Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Gastroenterology for August 2012. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Fructose and Sugar Substitutes Alter Gut Microbiota
FRIDAY, Aug. 31 (HealthDay News) -- High consumption of fructose, artificial sweeteners, and sugar alcohols affect host-gastrointestinal microbe interactions and may contribute to the development of metabolic disorders and obesity, according to research published in the September issue of Obesity Reviews.
New Drug Approved for Irritable Bowel, Chronic Constipation
THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Linzess (linaclotide) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat forms of chronic constipation that don't respond to traditional treatment, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) accompanied by constipation, the agency said Thursday in a news release.
GI Pathogen at Lake Linked to Human Fecal Contamination
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Water at beaches along Lake Erie contains a pathogen associated with human fecal contamination, Arcobacter species, which are known to cause gastrointestinal illness in humans, and levels correlate with beach advisories, according to a study published in the August issue of Applied and Environmental Microbiology.
Novel Agent Tolerable, Active for Advanced Colorectal Cancer
TUESDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer who are refractory or intolerant to standard therapies, treatment with a novel oral nucleoside antitumor agent, TAS-102, is tolerable and shows promising efficacy, according to a phase 2 study published online Aug. 28 in The Lancet Oncology.
In Diabetes, Gastric Emptying Remains Stable Over Time
FRIDAY, Aug. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Gastric emptying of solids and liquids and gastrointestinal symptoms remain stable over time in patients with long-term type 1 and type 2 diabetes, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in Diabetes Care.
Pre-Op Eltrombopag Reduces Need for Platelet Transfusions
THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with chronic liver disease who require an invasive procedure as part of their routine care, the oral thrombopoietin-receptor agonist eltrombopag reduces the need for platelet transfusions, but also results in an increased incidence of portal-vein thrombosis, according to a study published in the Aug. 23 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Childhood Radiation Exposure of Pancreas Linked to Diabetes
THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- There is a dose-response relationship between childhood radiation exposure of the pancreas and subsequent risk of diabetes, according to a study published online Aug. 23 in The Lancet Oncology.
Prolonged Dexamethasone Cuts Delayed Nausea After Chemo
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Adding dexamethasone to prochlorperazine on days two and three, following palonosetron and dexamethasone on day one, reduces delayed nausea (DN) in patients receiving chemotherapy containing a platinum-based drug or an anthracycline, according to research published online Aug. 20 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Meta-Analysis Links Statins to Reduced Pancreatitis Risk
TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with normal or mildly elevated triglyceride levels, statin therapy correlates with a reduction in the risk of pancreatitis, according to a meta-analysis published in the Aug. 22/29 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
No Benefit Seen for Adjuvant Oxaliplatin in Stage II Colon CA
TUESDAY, Aug. 21 (HealthDay News) -- For elderly patients with colon cancer or those with stage II disease, the addition of oxaliplatin to fluorouracil with leucovorin (FL) does not seem to offer any survival benefit, according to a study published online Aug. 20 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Post-Polyp Detection, CRC Risk ID'd by Colonoscopy Factors
MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- In the community setting, after colonoscopic polyp detection, colonoscopy-related factors such as incomplete polyp removal and lack of surveillance colonoscopies are more important than polyp characteristics in predicting subsequent colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, according to a study published in the Aug. 21 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.
2012 Indicators of Well-Being for Older Americans Issued
MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The estimates of selected indicators for well-being for older Americans for 2012 have been released by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics.
Prevalence of TB, Hepatitis C, HIV High Among Homeless
MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The global prevalence of tuberculosis, hepatitis C virus infection, and HIV is high among homeless people, although significant heterogeneity is seen in prevalence estimates, according to a study published online Aug. 20 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
Pegylated Interferon Affects Growth, BMI in Children
THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Peg-IFN-α2a) treatment is linked to significant changes in body weight, linear growth, body mass index (BMI), and body composition in children treated for hepatitis C, according to a study published in the August issue of Hepatology.
Tofacitinib Benefits Patients With Active Ulcerative Colitis
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Tofacitinib, an oral inhibitor of Janus kinas 1, 2, and 3, can reduce disease severity and induce remission better than a placebo in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis, according to a study published in the Aug. 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Immune Response to Hep A Vaccine Persists in Children
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Hepatitis A vaccine-induced seropositivity, noted after vaccination of infants younger than 2 years, persists for at least 10 years, according to a study published in the August issue of Hepatology.
Poor Follow-Up of Hospital Tests Often Due to Late Orders
TUESDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Poor follow-up of test results at or after discharge from the hospital is often due to tests requested on the day of discharge, according to a letter to the editor published online Aug. 13 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Risk of Liver Injury Up With Certain Fluoroquinolones
MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Moxifloxacin and levofloxacin use correlates with an increased risk of acute liver injury in older patients without a history of liver disease, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.
Adalimumab Effective for Pediatric Crohn's Disease
MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- For pediatric patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease, for whom conventional treatment has been unsuccessful, adalimumab induction and maintenance therapy is effective, and appears to be safe, according to a study published in the August issue of Gastroenterology.
Bariatric Surgery Cuts MI Incidence in Obese With T2DM
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- For obese individuals with type 2 diabetes, bariatric surgery reduces the incidence of some cardiovascular events, specifically myocardial infarction, according to a study published online Aug. 1 in Diabetes Care.
Donor Obesity Ups Risk of Poor Pediatric Transplant Outcome
TUESDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Severe obesity, but not overweight, in adult donors is a risk factor for graft loss and mortality in pediatric liver transplant recipients, according to a study published in the August issue of Liver Transplantation.
Celiac Disease Prevalence Is Less Than 1 Percent in the U.S.
MONDAY, Aug. 6 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of celiac disease in the United States is 0.71 percent, according to research published online July 31 in the American Journal of Gastroenterology.
Zaltrap Approved for Advanced Colorectal Cancer
FRIDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Zaltrap (ziv-aflibercept) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in combination with a FOLFIRI regimen for adults with advanced metastatic colorectal cancer, the agency said Friday.
Clinicians Can Unintentionally Prompt Nocebo Effect
THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- The nocebo effect, or induction of a symptom perceived as negative by sham treatment and/or the suggestion of negative expectation, may arise from suggestions by doctors and nurses, according to a study published in Deutsches Ärzteblatt International.
Hypertension Ups Retinopathy Risk With HCV Treatment
THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) treated with pegylated interferon alpha (PegIFNα) and ribavirin, retinopathy occurs frequently, especially in those with hypertension, according to a study published in the August issue of Hepatology.
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