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Category: Neurology | Monthly Briefing

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April 2012 Briefing - Neurology

Last Updated: May 01, 2012.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Neurology for April 2012. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Prenatal Insecticide Exposure Alters Developing Brain

MONDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate insecticide, correlates with structural changes in the developing brain, according to a study published online April 30 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Abstract
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Patterns of Brain Activity Tied to Psychogenic Impotence

MONDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- The left superior parietal lobe of the brain is important in the inhibition of sexual response in men with psychogenic erectile dysfunction (ED), according to research published online April 17 in The Journal of Sexual Medicine.

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Distinct Neural Networks ID'd in Impulsivity Phenotypes

MONDAY, April 30 (HealthDay News) -- Distinct networks are associated with the impulsivity exhibited by adolescents who use drugs or have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a study published online April 29 in Nature Neuroscience.

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Early Axonal Dysfunction Precedes Diabetic Neuropathy

FRIDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Early axonal dysfunction may be detected prior to the development of clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, according to a study published online April 20 in Diabetes.

Abstract
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Childhood Socioeconomic Status Affects Brain Volume

FRIDAY, April 27 (HealthDay News) -- Childhood socioeconomic status affects hippocampal volume in older adults, after adjusting for adult socioeconomic status, gender, education, and other factors, according to a study published in the May issue of the Annals of Neurology.

Abstract
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Berries May Slow Cognitive Decline in Older Women

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Flavonoid-rich blueberries and strawberries may reduce cognitive decline in elderly women, according to a study published online April 25 in the Annals of Neurology.

Abstract
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Sleep of Short Duration Common in U.S. Workers

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- A substantial proportion of workers in the United States get less sleep than recommended by the National Sleep Foundation, according to a report published in the April 27 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Accelerated Aging Evident in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- The brains of individuals addicted to cocaine show accelerated loss of gray matter over and above the loss due to normal aging, according to a letter published online April 24 in Molecular Psychiatry.

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Modulator of mGluR5 Improves Features of Autism in Mice

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- A selective negative allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5), GRN-529, improves some behavioral features of autism in mouse models of the disorder, according to an experimental study published in the April 25 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

Abstract
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Warfarin Keeps Stroke Risk Low in Patients With A-Fib

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Use of warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a low risk of stroke or systemic embolism, according to a meta-analysis published in the April 23 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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Amyloid-β-Linked Cognitive Decline Linked to Phospho-Tau

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- In cognitively normal older individuals, amyloid-β (Aβ)-associated longitudinal cognitive decline only occurs in the presence of elevated phospho-tau 181 (p-tau181p) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), according to a study published online April 23 in the Archives of Neurology.

Abstract
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Resistance Training Aids Memory in Senior Women

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- For senior women with mild cognitive impairment, twice-weekly resistance training (RT) for six months is associated with improved cognition and brain plasticity compared with balance and tone (BAT) exercises, according to a research letter published in the April 23 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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Botox Modestly Improves Chronic Headaches, Migraines

WEDNESDAY, April 25 (HealthDay News) -- Botulinum toxin A provides a modest benefit for patients with chronic migraine headaches and chronic daily headaches, compared with placebo, according to a meta-analysis published in the April 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Efficacy of Serotonin Receptor Inhibitors in Autism Unclear

MONDAY, April 23 (HealthDay News) -- Serotonin receptor inhibitors (SRIs) have a small but significant effect in treating repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but this effect may be due to selective publication of trial results, according to a study published online April 23 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Novel Balanced Chromosome Abnormalities Found in Autism

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- New genetic variants associated with balanced alterations of chromosome structure have been identified in individuals with autism and related neurodevelopmental disorders, many of which are also present in individuals with schizophrenia, according to a study published online April 19 in Cell.

Abstract
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Letting Go of Regret Linked to Healthy Aging

FRIDAY, April 20 (HealthDay News) -- Emotionally healthy aging is associated with an ability to let go of regrets and not dwell on missed opportunities, according to a study published online April 19 in Science.

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Eating Low-Fat Dairy Linked to Reduced Stroke Risk

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Eating low-fat dairy products is associated with a reduced risk of total stroke and cerebral infarctions, according to a study published online April 19 in Stroke.

Abstract
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Long-Term Air Pollution Linked to Multiple Diseases

THURSDAY, April 19 (HealthDay News) -- Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter in the air increases hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and diabetes in the elderly considerably more than short-term exposure does, according to a study published online April 17 in PLoS One.

