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Category: Infections | Monthly Briefing

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July 2012 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Last Updated: August 01, 2012.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for July 2012. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Higher Rates of Pertussis With Acellular Pertussis Vaccine

TUESDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Children who receive acellular pertussis vaccines have higher rates of pertussis compared with those receiving whole cell pertussis vaccines, according to a research letter published in the Aug. 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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CDC: Disparities Identified at All Stages of HIV Care

MONDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- Improvements are needed to reduce disparities at each stage of HIV care, according to a report released July 17 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to coincide with the International AIDS Conference, held from July 22 to 27 in Washington, D.C.

Press Release
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Study Highlights Importance of 'Good' Skin Bacteria in Immunity

FRIDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- Similar to the gut, commensal bacteria in the skin are important for protective T cell-based immunity, according to a study published online July 26 in Science.

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MRSA Skin Infections Up, Linked to Furunculosis

FRIDAY, July 27 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in the United States is increasing and is associated with follicular infection, most commonly folliculitis followed by furunculosis, according to a review published online July 16 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

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InteguSeal Does Not Reduce Scoliosis Surgery Infections

THURSDAY, July 26 (HealthDay News) -- Preoperative cyanoacrylate sealant (InteguSeal) application does not reduce the risk of surgical site infection for patients undergoing scoliosis surgery, according to a study published online July 18 in Spine.

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Syphilis Cuts CD4 Counts, Ups Viral Load in HIV-Infected Men

WEDNESDAY, July 25 (HealthDay News) -- Syphilis is associated with a transient decrease in the CD4 cell count and with an increase in viral load (VL) in HIV-infected men, according to a study published online July 23 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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CDC: HIV-Risk Behaviors Stable for U.S. High School Students

TUESDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Although there were reductions in HIV-related risk behavior among U.S high school students from 1991 to the early 2000s, behaviors have subsequently stabilized, according to research published in the June 24 early-release issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report to coincide with the International AIDS Conference, held from July 22 to 27 in Washington, D.C.

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About One in Six With HIV in U.S. Was Born Outside the U.S.

TUESDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- A total of 16.2 percent of individuals who received a diagnosis of HIV in the 46 U.S. states and five U.S. territories in 2007 to 2010 were born outside the United States, according to a study published online July 22 in the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on HIV/AIDS, to coincide with the International AIDS Conference, held from July 22 to 27 in Washington, D.C.

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Researchers Find New Treatment Promising for Tuberculosis

TUESDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Based on early bactericidal activity (EBA) studies, PA-824-moxifloxacin-pyrazinamide may be suitable for development as an anti-tuberculosis agent, according to a study published online July 23 in The Lancet.

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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Experts Advise Antiretrovirals for All HIV-Infected Patients

MONDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Based on recent data, current recommendations suggest that all patients infected with HIV should be treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), according to research published in the July 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, a theme issue on HIV/AIDS, to coincide with the International AIDS Conference, held from July 22 to 27 in Washington, D.C.

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Infants at Greatest Risk in 2010 California Pertussis Epidemic

FRIDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- In the 2010 California pertussis epidemic, all deaths and most hospitalizations occurred in infants younger than 3 months of age, according to research published online July 19 in the Journal of Pediatrics.

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HIV Drug-Resistance Up in Resource-Limited Settings

MONDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- In resource-limited settings, the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance has increased since antiretroviral rollout, according to a study published online July 23 in The Lancet.

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HIV Racial Disparities Noted for Men Who Have Sex With Men

FRIDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- Similar racial disparities are seen in HIV infection for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States and the United Kingdom, according to a study published online July 20 in The Lancet.

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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Vitamin B12 Improves Viral Response in Chronic Hepatitis C

FRIDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin B12 supplementation significantly improves the rate of sustained viral response (SVR) to pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection naive to antiviral therapy, according to a study published online July 17 in Gut.

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Pertussis Reaches Epidemic Level in Washington State

THURSDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Pertussis rates may reach record levels this year in the United States, where Washington state is experiencing an ongoing epidemic, according to a report published in the July 20 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Most Doctors Satisfied With Electronic Health Records

THURSDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Although only 55 percent of physicians had adopted electronic health records (EHRs) in 2011, most are somewhat or very satisfied with their system and most report enhanced patient care, according to a July data brief issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

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Chronic Periodontitis Increases Risk of Psoriasis

THURSDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) are 1.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with psoriasis, and this risk is lessened but not nullified by CP treatment using gingivectomy or periodontal flap operation, according to research published online July 3 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

Abstract
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Poorer Patient Experience at Safety-Net Hospitals

THURSDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Safety-net hospitals (SNHs) perform worse on nearly every measure of patient experience, according to a study published online July 16 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

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~12,000 Preventable Deaths in English Hospitals Annually

THURSDAY, July 19 (HealthDay News) -- Approximately 12,000 hospital deaths in England each year are preventable, according to research published online July 7 in BMJ Quality & Safety.

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HIV-2 Infection Inhibits HIV-1 Disease Progression

WEDNESDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- HIV-1 disease progression seems to be inhibited by co-infection with HIV-2, with the slower rate of progression enhanced in those whose HIV-2 infection preceded HIV-1 infection, according to a study published in the July 19 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Smoking Ups Recurrent Viral Hepatitis Post-Liver Transplant

WEDNESDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- For liver transplant recipients, smoking correlates with an increased risk of recurrent viral hepatitis, according to a study published in the July issue of Liver Transplantation.

