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Category: Pathology | Monthly Briefing

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October 2012 Briefing - Pathology

Last Updated: November 01, 2012.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for October 2012. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Genetic Marker Associated With Smoking Linked to ADHD

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 31 (HealthDay News) -- A genetic marker previously identified as associated with smoking may also be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a study published online Oct. 29 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

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Interstitial Cystitis Pain Linked to SNP in Sodium Channel

TUESDAY, Oct. 30 (HealthDay News) -- For a subset of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), pain perception may be influenced by the presence of a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel, according to a study published online Oct. 25 in Urology.

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ApoE ε3 Is Most Common ApoE Among Oldest Old

TUESDAY, Oct. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Most nonagenarians carry the ApoE ε3 genotype and few carry the ApoE ε4 genotype, with no association noted between the ApoE ε4 allele and quality of life (QOL), according to a study published in the October issue of the Journal of the American Medical Directors Association.

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Adverse Prognostic Factor ID'd in Operable Breast Cancer

TUESDAY, Oct. 30 (HealthDay News) -- For women with operable breast cancer, moderate immunohistochemical expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 (2+) without amplification of HER-2 (HER-2 2+/HER-2) is an adverse prognostic factor, according to a study published online Sept. 4 in The Oncologist.

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Potential Biomarker, Drug Target ID'd for Adult Leukemia

MONDAY, Oct. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Tumors from adults with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) have epigenetic changes, leading to the identification of a potential biomarker and a possible drug target, according to research published online Oct. 29 in Cancer Discovery.

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Quitting Before 40 Avoids Most Excess Smoking-Linked Mortality

MONDAY, Oct. 29 (HealthDay News) -- For U.K. women, the hazards of smoking and benefits of quitting are considerable, with women who quit before age 30 avoiding more than 97 percent of excess smoking-related mortality, according to a study published online Oct. 27 in The Lancet.

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Burden of Gastrointestinal Disease in U.S. Substantial

MONDAY, Oct. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Gastrointestinal diseases account for substantial morbidity, mortality, and cost in the United States, according to research published in the November issue of Gastroenterology.

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Muscle Response to IL-6 Defective in Type 2 Diabetes

THURSDAY, Oct. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Skeletal muscle cells from people with type 2 diabetes have defects in glucose metabolism but have normal lipid metabolism after treatment with interleukin-6 (IL-6), according to a study published online Oct. 18 in Diabetes.

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Link Between Vitamin D, Mortality Not Impacted by eGFR

THURSDAY, Oct. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Adults with low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) have increased mortality, regardless of the presence of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 ml/min/1.73 m², according to a study published online Oct. 24 in PLoS One.

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Intestinal Bacteria Profile Altered in Pediatric Crohn's

THURSDAY, Oct. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatric patients with Crohn's disease have altered levels of particular fecal bacterial species, some of which correlate with disease severity, according to a study published in the October issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology.

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Negative Pigment Network Able to Distinguish Melanoma

THURSDAY, Oct. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Negative pigment network (NPN) can be used to distinguish melanoma from Spitz nevus and other benign lesions, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

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Aspirin Improves Survival for CRC With PIK3CA Mutation

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), regular use of aspirin after diagnosis is associated with longer survival for those with the mutated phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha polypeptide gene (PIK3CA), according to a study published in the Oct. 25 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Better Prognosis for Early Blast Clearance in Leukemia

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with acute myeloid leukemia whose peripheral blood blasts clear in six days or less after chemotherapy have significantly better survival than patients whose peripheral blasts clear later, according to a study published in the Nov. 1 issue of Cancer.

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Signaling in Prostate Tumors Indicates Responsiveness

TUESDAY, Oct. 23 (HealthDay News) -- A test of the androgen responsiveness of circulating tumor cells in men with metastatic prostate cancer before and after androgen-deprivation therapy may help determine the best subsequent treatment, according to a study published online Oct. 23 in Cancer Discovery.

