The annual meeting of the American College of Chest Physicians was held from Oct. 20 to 25 in Atlanta and attracted approximately 6,000 participants from around the world, including specialists and heath care professionals in the pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine fields. The conference featured presentations focusing on clinical updates in chest medicine, including advances in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine.
In one study, Panagiotis Behrakis, M.D., of the University of Athens in Greece, and colleagues found that short-term exposure to secondhand smoking at the car/bar level leads to immediate adverse changes in pulmonary mechanics, inducing difficulties in quiet breathing.
"In our study, 20 young non-smoking volunteers were exposed for 20 minutes to a special chamber in an environment simulating a moving car with a smoking driver or a smoke-filled bar. Measurements of respiratory system resistance, reactance, and impedance (mechanical parameters of the respiratory system showing the difficulty of respiratory system to move air in and out the lungs) were performed before and immediately after the exposure," Behrakis said. "The difficulty of normal breathing imposed after such an exposure was proved to be statistically significant (P < 0.01) and physiologically important. None of the exposed volunteers experienced any discomfort."
In another study, Francesco de Blasio, M.D., of the Clinic Center Private Hospital in Naples, Italy, and colleagues evaluated the treatment and outcomes of 305 children who presented with acute cough associated with the common cold, including 89 who received antibiotics only and 38 who received a combination of antibiotics and antitussives. In addition, 44 children received central antitussives, 79 children received peripheral antitussives only, and 55 children received no medication.
The investigators found no significant difference in the relief of cough between children who received antibiotics only and those who received antibiotics plus antitussives. In addition, children treated with antibiotics only had a lower percentage of cough resolution as compared to children treated with antitussive only.
Nicola Hanania, M.D., of the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, and colleagues found that roflumilast significantly improved lung function in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) after six months of treatment as compared to patients who received placebo. The investigators randomized 4,746 patients with either mild, moderate, or severe COPD to roflumilast or placebo.
"Roflumilast was associated with significant improvements in lung function, as measured by forced expiratory volume in one second, in both moderate and severe COPD subjects after six months of treatment compared with placebo," the authors write. "Roflumilast consistently improved lung function over six months. Adverse events were similar to those reported previously in pivotal roflumilast trials. The results in moderate or severe COPD patients suggest that similar benefits on lung function are observed with roflumilast treatment regardless of COPD severity."
Several authors disclosed financial relationships with pharmaceutical companies.
CHEST: Poverty, Rural Living Tied to Increased COPD Deaths
TUESDAY, Oct. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Deaths due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary widely by age, geographic location, and poverty level, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Chest Physicians, held from Oct. 20 to 25 in Atlanta.
CHEST: More High-Risk Emboli for PE Presenting With Syncope
MONDAY, Oct. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) who present to the emergency department with syncope are more likely to have a high-risk, large embolism, with a chief complaint of syncope significantly more common in those with recent airline travel, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Chest Physicians, held from Oct. 20 to 25 in Atlanta.
CHEST: Novel Stress Reduction Method Can Improve Sleep
MONDAY, Oct. 22 (HealthDay News) -- A simple stress reduction technique, the 10-minute "Tension Tamer," can significantly reduce stress and improve sleep quality and fatigue, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Chest Physicians, held from Oct. 20 to 25 in Atlanta.
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