Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for August 2012. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Teen Vaccinations Found to Be Increasing As Recommended
THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Since 2006, a year after the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices expanded the vaccination schedule for adolescents, vaccination coverage has increased, but vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) in females lags behind other routine vaccinations, according to research published in the Aug. 31 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.
Novel Pathogenic Virus Identified in Missouri
THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- A novel pathogenic virus dubbed the Heartland virus, which is a member of the phlebovirus genus, has been identified in two patients from Missouri, according to a report published in the Aug. 30 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Resistance to Second-Line TB Drugs Is Common Globally
THURSDAY, Aug. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of patients with tuberculosis in eight countries show resistance to at least one second-line drug, with previous treatment with second-line drugs strongly associated with resistance to these drugs and with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis, according to a study published online Aug. 30 in The Lancet.
Once-Daily Pill Approved to Treat HIV
TUESDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Stribild (elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat adults with HIV.
AAP: Health Benefits of Male Circumcision Outweigh Risks
MONDAY, Aug. 27 (HealthDay News) -- The health benefits of circumcision for newborn males outweigh the risks, according to a policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published online Aug. 27 in Pediatrics.
Sequencing Identifies Spread of Deadly Bacterial Outbreak
THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- A drug-resistant bacterial strain that caused a serious outbreak resulting in deaths has been traced back to the original patient, and transmission patterns have been identified based on sequencing the genomes of the bacterial isolates, according to research published in the Aug. 22 issue of Science Translational Medicine.
Neti Pots Linked to Deaths From Amebic Infection
THURSDAY, Aug. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Two patients who died of an amebic infection had no history of freshwater exposure but had ameba in their household plumbing and used a nasal irrigation device for sinus problems, according to a study published online Aug. 22 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
Tattoo Ink Found to Be Source of M. Chelonae Outbreak
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Premixed tattoo ink has been found to be the source of an outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae in 19 patients in Rochester, N.Y., according to a study published online Aug. 22 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Opportunistic Infections Associated With Antibodies to IFN
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Neutralizing anti-interferon-γ autoantibodies are detected in most Asian adults with multiple opportunistic infections, according to a study published in the Aug. 23 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Infant Exposure to Antibiotics Linked to Later Obesity
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Infants exposed to antibiotics at younger than 6 months of age are at higher risk of being overweight in childhood, according to a study published online Aug. 21 in the International Journal of Obesity.
Fewer Circumcisions May Increase Infections and Costs
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 22 (HealthDay News) -- The reduced rate of neonatal male circumcision (MC) procedures performed in the United States is estimated to lead to increased infection prevalence and higher medical costs for men and women, according to a study published online Aug. 20 in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.
Substance in Human Breast Milk Protects Against HIV Transmission
MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- High concentrations of specific human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) appear to be protective against postnatal HIV transmission, according to research published online Aug. 15 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Azithromycin Treats Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis
MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis with at least one exacerbation in the past year, treatment with the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin correlates with a reduced rate of event-based exacerbations, according to a study published in the Aug. 18 issue of The Lancet, a theme issue on respiratory medicine.
Prevalence of TB, Hepatitis C, HIV High Among Homeless
MONDAY, Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The global prevalence of tuberculosis, hepatitis C virus infection, and HIV is high among homeless people, although significant heterogeneity is seen in prevalence estimates, according to a study published online Aug. 20 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
Vancomycin Overprescribed in Bloodstream MSSA Infections
FRIDAY, Aug. 17 (HealthDay News) -- In U.S. dialysis centers treating end-stage renal (ESRD) patients with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia, vancomycin is overprescribed, despite evidence of lower rates of hospitalization and death in cefazolin-treated patients, according to a study published online Aug. 16 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.
Pegylated Interferon Affects Growth, BMI in Children
THURSDAY, Aug. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Peg-IFN-α2a) treatment is linked to significant changes in body weight, linear growth, body mass index (BMI), and body composition in children treated for hepatitis C, according to a study published in the August issue of Hepatology.