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Genuine Very Large Effects in Trials Rare in Medicine

TUESDAY, Oct. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Large treatment effects are most likely to be found in small studies, with the effect diminishing with additional trials, according to research published in the Oct. 24 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Guidelines Stretch Interval for Cervical Cancer Screening

TUESDAY, Oct. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Cervical cancer screening should be performed every three to five years, according to the new Clinical Management Guideline published in the November issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Genetic Predisposition to Diabetes Ups Risk of CVD

TUESDAY, Oct. 23 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), having a genetic predisposition towards the disease is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to a study published online Oct. 15 in Diabetes Care.

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House Dust Protein Worsens Allergic Asthma

FRIDAY, Oct. 19 (HealthDay News) -- A bacterial protein found in house dust can promote the development of allergic asthma in response to indoor allergens, according to a letter published online Oct. 14 in Nature Medicine.

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Increased Human Life Expectancy Relatively Recent

FRIDAY, Oct. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Most of the increase in human life expectancy has occurred in the last four generations, out of the roughly 8,000 generations that have ever lived, according to a study published online Oct. 15 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Linezolid Beneficial in Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis

THURSDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Adding linezolid to ongoing background therapy for the treatment of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) pulmonary tuberculosis is effective in achieving culture conversion, but patients must be carefully monitored for adverse events, according to research published in the Oct. 18 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Return to Work Difficult for Doctors on Sick Leave

THURSDAY, Oct. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Returning to work after a prolonged sick leave for physical or mental health problems, or drug or alcohol problems, is difficult for doctors, who describe self-stigmatization and fear a negative response on their return to work, according to a study published online Oct. 15 in BMJ Open.

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Universal Screening Modestly Ups Lynch Syndrome Diagnosis

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 17 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with colorectal cancer, universal testing for mutations in genes associated with Lynch syndrome, the most common form of hereditary colorectal cancer, has modestly better diagnostic sensitivity than other strategies, according to a study published in the Oct. 17 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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β-Amyloid Load Linked to Decline in Memory for Elderly

TUESDAY, Oct. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Elevated cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ) load is associated with greater decline in episodic and working memory for healthy and cognitively normal older adults over an 18-month period, with a larger effect than that seen for the APOE ε4 allele, according to research published in the Oct. 16 issue of Neurology.

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About 170 Million Healthy Life-Years Lost to Cancer Globally

TUESDAY, Oct. 16 (HealthDay News) -- The age-adjusted disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost from cancer are considerable, with 169.3 million years of healthy life lost globally in 2008, according to a study published online Oct. 16 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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Study Suggests How Obesity Promotes Tumor Growth

MONDAY, Oct. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Fat cells can be recruited to tumors where they contribute to the growth of tumor blood vessels, according to a study in the Oct. 15 issue of Cancer Research.

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Filaggrin Mutations Up Risk of Irritant Contact Dermatitis

FRIDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Both atopic dermatitis (AD) and loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are independently associated with an increased risk of developing chronic irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), with people having both mutations at about a five-fold higher risk, according to research published online Oct. 5 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

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Gene Signature Validated for Oral Cancer Metastases

FRIDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- A multigene signature effectively predicts the presence of lymph node metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC) and oropharynx (OPSCC), according to a study published online Oct. 8 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Gastro Illness in Infancy Linked to Islet Autoimmunity

FRIDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Gastrointestinal illnesses are associated with increased risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) among children who are exposed to wheat or barley either early or late in infancy, according to a study published online Oct. 5 in Diabetes Care.

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Gene Variant in Donors Affects Kidney Graft Survival

FRIDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the donor ABCB1 gene, known to alter protein expression, significantly increases the risk of long-term graft failure, according to a study published online Oct. 11 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Collaborative Infection Control Benefits All Regional Hospitals

THURSDAY, Oct. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Collaborative infection control efforts to reduce the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other organisms are likely to obtain better results than hospitals acting alone, according to research published in the October issue of Health Affairs.