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Higher Daily Physical Activity Reduces Alzheimer's Risk

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Higher total daily physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and with a lower rate of cognitive decline, according to research published online April 18 in Neurology.

Abstract
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CV Autonomic Neuropathy Risk for CVD Despite Albumin Status

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) appears to affect the risk of cardiovascular disease even in type 1 diabetes patients with normal albumin excretion rates, according to a study published online April 12 in Diabetes.

Abstract
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Omega-3 Supplements Don't Benefit Patients With MS

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid supplements do not improve disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a study published online April 16 in the Archives of Neurology.

Abstract
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Genetic Variants Linked to Brain Size Identified

WEDNESDAY, April 18 (HealthDay News) -- Genetic variants associated with brain size have been identified, including one variant which correlates with hippocampal volume, where size has been associated with Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders, according to a study published online April 15 in Nature Genetics.

Abstract
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ICD-9 Codes Underestimate Statin-Linked Rhabdomyolysis

TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- Use of diagnostic codes, such as International Classification of Diseases -- Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes, may result in misclassification of rare, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), including the risk of rhabdomyolysis from high-dose simvastatin, according to a research letter published in the April 18 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on comparative effectiveness research.

Abstract
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Epidural Steroid Shot May Offer Modest Benefit in Sciatica

TUESDAY, April 17 (HealthDay News) -- For adults with lumbosacral radiculopathy, epidural steroid injections may be beneficial for short-term pain relief and improvements in functional capacity, according to a study published in the April 17 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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Fronto-Parietal Network Plays Role in General Intelligence

MONDAY, April 16 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have identified a role for the fronto-parietal network in the general factor of intelligence (g) and executive function, according to a study published in the April issue of Brain.

Abstract
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Noninvasive Monitoring of Intracranial Pressure Viable

FRIDAY, April 13 (HealthDay News) -- A model-based, patient-specific, calibration-free approach has been developed for estimation of intracranial pressure (ICP), according to a study published in the April 11 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

Abstract
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Mentholated Cigarettes Linked to Increased Stroke Risk

THURSDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Mentholated cigarettes are associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke, particularly among women and non-African-American smokers, according to a letter published in the April 9 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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Chronic Depression Patients Pick Acupuncture Over Counseling

THURSDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with depression can be recruited from primary care to compare acupuncture with counseling and general practitioner (GP) care, according to a study published in the April issue of CNS Neurosciences & Therapeutics.

Abstract
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Role of Omega-3 in Secondary Prevention of CVD Questioned

THURSDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), evidence is lacking for a secondary preventive effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplements, according to a meta-analysis published online April 9 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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Decreased Cancer Risk for Patients With PolyQ Diseases

THURSDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases have reduced incidence of cancer, according to a study published online April 12 in The Lancet Oncology.

Abstract
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Gestational Age Affects Severity of Autism Symptoms

THURSDAY, April 12 (HealthDay News) -- Both preterm (<37 weeks) and post-term (>42 weeks) gestational age (GA) children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) display more severe symptoms compared with those born at a normal GA, according to research published online March 16 in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.

Abstract
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Antidepressants Don't Worsen Parkinson's Symptoms

WEDNESDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- The antidepressants paroxetine and venlafaxine extended release (XR) reduce depression without worsening motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease, according to a study published online April 11 in Neurology.

Abstract
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Eight-Item Classifier Accurately Distinguishes Autism

WEDNESDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- The use of a short eight-item classifier identifies individuals with autism with high sensitivity and specificity, according to a study published online April 10 in Translational Psychiatry.

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Mobile Stroke Units Halve Time to Treatment

WEDNESDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Diagnosis and treatment of stroke in patients at the scene of the emergency rather than at the hospital about halves the time to treatment, according to a study published online April 11 in The Lancet Neurology.

Abstract
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Stroke Risk Much Higher If Sibling Has Had a Stroke

WEDNESDAY, April 11 (HealthDay News) -- Having a sibling who has had a stroke significantly increases the familial stroke risk by at least 60 percent, according to a study published online April 10 in Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics.

Abstract
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Ocular Tremors Pervasive in Patients With Parkinson's

TUESDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Ocular tremors, which prevent eye stability while fixating on a target, are pervasive among patients with Parkinson's disease, according to a study published online April 9 in the Archives of Neurology.

Abstract
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Frequent, Older Dental X-Rays Linked to Brain Cancer

TUESDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- Frequent bitewing or panorex dental X-rays taken on previous generations of machines are linked to an increased risk of intracranial meningioma, according to a study published online April 10 in Cancer.

