Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for September 2012. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
HIV Outcomes Similar Across Groups in Inner-City Clinic
FRIDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- HIV health processes and outcomes are similar for all demographic and behavioral groups, according to a study published online Sept. 26 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
Proteins in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells Fight Pathogens
FRIDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Epithelial cytokeratins constitutively produce cytoprotective antimicrobial peptides and serve as an innate defense mechanism in human corneal epithelial cells, according to a study published online Sept. 24 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.
Conditional Reprogramming Can Help ID Pathogenic Viruses
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Conditional reprogramming can be successfully used to generate cell cultures from normal and tumor tissue of a patient with papillomatosis, facilitating identification of a mutant human papillomavirus (HPV) and allowing appropriate treatment, according to a study published in the Sept. 27 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Physicians' Gut Feelings Should Not Be Dismissed
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Having a gut feeling about the seriousness of an illness, despite clinical assessment of non-severe illness, is associated with an increased risk of serious illness, according to a study published online Sept. 25 in BMJ.
Antibiotic Use Varies by Season, Geographic Region for Elderly
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Antibiotic usage among older adults varies widely by geographical region and season, according to a study published online Sept. 24 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Risk of Post-Cesarean Infection Up for Overweight, Obese
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 26 (HealthDay News) -- About 10 percent of U.K. women who undergo cesarean section develop a surgical site infection, with the odds significantly increased for overweight or obese women, according to a study published in the October issue of BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
Bacteriophages of P. acnes Have Limited Genetic Diversity
TUESDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Bacteriophages that infect the dominant bacteria inhabitant of the human sebaceous follicle, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), which contributes to the pathogenesis of acne, have limited genetic diversity and display a broad host range, according to a study published online Sept. 25 in mBio.
Childhood Antibiotic Exposure Linked to Development of IBD
MONDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Early exposure to antianaerobic antibiotics in childhood is associated with an increased risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according to research published online Sept. 24 in Pediatrics.
Leaving Balloon in Is Safe in Urinary Sphincter Revision
FRIDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Intentionally leaving the pressure-regulating balloon in place during a non-infected artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) revision procedure is safe and is not associated with infection or complications, according to research published online Sept. 13 in The Journal of Sexual Medicine.
Safe for Intravenous Catheters to Be Replaced As Needed
FRIDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters as clinically indicated is as safe as routine replacement, according to a study published in the Sept. 22 issue of The Lancet, a theme issue on surgery.
Nonmedical School Vaccination Exemptions Increasing
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Nonmedical exemptions for school vaccination requirements have increased since 2005, particularly in states with easy exemption policies, according to a letter to the editor published in the Sept. 20 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Suspected Viruses Don't Cause Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 19 (HealthDay News) -- There is no relationship between chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and either xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) or polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV), according to a study published online Sept. 18 in mBio.
Biomarkers Identified in Head and Neck Cancers
TUESDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with head and neck cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection predicts survival when determined by viral load and viral gene expression rather than the presence of viral DNA or expression of the p16 tumor suppressor gene, according to two studies published online Sept. 18 in Cancer Research.
No Increased Cancer Risk With Herpes Zoster Infection
MONDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- There is no increased risk of cancer among patients with newly diagnosed herpes zoster infection, according to a study published online Sept. 17 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.
Microbiome Changes Linked to Chronic Sinusitis
THURSDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Alterations in bacterial communities present in the sinuses correlate with chronic sinusitis, according to a study published in the Sept. 12 issue of Science Translational Medicine.
Whooping Cough Vaccine Protection Short-Lived
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 12 (HealthDay News) -- After receiving the last of five required doses of pertussis vaccine, a child's protection from the disease rapidly declines, according to a study published in the Sept. 13 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Safe Dengue Vaccine Deemed Feasible
TUESDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- A safe recombinant, live, attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine has been deemed possible, according to a study published online Sept. 11 in The Lancet.
Updated Guidelines Issued for 'Strep' Diagnosis, Treatment
TUESDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends use of penicillin or amoxicillin as first-line treatment for culture-confirmed cases of Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis, according to updated clinical practice guidelines published online Sept. 9 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
Potential Pandemic Influenza Virus Circulating in Pigs
TUESDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- An influenza virus circulating in pigs in South Korea is highly lethal and transmissible in a ferret model of infection; it is lethal to mice, replicates efficiently, and infects human lung tissue after acquisition of additional mutations, according to a study published online Sept. 10 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
AAP Updates Flu Vaccine Recommendations for Children
Michael T. Brady, M.D., and colleagues from the AAP's Committee on Infectious Diseases, updated recommendations for routine use of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine and antiviral medications for the prevention and management of influenza in children for the 2012 to 2013 season.
Antiretrovirals Increasingly Used for HIV in the U.S.
FRIDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Since 2000, more HIV-infected patients in the United States are receiving antiretroviral treatment, viral load has fallen, and CD4 counts at death have risen, according to a study published in the Sept. 4 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.
Not All Docs/Nurses Want to Be Asked About Hand Hygiene
FRIDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Although most health care workers (HCWs) appreciate the role of patients in preventing health care-associated infection, a considerable proportion are uncomfortable with patients asking about their hand hygiene, according to a letter published online Sept. 3 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Score Can Assess One-Year Risk of Serious Infection in RA
THURSDAY, Sept. 6 (HealthDay News) -- A risk score based on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease characteristics and comorbidities has been developed and validated for assessing the one-year risk of serious infection, according to research published in the September issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.
Prevalence of Diagnostic Errors in the ICU Assessed
THURSDAY, Sept. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Diagnostic errors in the intensive care unit (ICU) are prevalent, with 28 percent of autopsies reporting at least one misdiagnosis, according to a study published online July 21 in BMJ Quality & Safety.
Rates of Medical Exemptions for School Immunization Low
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Rates of medical exemptions from vaccinations required for entry to kindergarten are higher in states with easier criteria to obtain them, according to a study published online Aug. 29 in The Journal of Infectious Diseases.
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