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Biomarker Can Help Identify Pleural Mesothelioma

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Fibulin-3 levels in plasma and lung fluids can discriminate patients with mesothelioma from others with asbestos exposure or those whose lung effusions are unrelated to mesothelioma, according to a study published in the Oct. 11 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Gene Signatures Predict Outcome in Prostate Cancer

TUESDAY, Oct. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Gene expression signatures can identify men with low- or high-risk advanced prostate cancer, according to two studies published online Oct. 9 in The Lancet Oncology.

Abstract - Ross
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Abstract - Olmos
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Gene Variant Linked to Uterine Fibroid Risk

MONDAY, Oct. 8 (HealthDay News) -- A variant of a gene involved in fatty acid synthesis that is often overproduced in cancers is associated with a higher risk of developing uterine fibroids, according to research published in the Oct. 5 issue of the American Journal of Human Genetics.

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SNP in Gene Involved in Immunity Tied to Lung Cancer

MONDAY, Oct. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Genomic data suggest that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer of B cells 1 (NFKB1) is associated with lung cancer, with the cytosine-thymine (CT)/TT genotype linked to reduced risk, according to a study published online Oct. 8 in Cancer.

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Potential New Colorectal Cancer Treatment Target Identified

FRIDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- The cell surface marker carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CD66c) is a novel marker for colorectal cancer stem cell isolation, which halts tumor growth when silenced, according to research published online Oct. 1 in Cancer.

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Delayed Auditory Processing Found in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

FRIDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Preschool children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) display delays in auditory processing, which may serve as a useful neural marker of information processing difficulties, according to research published in the October issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research.

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Wide Variation in Screening for Multidrug Organisms in ICUs

FRIDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- The adoption of multidrug resistant organism (MDRO) screening and infection control interventions in intensive care units (ICUs) varies widely, according to a study published in the October issue of the American Journal of Infection Control.

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Two-Day Test Can Improve Molecular Diagnosis in Newborns

THURSDAY, Oct. 4 (HealthDay News) -- A new test that combines whole-genome sequencing with bioinformatics can potentially identify genetic diseases in newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit in about two days, according to a study published in the Oct. 3 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

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Limiting the Problem of Missing Data Urged for Clinical Trials

WEDNESDAY, Oct. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Missing data compromise inferences from clinical trials, and due to the problematic nature of compensation with analysis methods, the importance of avoiding missing data in clinical trials is paramount, according to a special report published in the Oct. 4 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Common Herbicide Linked to Rare Birth Defect

TUESDAY, Oct. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal exposure to a common herbicide, atrazine, is associated with a nearly two-fold higher risk of having offspring with a rare birth defect of the nasal cavity, according to a study published online Sept. 28 in The Journal of Pediatrics.

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New Database IDs Variants Linked to Colorectal Cancer

TUESDAY, Oct. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Sixteen variants at 13 loci have been identified as having a highly credible association with colorectal cancer, according to research published online Sept. 26 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

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Study Probes How Some HIV Patients Resist AIDS

TUESDAY, Oct. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Rare HIV-infected individuals who are able to control the virus, known as elite controllers, generate specific immune responses that correlate with viral control in a monkey model of AIDS, according to a study published online Sept. 30 in Nature.

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Higher Risk of Esophageal, Stomach Cancer With AIDS

MONDAY, Oct. 1 (HealthDay News) -- There is an increased risk of esophageal and stomach cancers among people with AIDS, according to a study published in the October issue of Gastroenterology.

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Gene ID'd With Possible Role in Disc Degeneration

MONDAY, Oct. 1 (HealthDay News) -- The PARK2 gene may be associated with lumbar disc degeneration (LDD), according to a study published online Sept. 19 in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

Abstract
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Imaging Method Can Assess Solid Tumor Aggressiveness

MONDAY, Oct. 1 (HealthDay News) -- The interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) of solid tumors, as measured using a new noninvasive, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, may be useful as a novel potential biomarker for tumor aggressiveness and lymph node metastasis, according to a study published in the Oct. 1 issue of Cancer Research.

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