Immune Response to Hep A Vaccine Persists in Children
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Hepatitis A vaccine-induced seropositivity, noted after vaccination of infants younger than 2 years, persists for at least 10 years, according to a study published in the August issue of Hepatology.
Poor Follow-Up of Hospital Tests Often Due to Late Orders
TUESDAY, Aug. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Poor follow-up of test results at or after discharge from the hospital is often due to tests requested on the day of discharge, according to a letter to the editor published online Aug. 13 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Risk of Liver Injury Up With Certain Fluoroquinolones
MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Moxifloxacin and levofloxacin use correlates with an increased risk of acute liver injury in older patients without a history of liver disease, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.
Staph Superantigen Induces Lupus-Like Features in Mice
MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Chronic exposure to superantigen (SAg)-producing Staphylococcus aureus can induce systemic inflammatory disease symptoms in mice, with features similar to those of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), according to a study published online July 13 in The Journal of Immunology.
High-Risk HPV Present in Subset of Penile Carcinomas
MONDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection is found in a subset of penile squamous cell carcinomas (PSCCs) that may develop from undifferentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), according to a study published online Aug. 6 in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.
CDC Issues Revised Guidelines for Gonorrhea Treatment
THURSDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Oral cefixime should no longer be considered the treatment of choice for gonorrhea; instead, patients should be treated with injectable ceftriaxone in combination with an oral antibiotic, azithromycin or doxycycline, according to revised guidelines published in the Aug. 10 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report.
Vaccine Transiently Modifies Autoimmunity in Diabetes
THURSDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- A tuberculosis vaccine can reduce autoimmunity and increase insulin production in patients with long-term type 1 diabetes, according to a study published online Aug. 8 in PLoS One.
After Bariatric Op, Controlled Diet Can Aid CaOx Supersaturation
THURSDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- After bariatric surgery, following a diet that is normal in calcium, low in oxalate, and moderate in protein, can improve urinary calcium oxalate (CaOx) supersaturation, but not urinary oxalate excretion, in patients with a history of kidney stones, according to a study published in the August issue of Urology.
Infection Risk Up for Seniors With Rheumatoid Arthritis
TUESDAY, Aug. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Elderly adults with rheumatoid arthritis have a considerable risk of serious infection, with antirheumatic drug use increasing the risk, according to a study published online July 25 in Arthritis Care & Research.
Sleep Duration Affects Hepatitis B Vaccine Response
MONDAY, Aug. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Sleeping less than six hours per night lowers the secondary antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination and significantly reduces the likelihood of individuals being clinically protected from hepatitis B, according to research published in the Aug. 1 issue of SLEEP.
Nurse Burnout Linked to Health Care-Associated Infections
FRIDAY, Aug. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Nurse burnout correlates with increased health care-associated infection rates of the urinary tract and surgical sites, according to a study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.
Clinicians Can Unintentionally Prompt Nocebo Effect
THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- The nocebo effect, or induction of a symptom perceived as negative by sham treatment and/or the suggestion of negative expectation, may arise from suggestions by doctors and nurses, according to a study published in Deutsches Ärzteblatt International.
Cellular Mechanisms of HIV-1 Dissemination Elucidated
THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- HIV-1-infected T cells are motile, form syncytia, and play a key role in HIV dissemination, according to a letter to the editor published online Aug. 1 in Nature.
Hypertension Ups Retinopathy Risk With HCV Treatment
THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) treated with pegylated interferon alpha (PegIFNα) and ribavirin, retinopathy occurs frequently, especially in those with hypertension, according to a study published in the August issue of Hepatology.
Rabies Virus Exposure Linked to Possible Natural Resistance
THURSDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Remote communities in the Peruvian Amazon at risk of rabies infection show signs of exposure to the virus, suggesting that exposure may not always be fatal, according to a study published in the August issue of the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Manufacturer's Cleaning Ineffective for Suction Tips
WEDNESDAY, Aug. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Following the manufacturer's recommendations is inadequate for cleaning suction tips, with residual debris identified after cleaning, according to a study published in the August issue of the AORN Journal.
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