Create Account | Sign In: Author or Forum

 
News  |  Journals  |  Conferences  |  Opinion  |  Articles  |  Forums  |  Twitter    
 
Category: Pathology | Monthly Briefing

Back to Journal Articles

September 2012 Briefing - Pathology

Last Updated: October 01, 2012.

 

Share |

Comments: (0)

Tell-a-Friend

 

  Related
 

Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for September 2012. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

SNPs Linked to Erectile Dysfunction After Radiotherapy

FRIDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with development of erectile dysfunction (ED) following radiotherapy for prostate cancer, according to a study published online Sept. 28 in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Proteins in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells Fight Pathogens

FRIDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Epithelial cytokeratins constitutively produce cytoprotective antimicrobial peptides and serve as an innate defense mechanism in human corneal epithelial cells, according to a study published online Sept. 24 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Abstract
Full Text

Pregnancy Generates Sustained Maternal Anergy to Fetal Antigen

FRIDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnancy generates fetal-specific immune cells that suppress the immune response towards the fetus, which are rapidly re-accumulated in subsequent pregnancies, according to an experimental study published online Sept. 26 in Nature.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Distinct Lung Microbiome in Cystic Fibrosis, Healthy Adults

FRIDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- The lungs of healthy people are colonized with a diverse community of microbes that differs substantially from the bacteria found in the lungs and sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), according to research published online Sept. 26 in Science Translational Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Male DNA Common in Women's Brains

FRIDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Over 60 percent of women have male DNA in their brains, possibly from a prior pregnancy with a male fetus, which is associated with a lower prevalence of Alzheimer's disease, according to a study published online Sept. 26 in PLoS One.

Abstract
Full Text

Much of Intellectual Disability Not Genetically Inherited

THURSDAY, Sept. 27 (HealthDay News) -- A considerable proportion of severe intellectual disability results from de-novo genetic variants, suggesting that only a small proportion of cases are likely to be inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion, according to a study published online Sept. 27 in The Lancet.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Myogenes Identified for Spondyloarthritis Synovitis

THURSDAY, Sept. 27 (HealthDay News) -- There are disease-specific and inflammation-independent stromal alterations in spondyloarthritis (SpA) synovitis, according to a study published online Sept. 12 in Arthritis & Rheumatism.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Negative Response to Uncertain Prenatal Microarray Results

THURSDAY, Sept. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Women do not necessarily consider the potential significance and ambiguity of the information they could receive from prenatal microarray testing, according to a study published online Sept. 6 in Genetics in Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Transcription Profile Distinguishes Subgroups in MS

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) can be differentiated according to their transcription profile, according to a study published in the Sept. 26 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Gut Bacteria Offers Clues About Risk of Developing T2DM

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Gut bacteria from individuals with and without diabetes differ substantially and can be used to accurately discriminate between those with and without the disease, according to a study published online Sept. 26 in Nature.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Conditional Reprogramming Can Help ID Pathogenic Viruses

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Conditional reprogramming can be successfully used to generate cell cultures from normal and tumor tissue of a patient with papillomatosis, facilitating identification of a mutant human papillomavirus (HPV) and allowing appropriate treatment, according to a study published in the Sept. 27 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Cord Blood-Derived Stem Cells Localize to Intestinal Crypt

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Cord blood-derived cells can preferentially migrate and engraft into the intestine, which could be useful in treating disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, according to a study published in the September issue of Hepatology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

BPA Alters Oogenesis and Follicle Formation in Primates

TUESDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Rhesus monkeys exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) experience alterations in early oogenesis and follicle formation, according to a study published online Sept. 24 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Marijuana-Like Chemical Corrects Behavior in Fragile X

TUESDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- The protein lost in fragile X syndrome, the most common genetic cause of autism, is part of a complex that, when targeted by a drug that boosts a natural marijuana-like chemical in the brain, corrects some of the behavioral abnormalities in mice, according to a study published online Sept. 25 in Nature Communications.

Full Text

Bacteriophages of P. acnes Have Limited Genetic Diversity

TUESDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Bacteriophages that infect the dominant bacteria inhabitant of the human sebaceous follicle, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), which contributes to the pathogenesis of acne, have limited genetic diversity and display a broad host range, according to a study published online Sept. 25 in mBio.