Abstract
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Maternal Metabolic Disease Tied to Autism

MONDAY, April 9 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal metabolic conditions (MCs) increase the risk that a child will be born with a neurodevelopmental disorder, such as autism or developmental delay, according to a study published online April 9 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Immunotherapy Tied to Lower Alzheimer's CSF Biomarkers

FRIDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease, immunotherapy treatment with the anti-β-amyloid (Aβ) monoclonal antibody bapineuzumab results in lower concentrations of two cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers: total (T)-tau and phosphorylated (P)-tau, according to a study published online April 2 in the Archives of Neurology.

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Early Exposure to Interpersonal Trauma Harms Cognition

FRIDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to interpersonal trauma (IPT) in the first years of life is associated with decreased cognitive functioning in childhood, with exposure in the first two years particularly harmful, according to a study published online April 4 in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.

Abstract
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Study Finds Posterior C1 Fixation to Be Safe, Accurate

FRIDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- Posterior C1 screw fixation can be performed safely and accurately, without significant hemorrhaging, according to a study published in the March issue of The Spine Journal.

Abstract
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Physical Activity Predicts Functionality in Older Adults

FRIDAY, April 6 (HealthDay News) -- Physically active older adults experience significantly fewer functional limitations than more sedentary older adults, according to a study published online April 5 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

Abstract
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Prenatal Antipsychotics Impact Infant Neuromotor Function

THURSDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- The use of prescribed antipsychotics during pregnancy may result in significantly lower neuromotor performance in 6-month-old infants, according to a study published online April 2 in the Archives of General Psychiatry.

Abstract
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Posterior-Only Spinal Fusion Feasible in Parkinson's Disease

THURSDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with major spinal deformities, a posterior-only approach for spinal fusion from T2 to the sacrum is associated with good clinical and radiologic results as well as high patient satisfaction, according to a study published online March 28 in the Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques.

Abstract
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Flavonoid Intake May Protect Men Against Parkinson's

THURSDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- Total flavonoid intake is significantly associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in men, particularly the intake of anthocyanins and berries, according to a study published online April 4 in Neurology.

Abstract
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Studies Investigate Role of De Novo Mutations in Autism

THURSDAY, April 5 (HealthDay News) -- The contribution of de novo mutations to the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is complex, according to three sequencing studies published online April 4 in Nature.

Abstract - Sanders
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Abstract - O'Roak
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Abstract - Neale
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End-of-Life Decline of Cognitive Functions Are Correlated

WEDNESDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- In the last years of life, cognitive abilities decline rapidly, with a strong correlation between different functions; and cognitive activity is associated with cognitive function and predictive of cognitive decline, according to two studies published online April 4 in Neurology.

Abstract 1
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Abstract 2
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Medical Malpractice Claims Incur Substantial Defense Costs

WEDNESDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Defense costs for medical malpractice claims vary among specialties and are higher for claims that result in indemnity payments, according to a letter published in the April 5 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Extensive Neuroanatomic Abnormalities Found in Epilepsy

WEDNESDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- Childhood-onset temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with neuroanatomic abnormalities, although age-related brain changes are largely comparable for those with epilepsy and for controls, according to a study published online April 3 in Epilepsia.

Abstract
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Neupro Approved for Advanced Parkinson's and Restless Leg Syndrome

TUESDAY, April 3 (HealthDay News) -- The Neupro (rotigotine) transdermal system has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat advanced Parkinson's disease and moderate-to-severe restless leg syndrome, the Belgian drug maker UCB said Tuesday in a news release.

Medline Plus

Guidelines Improve Outcomes in Nonshockable Cardiac Arrest

MONDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- Implementation of the latest American Heart Association (AHA) resuscitation guidelines, which eliminate "stacked" shocks and emphasize chest compressions, results in significantly improved outcomes for patients experiencing nonshockable out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), according to a study published online April 2 in Circulation.

Abstract
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Six Developmental Trajectories ID'd in Children With Autism

MONDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- Six longitudinal developmental trajectories have been identified among children with autism, with significant heterogeneity seen in developmental pathways within these trajectories, according to a study published online April 2 in Pediatrics.

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In Taiwan, Diabetes Linked to Increased Parkinson's Risk

MONDAY, April 2 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals with diabetes in Taiwan have a significantly increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), which is robust across most age and gender stratifications, according to a study published online March 19 in Diabetes Care.

Abstract
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