for Value of CKD Screening and Monitoring

TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- There is no evidence that screening and monitoring for chronic kidney disease (CKD) improves clinical outcomes, according to research published in the April 17 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Preexposure Chemoprophylaxis Cuts HIV Infection at a Cost

TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Models show daily oral preexposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) in the general population of men who have sex with men (MSM) could prevent a substantial number of HIV infections, but at a high cost, according to a study published in the April 17 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Nutrition, Mobility Predict Early Death in Elderly Cancer Patients

TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Low nutritional assessment scores, poor mobility, and advanced disease predict early death after chemotherapy initiation among elderly patients with cancer, according to a study published online April 16 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Rate Down But Unintentional Injury Still Top Cause of Death

TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Although the unintentional injury death rate has declined over the last decade, it is still the leading cause of death among children and adolescents in the United States, according to a study published in the April 16 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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2001 to 2006 Saw Increase in Mohs Surgery for Skin Cancer

TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- For Medicare beneficiaries, the rate of use of Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) to treat nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) doubled from 2001 through 2006, according to research published in the April issue of the Archives of Dermatology.

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Depressed Moms May Trigger Infant Night Waking

TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal depression and dysfunctional cognition impacts mothers' behavior at bedtime and may affect infant sleep, according to a study published online April 17 in Child Development.

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Epidural Steroid Shot May Offer Modest Benefit in Sciatica

TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- For adults with lumbosacral radiculopathy, epidural steroid injections may be beneficial for short-term pain relief and improvements in functional capacity, according to a study published in the April 17 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Fast Food Salt Levels Vary Among Six Countries

MONDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- High salt content in pizza, fried chicken, and other products served by multinational food chains varies substantially across six countries, and even incremental reductions of the seasoning could have a big impact on improving the health of the population, according to a study published online April 16 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Pre-Pregnancy BMI Important Indicator of Offspring Obesity

MONDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy correlates with body mass index (BMI)-based overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity at age 16, but maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is a stronger indicator of offspring obesity, according to a study published in the May issue of BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynae

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