Abstract
Full Text

Protein Linked to Male Infertility Can Activate Eggs

TUESDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Injecting eggs with a recombinant human phospholipase Cζ (PLCζ), a protein linked to male infertility, can activate calcium ion oscillations, which are necessary for oocyte activation and successful embryo development, according to a study published online Sept. 24 in Fertility and Sterility.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Best Mouse Model of Tumor Drug Exposure Identified

TUESDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Compared with mouse or human melanomas transplanted into mice, a genetically-engineered mouse melanoma model best approximates the tumor pharmacokinetics of a melanoma drug observed in patients, according to a study published online Sept. 19 in The Oncologist.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Childhood Antibiotic Exposure Linked to Development of IBD

MONDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Early exposure to antianaerobic antibiotics in childhood is associated with an increased risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according to research published online Sept. 24 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Genetic Variants Identified for Risk of Male Breast Cancer

MONDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with an increased risk of male breast cancer have been identified, according to a study published online Sept. 23 in Nature Genetics.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Urge to Overeat Linked to Production of Natural Narcotic

FRIDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- When presented with tasty foods, the brain produces the opioid peptide enkephalin that stimulates an unexpected reward center in the brain and leads to overeating, according to a study published online Sept. 20 in Current Biology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia Pathogenesis Studied

FRIDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2), which is activated by cowhage, may play a role in central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA), the most common cause of scarring hair loss in African-American women, according to research published online Sept. 17 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Channel Blockers Reduce Causes of Asthma Symptoms

THURSDAY, Sept. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Epithelial expression of the calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) TMEM16A is increased in patients with asthma, and its inhibition negatively regulates epithelial mucin secretion and airway smooth muscle contraction, according to a study published online Sept. 17 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Neuroprosthesis Improves Decision-Making in Monkeys

THURSDAY, Sept. 20 (HealthDay News) -- A neuroprosthetic device can improve or restore impaired decision-making in monkeys, according to a study published in the October issue of the Journal of Neural Engineering.

Abstract
Full Text

Drug Improves Social Function in Fragile X Syndrome

THURSDAY, Sept. 20 (HealthDay News) -- A γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) agonist, STX209 (Arbaclofen), can significantly improve social function in patients with fragile X syndrome, according to a study published in the Sept. 19 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Bladder Cancer Survival Similar for Partial, Radical Cystectomy

THURSDAY, Sept. 20 (HealthDay News) -- For select patients with bladder cancer, there is no difference in metastasis-free or cancer-specific survival with partial cystectomy (PC) or radical cystectomy (RC), but there is an increased risk for intravesical recurrence for those treated with PC, according to research published in the October issue of The Journal of Urology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Thin Placenta at Birth Ups Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death Later

THURSDAY, Sept. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Sudden cardiac death in adults is associated with placental size at birth, with a significantly increased risk of death for decreased placental thickness, according to a study published online Sept. 19 in the International Journal of Epidemiology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Emotional Neglect in Childhood Ups Stroke Risk in Adults

THURSDAY, Sept. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Emotional neglect as a child may be tied to a higher risk of stroke as an adult, according to a study published online Sept. 19 in Neurology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

CSF Assay Moderately Accurate for Diagnosing Sporadic CJD

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 19 (HealthDay News) -- For individuals with suspected sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 14-3-3 protein assay is a useful diagnostic test, according to research published online Sept. 19 in Neurology.

Abstract
Full Text

Higher Dietary Fructose Tied to Lower Liver Energy Stores

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Increased dietary fructose consumption may impair hepatocellular energy homeostasis, as seen with reduced levels of liver adenosine triphosphate (ATP), with lower levels seen in those with high uric acid (UA) levels, according to a study published in the September issue of Hepatology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Breast Tumor's Molecular Subtype Key in Treatment Choice

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Molecular subtypes are predictors of breast cancer mortality and can play a role in determining the best course of treatment to follow, according to a study published online Sept. 18 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Nearly Half of European Mortality Due to Cancer, Chronic Disease

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Deaths from cancer and chronic diseases accounted for approximately 42 percent of deaths in 2007 across the European Union (EU), according to a study published online Aug. 28 in BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Suspected Viruses Don't Cause Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 19 (HealthDay News) -- There is no relationship between chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and either xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) or polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV), according to a study published online Sept. 18 in mBio.