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Milk Thistle Not Effective for Refractory Chronic Hepatitis C

WEDNESDAY, July 18 (HealthDay News) -- Use of the milk thistle extract silymarin does not provide additional benefit compared with placebo for patients with treatment-resistant chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), according to a study published in the July 18 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Social Network Analysis IDs Informal Physician Networks

TUESDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Informal networks among physicians who share patients demonstrate substantial geographic variability, while within networks, physician and patient characteristics are similar, according to a study published in the July 18 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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First Drug Approved to Lower Risk of Acquiring HIV

TUESDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) is the first drug to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to reduce the risk of contracting HIV among adults at higher risk of acquiring the AIDS-causing virus.

AIDS.gov

Gut Microbiota Correlate With Diet, Health in Elderly

TUESDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Analysis of gut microbiota from elderly individuals shows distinct groups that correlate with measures of health, including frailty and markers of inflammation, according to a study published online July 13 in Nature.

Abstract
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Drotrecogin Alfa (Activated) Effective in Severe Sepsis

TUESDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with severe sepsis, drotrecogin alfa (activated) is associated with significant reductions in hospital mortality, according to a study published online July 17 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

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Factors Influencing Hepatitis C RNA Levels in Drug Users ID'd

MONDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Levels of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in injection drug users are independently associated with various demographic, viral, and host genetic factors, including being older, male, African-American, and co-infected with HIV, according to a study published in the July issue of Hepatology.

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Claims Data Reveals Patients at Post-Op Infection Risk

FRIDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- Claims data can be used to accurately identify rates and risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) following spinal surgery, according to a study published in the July 1 issue of Spine.

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CDC: Babesiosis Risk in Northeast/Upper Midwest Travel

THURSDAY, July 12 (HealthDay News) -- Adults and children are vulnerable to a host of tick- and mosquito-borne diseases in many Midwestern, Northeastern, and Southwestern states, according to two reports published in the July 13 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

Full Text - Babesiosis
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HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis With Antiretrovirals Explored

WEDNESDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- The efficacy of prophylactic treatment with the antiretroviral combination of tenofovir and emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) seems to vary in different populations, according to three studies published online July 11 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract - Baeten
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Abstract - Van Damme
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'Mad Cow' Detectable Earlier in Autonomic Nervous System

WEDNESDAY, July 11 (HealthDay News) -- Prions responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are detectable in the autonomic nervous system before the central nervous system, according to a study published online July 11 in The American Journal of Pathology.

Abstract
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Flu Shot in Pregnancy Not Tied to Adverse Fetal Outcomes

TUESDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination during pregnancy does not increase the risk of adverse fetal outcomes, and influenza vaccination correlates with a small but significantly increased risk of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), according to two studies published in the July 11 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract - Pasternak
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Abstract - De Wals
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Meditation Training May Lower Respiratory Illness Burden

TUESDAY, July 10 (HealthDay News) -- Training in mindfulness meditation or exercise is linked to a decrease in the severity and duration of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in adults, according to a study published in the July/August issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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UTI Risk Up for Uncircumcised Boys Despite Urethral Visibility

MONDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Circumcised boys have a significantly lower risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) compared with uncircumcised boys, regardless of the degree of visibility of the urethral meatus, according to a study published online July 9 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

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Evidence of Herd Immunity After Introduction of HPV Vaccine

MONDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- Following introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine there has been a significant decrease in the prevalence of vaccine-type HPV among vaccinated young women and evidence of herd protection in unvaccinated women, according to a study published online July 9 in Pediatrics.

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Self-Directed Violence, Suicide Up in Parasite-Infected Women

FRIDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Women infected with the common parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) have an increased risk of self-directed violence, violent suicide attempts, and suicide, according to research published online July 2 in the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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CDC: Chagas Disease May Be Overlooked in Newborns

THURSDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Chagas disease, a parasitic infection that can lead to cardiomyopathy, is usually transmitted by contact with triatomine insects, but it can be passed congenitally, according to a case report published in the July 6 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.

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Test Approved to Help Manage CMV in Transplant Patients

THURSDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- The first DNA test to help doctors gauge the progress of antiviral treatment in solid organ transplant patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

solid organ transplant

Poor Coverage, Not Ineffective Vaccine Averts Polio Abolition

THURSDAY, July 5 (HealthDay News) -- Bivalent and monovalent oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs) are similarly effective, but decreases in vaccine coverage in parts of Pakistan and southern Afghanistan are hampering efforts to eradicate poliomyelitis, according to a study published online July 4 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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First Over-the-Counter HIV Test Approved

TUESDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- The first over-the-counter test to detect antibodies to the virus that causes AIDS has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the agency said Tuesday.

AIDS.gov

Community, Hospital MRSA Bacteremia Down in U.S. Military

TUESDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- The rates of both community-onset and hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia decreased from 2005 to 2010 among military personnel, according to a study published in the July 4 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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No Increase in Shingles After Vaccine in Those on Biologics

TUESDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- Live attenuated herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine is not associated with an increased risk of HZ shortly after vaccination in patients treated with biologics for immune-mediated diseases, according to a study published in the July 4 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Infection Rates Unaffected by Time to Debridement of Open Fx

TUESDAY, July 3 (HealthDay News) -- There is no association between infection rates and time to operative debridement of open fractures, according to research published in the June 20 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

Abstract
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Editorial

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