Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for May 2012. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Adjunct Zinc Cuts Antibiotic Treatment Failure for Infants
THURSDAY, May 31 (HealthDay News) -- For infants aged 7 to 120 days with probable serious bacterial infection, zinc given as an adjunct to standard antibiotic treatment is associated with less treatment failure, according to a study published online May 31 in The Lancet.
M. Genitalium Ups Risk of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Cervicitis
THURSDAY, May 31 (HealthDay News) -- Infection with Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) is an independent and strong risk factor for both cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), according to a study published in the June issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Glucose Levels at Admission Predict Death in Pneumonia
WEDNESDAY, May 30 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with community-acquired pneumonia without preexisting diabetes, serum glucose levels at admission are predictive of death at 28 and 90 days, according to a study published online May 29 in BMJ.
Evidence for Prevention of HIV Transmission Reviewed
TUESDAY, May 29 (HealthDay News) -- Evidence-based pharmacologic strategies for prevention of HIV transmission include postexposure prophylaxis, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and early initiation of treatment, according to a review published online May 28 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.
Influenza Vaccine in Pregnancy May Improve Outcomes
TUESDAY, May 29 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women vaccinated for H1N1 influenza during their second or third trimesters were less likely to give birth before 32 weeks' gestation, have a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) baby, or have a stillbirth, compared with those who were not vaccinated, according to research published in the June issue of the American Journal of Public Health.
Individual Variation in Antiviral Response Present at Birth
FRIDAY, May 25 (HealthDay News) -- Congenital variations in innate immunity, which are detectable at birth, might predict an infant's susceptibility to acute respiratory tract illness during the first year of life, according to a study published in the May issue of the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.
Phylogenomic Analysis Reveals Origin, Spread of MRSA Clone
MONDAY, May 21 (HealthDay News) -- Phylogenomic analysis has revealed details about the emergence and transmission of a major methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone, EMRSA-16, according to research published online May 14 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Instrumented Spinal Fusion Method Impacts Infection Rate
MONDAY, May 21 (HealthDay News) -- For patients who undergo instrumented spinal fusion, the rates of infection are higher among those who receive posterior lumbar interbody fusion compared with those who receive posterior or posterolateral fusion, according to a study published online May 10 in the Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques.
'Pedicure Fish' May Harbor Pathogens for Zoonotic Disease
FRIDAY, May 18 (HealthDay News) -- Garra rufa (G. rufa), or doctor fish -- widely used in the health and beauty industries around the world, although currently banned in many U.S. states -- may harbor zoonotic disease pathogens, according to a letter to the editor published online May 16 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.
Leukoencephalopathy Risk Factors ID'd for MS Drug
WEDNESDAY, May 16 (HealthDay News) -- Multiple sclerosis patients taking natalizumab are at higher risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) if they are positive for the anti-JC virus antibodies, have been treated with immunosuppressants, and have been treated with natalizumab for longer periods, according to a study published in the May 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Azithromycin Tied to Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality
WEDNESDAY, May 16 (HealthDay News) -- Azithromycin treatment is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, according to a study published in the May 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
AIDS Relief Assistance Linked to Greater Decline in Mortality
TUESDAY, May 15 (HealthDay News) -- All-cause adult mortality declined more substantially in African countries in which the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) program operated more intensively between 2004 and 2008, according to a study published in the May 16 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on global health.
Global Deaths in Children Under 5 Down Since 2000
FRIDAY, May 11 (HealthDay News) -- From 2000 to 2010, there was a decrease in the global burden of death in children younger than 5 years of age, according to a study published online May 11 in The Lancet.
Infectious Agents Cause About One in Six Cancers Worldwide
WEDNESDAY, May 9 (HealthDay News) -- Globally, nearly two million new cancer cases are caused by infectious agents each year, according to a study published online May 9 in The Lancet Oncology.
High Infection Rates Seen in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
WEDNESDAY, May 9 (HealthDay News) -- Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have higher rates of hospitalized bacterial infection than children without the condition, and high-dose steroids significantly increase the rate of infection, according to a study published online May 8 in Arthritis & Rheumatism.
Probiotics Helpful in Reducing Antibiotic-Related Diarrhea
TUESDAY, May 8 (HealthDay News) -- Probiotics seem to be effective in preventing and treating antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), but more research is needed to know which probiotics are most effective for specific antibiotics, according to research published in the May 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Doesn't Impact Fetal Growth
TUESDAY, May 8 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal use of the anti-HIV drug tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) does not affect fetal growth but may lead to a delayed effect on infant growth in the first year, according to a study published online Feb. 29 in AIDS.
New Meningitis B Vaccine Strongly Immunogenic
MONDAY, May 7 (HealthDay News) -- A new meningococcus serogroup B vaccine is strongly immunogenic against multiple strains and well tolerated in healthy adolescents, according to a study published online May 7 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
Zinc May Shorten Duration of Common Cold in Adults
MONDAY, May 7 (HealthDay News) -- Oral zinc may shorten the duration of symptoms associated with the common cold in adults, but adverse effects are common, according to a review published online May 7 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.
Resistance Patterns of Urinary E. coli Isolates Changing
MONDAY, May 7 (HealthDay News) -- The antimicrobial resistance of urinary Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates to ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) increased substantially from 2000 to 2010, according to a study published in the April issue of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.
School Vaccination Requirements Up Coverage
MONDAY, May 7 (HealthDay News) -- Middle school entry vaccination requirements may increase coverage for adolescent vaccines, but education-only requirements do not appear to have an impact, according to a study published online May 7 in Pediatrics.
T Cell-Based HIV Gene Therapy Safe Over Long Term
FRIDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- T cell-based gene therapy for HIV seems safe, with no evidence of vector-induced cell immortalization more than a decade after treatment, according to a study published in the May 2 issue of Science Translational Medicine.
Hospitals Procure More Alcohol Rub, Soap During Campaign
FRIDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- The implementation of the Cleanyourhands campaign increased procurement of alcohol rub and soap, which is associated with decreased rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia and Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile) infection, according to a study published online May 3 in BMJ.
CMS Policy Helping Hospitals to Prevent Targeted Infections
FRIDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- Hospitals seem to be paying greater attention to preventing targeted health care-associated infections (HAIs) as a result of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) nonpayment policy, according to a study published in the May issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.
Mutated Bird Flu Virus Transmissible Between Ferrets
FRIDAY, May 4 (HealthDay News) -- A bird flu virus, which is not normally transmissible between humans, can be made transmissible between ferrets by mutations and combination with genes from a human pandemic swine flu virus, although the reassortant H5 hemagglutinin (HA)/H1N1 virus is not highly pathogenic and does not cause death, according to research published online May 2 in Nature.
Mechanism ID'd for Benefit of Stem Cells in Autoimmunity
WEDNESDAY, May 2 (HealthDay News) -- Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) activate a mechanism involving coupling of FAS/FAS ligand to induce T cell apoptosis and immune tolerance, according to an experimental study published online April 26 in Cell Stem Cell.
Methodological Heterogeneity Seen in Clinical Trials
TUESDAY, May 1 (HealthDay News) -- Clinical studies registered with ClinicalTrials.gov from 2007 and 2010 are predominately small, single-center trials and contain significant heterogeneity in methodology, according to a study published in the May 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
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