Abstract
Full Text

Drug Class Unexpectedly Effective on Breast Cancers

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Drugs that normally target cancer cells defective in DNA homologous recombination repair, poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, are also effective on breast cancer cells positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), even in the absence of the repair defect, according to a study published in the Sept. 15 issue of Cancer Research.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Biomarkers Identified in Head and Neck Cancers

TUESDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with head and neck cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection predicts survival when determined by viral load and viral gene expression rather than the presence of viral DNA or expression of the p16 tumor suppressor gene, according to two studies published online Sept. 18 in Cancer Research.

Abstract - Holzinger
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Abstract - Liang
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Melanoma Transection Doesn't Affect Overall Survival

TUESDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Melanoma transection does not affect disease-free survival or mortality, according to a study published online Sept. 10 in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Cancer Incidence and Mortality Declining for Hispanics

MONDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Cancer incidence and death rates seem to be declining for Hispanics, but screening use is lower than for non-Hispanic whites, according to two studies published online Sept. 17 in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.

Abstract - Siegel
Full Text
Abstract - Cokkinides
Full Text

No Increased Cancer Risk With Herpes Zoster Infection

MONDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- There is no increased risk of cancer among patients with newly diagnosed herpes zoster infection, according to a study published online Sept. 17 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association.

Abstract
Full Text

Ethnic Variation Seen in Level of Pancreatic Triglycerides

MONDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- There is considerable ethnic variation in the levels of pancreatic triglycerides (TGs) and in β-cell dysfunction, according to research published online Sept. 11 in Diabetes Care.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

White Matter Structural Changes ID'd in Children With T1DM

MONDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Children with type 1 diabetes have significant structural differences in the white matter of their brain compared to healthy children, which correlates with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values, according to a study published online Sept. 10 in Diabetes Care.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Distinct Chromatin Patterns Linked to Heart Development

MONDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Distinct chromatin patterns accompany the development of heart cells from embryonic cells, providing a blueprint that could help identify the causes of congenital heart disease, according to a study published online Sept. 13 in Cell.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Up Over Time in Oldest Old

FRIDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- For the oldest old, increases in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) occur over time but do not correlate with mortality, according to a study published online Aug. 9 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Microbiome Changes Linked to Chronic Sinusitis

THURSDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Alterations in bacterial communities present in the sinuses correlate with chronic sinusitis, according to a study published in the Sept. 12 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Review: Inflammation's Role in Obesity-Colorectal Cancer Link

THURSDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- A new review summarizes the ways in which inflammation and altered metabolism are associated with colorectal cancer in obese individuals; the review was published online Sept. 3 in Obesity Reviews.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Study Supports IL16 Role in Prostate CA in African-Americans

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 12 (HealthDay News) -- In African-Americans, IL16 polymorphisms appear to play a role in prostate cancer susceptibility, according to research published online Aug. 24 in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Effect of Copy-Number Variation in Disease Elucidated

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 12 (HealthDay News) -- There is considerable variation in the phenotypes associated with recurrent copy-number variants, with multiple, large copy-number variants compounding to result in severe clinical presentation, according to a study published online Sept. 12 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Rare Cancer Syndrome Linked to Lower Diabetes Risk

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 12 (HealthDay News) -- People with Cowden syndrome, with tumor-suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) mutations that increase their risk of cancer, have enhanced sensitivity to insulin even though they are more likely to be obese, according to a study published in the Sept. 13 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Flow Cytometry Indicates Treatment Response in AML

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 12 (HealthDay News) -- For children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), minimal residual disease (MRD) activity, as measured using flow cytometry, is a good indicator of treatment response, with morphologic analysis providing limited additional information, according to a study published online Sept. 10 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Genomic Alterations ID'd in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

TUESDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Genomic characterization of lung squamous cell carcinomas has identified several statistically recurrent mutations, according to a study published online Sept. 9 in Nature.

Full Text

SPECT/CT Associated With Improved Survival in Melanoma

TUESDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with clinically lymph node-negative melanoma, the use of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) to aid sentinel lymph node excision (SLNE) is associated with increased detection of metastatic involvement and improved disease-free survival, compared with standard SLNE, according to a study published in the Sept. 12 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Molecular Differences ID'd for Small/Non-Small Cell Lung CA

TUESDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Molecular differences have been identified in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, which may represent potential therapeutic targets, according to a study published online Sept. 6 in Cancer Discovery.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Potential Pandemic Influenza Virus Circulating in Pigs

TUESDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- An influenza virus circulating in pigs in South Korea is highly lethal and transmissible in a ferret model of infection; it is lethal to mice, replicates efficiently, and infects human lung tissue after acquisition of additional mutations, according to a study published online Sept. 10 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Many Disease Variants Found in Regulatory DNA Regions

TUESDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Most of the gene variants associated with disease are located within regulatory DNA regions, according to a study published in the Sept. 7 issue of Science.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Marijuana Use Linked to Higher Risk of Testicular Cancer

MONDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Marijuana use is associated with an approximately two-fold higher risk of testicular cancer, particularly nonseminoma and mixed histology tumors, according to a study published online Sept. 10 in Cancer.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Antibody Titer Prognostic in Membranous Nephropathy

FRIDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Two techniques can be used to measure antiphospholipase A2 receptor (aPLA2R) antibody titers in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN), with antibody titers indicative of outcome, according to research published online Sept. 6 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Elevated Rheumatoid Factor Ups Risk of Developing RA

FRIDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals in the general population with elevated levels of rheumatoid factor have a significantly increased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, according to a study published online Sept. 6 in BMJ.

Full Text
Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Antiretrovirals Increasingly Used for HIV in the U.S.

FRIDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Since 2000, more HIV-infected patients in the United States are receiving antiretroviral treatment, viral load has fallen, and CD4 counts at death have risen, according to a study published in the Sept. 4 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Not All Docs/Nurses Want to Be Asked About Hand Hygiene

FRIDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Although most health care workers (HCWs) appreciate the role of patients in preventing health care-associated infection, a considerable proportion are uncomfortable with patients asking about their hand hygiene, according to a letter published online Sept. 3 in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Characteristics of Long-Term Gastric Cancer Survivors ID'd

THURSDAY, Sept. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with gastric and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer who survive for longer than three years after diagnosis seem to have distinct demographic and pathologic characteristics, compared with those who do not survive, according to research published online Sept. 4 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Prevalence of Diagnostic Errors in the ICU Assessed

THURSDAY, Sept. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Diagnostic errors in the intensive care unit (ICU) are prevalent, with 28 percent of autopsies reporting at least one misdiagnosis, according to a study published online July 21 in BMJ Quality & Safety.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Remodeling Starts Within 48 Hours of Cardiac Injury

THURSDAY, Sept. 6 (HealthDay News) -- After cardiac injury, signs of remodeling are observed as early as 48 hours, and include structural changes and enlargement of the heart, and associated changes in cell populations, according to a study published online Sept. 4 in The American Journal of Pathology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Congenital Disease Linked to Adipocyte Development

THURSDAY, Sept. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Some patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL), who lack adipocytes and develop severe insulin resistance, have a defect in adipocyte development that can be partially reversed, according to a study published online Aug. 28 in Diabetes.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

MAOA Gene Expression Linked to Happiness in Women

TUESDAY, Sept. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Women with low expression of a gene involved in breaking down neurotransmitters report greater happiness, according to a study published online Aug. 4 in Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Gene Variant More Common in Internet Addicts

TUESDAY, Sept. 4 (HealthDay News) -- A variant of a gene implicated in anxiety and addiction (nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 4 [CHRNA4]) is more frequent in people addicted to the Internet, particularly females, according to a study published in the September issue of the Journal of Addiction Medicine.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Copyright © 2012 ScoutNews, LLC. All rights reserved.


Previous: September 2012 Briefing - Nephrology Next: September 2012 Briefing - Radiology

Reader comments on this article are listed below. Review our comments policy.


Submit your opinion:

Name:

Email:

Location:

URL:

Remember my personal information

Notify me of follow-up comments?

advertisement.gif (61x7 -- 0 bytes)
 

Are you a Doctor, Pharmacist, PA or a Nurse?

Join the Doctors Lounge online medical community

  • Editorial activities: Publish, peer review, edit online articles.

Doctors Lounge Membership Application

 
     

 advertisement.gif (61x7 -- 0 bytes)

 

 

Useful Sites
MediLexicon
  Tools & Services: Follow DoctorsLounge on Twitter Follow us on Twitter | RSS News | Newsletter | Contact us
Copyright © 2001-2014
Doctors Lounge.
All rights reserved.

Medical Reference:
Diseases | Symptoms
Drugs | Labs | Procedures
Software | Tutorials

Advertising
Links | Humor
Forum Archive
CME | Conferences

Privacy Statement
Terms & Conditions
Editorial Board
About us | Email

This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. Click to verify. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information:
verify here.