The annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America was held from Nov. 25 to 30 in Chicago and attracted more than 55,000 participants from around the world, including radiologists, radiation oncologists, physicists in medicine, radiologic technologists, and other health care professionals. The conference featured approximately 1,800 scientific papers in 16 sub-specialties covering the newest trends in radiological research, as well as more than 2,100 education and informatics exhibits.
In one study, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Ph.D., of the Rush University Medical Center in Chicago, and colleagues evaluated the microstructural integrity of white matter in elderly persons with different levels of cognitive activity in late life.
"We discovered that elderly persons with a high frequency of cognitive activity have higher microstructural integrity in brain white matter than persons with a lower frequency of cognitive activity. The benefit to the microstructural integrity of brain white matter varied throughout the brain, and was statistically significant in brain networks previously shown to be critical to cognition," Arfanakis said. "Our findings suggest that frequent cognitive activity in late life may be associated with healthier brain wiring, which is crucial to maintaining good cognitive function."
In another study, Thomas Link, M.D., of the University of California in San Francisco, and colleagues found that both very-low and very-high activity levels appear to lead to more degenerated cartilage.
"In 205 individuals, aged 45 to 60, we looked at the knee cartilage over four years using a molecular imaging-type magnetic resonance imaging technique called T2 relaxation time. This technique measures water content and collagen structure and provides information on early cartilage degeneration which may lead to osteoarthritis of the knees. We divided these individuals into low, moderate, and high physical activity groups using a questionnaire (physical activity scale for the elderly), which was available every year for four years," Link said. "We found that the group with the highest physical activity levels (top third) had the highest T2 relaxation time increase compared to the moderate physical activity group (middle third). These findings indicate a higher degree of degeneration over time. In addition, we found that the individuals with the lowest activity levels (lowest 15 percent) also had a significantly higher degree of degeneration over time."
Overall, Link recommends that a moderate physical activity level such as regular walking is best suited to prevent cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis.
In a study examining the benefits of exercise in Parkinson's disease, Chintan Shah, of the Cleveland Clinic, and colleagues found that pedaling rate was highly correlated to changes in brain connectivity that occur in Parkinson's patients after exercise.
"There was a strong positive correlation between pedaling rate and the change in connectivity between some deeper brain structures involved in motor control (the thalamus) and the motor cortex. This indicates that patients who pedal faster are more likely to see increases in connectivity between these regions," Shah said. "The main conclusion is that pedaling rate is a key factor that underlies the efficacy of exercise in Parkinson's disease."
RSNA: In Men, Visceral Fat Linked to Lower Bone Strength
WEDNESDAY, Nov. 28 (HealthDay News) -- For obese men, visceral fat is a risk factor for reduced bone strength, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, held from Nov. 25 to 30 in Chicago.
RSNA: Patients Need to Be Educated About Breast Density
WEDNESDAY, Nov. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Patients need to be educated regarding breast density and alternative screening modalities, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, held from Nov. 25 to 30 in Chicago.
RSNA: Breast CA Risk Estimates Up From Repeated Prior CT Use
TUESDAY, Nov. 27 (HealthDay News) -- The impact of different screening modalities on cancer risk has been quantified in two studies presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, held from Nov. 25 to 30 in Chicago.
RSNA: Impact of 2009 USPSTF Mammogram Guidelines Assessed
TUESDAY, Nov. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Recommendations issued in 2009 by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) may lead to missed cancers for women in their 40s and a decrease in mammography screening, according to two studies presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, held from Nov. 25 to 30 in Chicago.
RSNA: Gender Affects Patterns of Brain Atrophy in Alzheimer's
MONDAY, Nov. 26 (HealthDay News) -- For patients who progress from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD), the extent and distribution of regional gray matter (GM) loss is influenced by gender, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, held from Nov. 25 to 30 in Chicago.
RSNA: High Energy Output Tied to Preserved Brain Structure
MONDAY, Nov. 26 (HealthDay News) -- For older adults with varying cognitive function, high energy output correlates with greater preservation of brain structure, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, held from Nov. 25 to 30 in Chicago.
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