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Category: Infections | Monthly Briefing

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July 2009 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Last Updated: August 03, 2009.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for July 2009. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Hepatitis C Virus Viremia Linked to Higher Mortality

FRIDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are at higher risk of death if they have markers of viremia, according to a study in the August issue of Hepatology. A related study in the same issue found that HCV infection is associated with a higher risk of death, although this risk is reduced after long-term treatment.

Abstract - Butt
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Abstract - Uto
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Editorial

Lupus Patients Exhibit Lower Response to Flu Vaccine

FRIDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may be more susceptible to influenza infection after vaccination because of impaired cell-mediated and antibody responses, according to a study in the August issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.

Abstract
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Laboratory Worker Infected With Vaccinia Virus

FRIDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- A laboratory worker in Virginia became infected with the vaccinia virus, leading to severe eye and ear infection, and the tracing of 102 potential contacts, according to a study published in the July 31 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Electronic Disease Surveillance Systems Vary Widely

FRIDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Electronic disease surveillance systems vary widely from state to state and the lack of homogeneity will raise the cost of data sharing, according to a study published in the July 31 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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U.S. Health Data Network a Powerful Tool for Quality

FRIDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. health care system is on the verge of a new era in which distributed health data networks will assure local control of sensitive individual patient data, while providing medical researchers and policy makers access to powerful aggregate data on millions of patients, according to a pair of articles in the September 1 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Abstract - Maro
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Abstract - Pace
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Antifungal Properties of Breast Cancer Drug Defined

THURSDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- The breast cancer drug tamoxifen may have activities against pathogenic yeast and may interfere with the function of calmodulin in its role as an antifungal agent, according to a study in the August issue of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

Abstract
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Oropharyngeal Cancer Survival Linked to Virus Infection

THURSDAY, July 30 (HealthDay News) -- African-Americans with oropharyngeal cancer have worse survival than Caucasians, and worse survival is associated with a lower prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, according to a study published online July 29 in Cancer Prevention Research.

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Pregnant Women, Children Among H1N1 Vaccine Priorities

WEDNESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women, health care workers, and children who are aged 6 months and older should be the first to receive this fall's H1N1 swine flu vaccine, according to recommendations made July 29 by a U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) panel.

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Malaria Presents Significant but Resolvable Challenges

WEDNESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- As malaria becomes more resistant to standard therapy, a sustained commitment to the development of life-saving interventions, including vaccines, has become imperative, according to a series of studies published in the July 30 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract - Dondorp
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Abstract - Roestenberg
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Urine Test Could Effectively Screen Men for Chlamydia

WEDNESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- A rapid urine test is a reliable diagnostic tool for chlamydia infection in men, and could be a cost-effective alternative to polymerase chain reaction assay in high-prevalence settings, according to a study published online July 28 in BMJ.

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H1N1 Flu Infection Poses Special Danger in Pregnancy

WEDNESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- The novel H1N1 influenza virus poses a particularly high risk of hospitalization and death in pregnant women and all pregnant women with known or suspected infection should receive prompt antiviral treatment, according to a July 29 statement from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the corresponding paper published online July 29 in The Lancet. Vaccination for well pregnant women is also urged.

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Screening Under-25s May Not Cut Cervical Cancer Rates

WEDNESDAY, July 29 (HealthDay News) -- Screening women aged 20 to 24 for cervical cancer has little impact on rates of invasive cancer up to age 30, according to a study published online July 28 in BMJ, while another study concludes that women with persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are at increased risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

Abstract - Sasieni
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Abstract - Castle
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H1N1 Can Cause Neurologic Complications in Children

FRIDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- H1N1 influenza can lead to neurologic complications in children, according to a study published in the July 24 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Methods to Determine Health Care Priorities Questioned

FRIDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Evaluating health care priorities based on the attitudes of patients (direct method) or the attitudes of the general public (indirect method) can produce different results, complicating decisions on the allocation of health care resources, according to two papers published July 22 in BMJ.

Abstract - Arnold
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Abstract - Dolan
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Camera Phones Can Help Doctors Make Rare Diagnoses

FRIDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- A pregnant patient with an uncommon nipple condition captured images of the transient changes to her nipples and gave them to her doctor, enabling an accurate diagnosis, according to an article published online July 22 in BMJ.

Abstract
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Marker of Renal Injury May Aid in Diagnosis

FRIDAY, July 24 (HealthDay News) -- Urinary levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a marker of renal tubular injury, are higher in patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) and in critically ill patients who develop acute kidney injury, according to two studies published online July 23 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

Abstract - Paragas
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Abstract - Siew
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Flu Vaccine Effects Uncertain in Immunocompromised

THURSDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Though roughly 1 percent of the U.S. population is immunocompromised for a variety of reasons, data on the efficacy of influenza vaccines in these individuals are scarce, according to research published in the August issue of The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Abstract
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Effect of Different Vaccines in H5N1 Pandemic Compared

THURSDAY, July 23 (HealthDay News) -- Vaccines against H5N1 influenza containing non-aluminum adjuvant might be the best formulation for immunizing the public in the event of a pandemic, according to research published in the August issue of The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Abstract
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Combo Treatments Appear to Be Equally Effective for Hep C

WEDNESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection, three different treatment regimens of standard-dose or low-dose peginterferon alpha-2b or peginterferon alfa-2a, in combination with ribavirin are equally safe and effective, according to a study published online July 23 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Prolonged AIDS Treatment May Help Control Hepatitis B

WEDNESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- In patients who are co-infected with HIV and the hepatitis B virus, prolonged use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may help control hepatitis B virus infection and delay or prevent liver complications, according to a study in the May/June issue of HIV Clinical Trials.

Abstract
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Impact of School Closings on Flu Pandemic Still Unknown

WEDNESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- Though school closures could potentially help reduce the impact of an influenza pandemic, many economic and societal aspects related to closing schools need to be further investigated, according to research published in the August issue of The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Abstract
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Blunt Needles May Cause Less Surgical Glove Perforations

WEDNESDAY, July 22 (HealthDay News) -- The use of blunt needles may be associated with fewer glove perforations during closure following Caesarean delivery, but with lower physician satisfaction with the needles, according to research published in the August issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Abstract
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HIV Genetic Tests Associated With Improved Survival

TUESDAY, July 21 (HealthDay News) -- Taking the HIV-1 genotypic and phenotypic susceptibility testing (GPT) to guide antiretroviral treatment selection is associated with improved survival of HIV-infected adults, according to a study in the July 21 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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FDA Approves 2009-2010 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine

MONDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved an influenza vaccine for the 2009-2010 season, according to a news release issued July 20 by the FDA.

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Sexual Health Not Improving in Teens and Young Adults

FRIDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- The sexual and reproductive health status of adolescents and young adults is flattening or worsening after a long period of improvement, according to a new Surveillance Summary published July 17 in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Vaccination Shifts Course of Rotavirus Infection Patterns

FRIDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- The timing and course of rotavirus epidemics is dependent on the size of the population that has never been infected, and can be shifted by vaccinating at least 80 percent of children in the population, according to a study published in the July 17 issue of Science.

Abstract
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Obesity Rates Highest Among African-American Population

FRIDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- The prevalence of obesity is far higher among African-Americans than Caucasians in America, and Hispanics also have significantly higher obesity rates, according to a study published in the July 17 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Circumcision Does Not Cut Female Partners' HIV Risk

FRIDAY, July 17 (HealthDay News) -- Circumcision of HIV-infected men does not confer any additional protection on their female sexual partners, and condoms remain essential for prevention of HIV transmission, according to a study published in the July 18 issue of The Lancet.

Abstract
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Seasonal Variation Observed in Pulmonary Fibrosis Deaths

THURSDAY, July 16 (HealthDay News) -- Death rates in patients with pulmonary fibrosis are highest in the winter compared with the summer, according to a study in the July issue of Chest.

Abstract
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Study Sheds Light on Crohn's Disease Pathogenesis

WEDNESDAY, July 15 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have found a link between two inflammatory signaling pathways in Crohn's disease that could influence the pathogenesis of the disease, according to a study published online July 9 in Current Biology.

Abstract
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Condoms Can Protect Against Herpes Simplex Virus 2

TUESDAY, July 14 (HealthDay News) -- Condom use does protect against the transmission of the herpes simplex virus 2, but the level of protection is lower than it is for other sexually transmitted infections, according to a study published in the July 13 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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Variety of B. burgdorferi Genotypes Seen in Joint Fluid

MONDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- Most Borrelia burgdorferi genotypes were found in the joint fluid of a group of patients with Lyme arthritis, though some strains were seen most often in patients with antibiotic-refractory arthritis, according to research published in the July issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.

Abstract
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Rapid HIV Testing Well-Suited to Antenatal Clinic Setting

MONDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- Using rapid HIV testing is feasible and effective in an outpatient obstetric setting, and gives results faster than conventional testing, according to a study published in the July issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Traits of Self-Discharged Cirrhotic Patients Identified

MONDAY, July 13 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly 3 percent of patients with cirrhosis leave the hospital against medical advice, with self-discharge being most common among patients with alcoholic cirrhosis or hepatitis B or C, according to a study published in the July issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Abstract
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Post-Vaccine Rotavirus Season Was Unusually Mild

THURSDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- After the introduction of routine infant rotavirus vaccination in 2006, the 2007/2008 rotavirus season was significantly milder compared to previous seasons, according to a study published online July 5 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Obesity Rates for American Adults Still Going Up

THURSDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- At least 25 percent of the adult population in 32 states is now obese, and national prevalence of obesity has risen from 25.6 percent in 2007 to 26.1 percent in 2008, according to a July 8 report by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Press Release
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Gene-Therapy Death Shows Monitoring Importance

THURSDAY, July 9 (HealthDay News) -- A widely publicized death of a young woman who was taking part in a phase 1-2 gene-therapy study of rheumatoid arthritis underscores the risk of opportunistic infections in such patients and the importance of having a well-designed monitoring plan when such patients become ill, according to a brief report in the July 9 New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract
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Editorial

Change in Medical Abortion Procedure Cuts Infection Rate

WEDNESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- The infection rate following medical abortion dropped an aggregate 93 percent after the administration of the aborting agent misoprostol was changed from vaginal to buccal, and infection screening and treatment became routine, according to a study in the July 9 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract
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Raxibacumab Improves Anthrax Survival in Animals

WEDNESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- The human monoclonal antibody raxibacumab markedly improved survival in rabbits and monkeys with anthrax infection compared to placebo, according to a study in the July 9 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract
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Editorial

HPV Vaccine Linked to High Efficacy in Neoplasia Reduction

WEDNESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- The human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine shows high efficacy in the prevention of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ (CIN2+) associated with HPV-16/18, and may also provide cross-protection of non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types, according to the final analysis of the PATRICIA study published online July 7 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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Breath Test Detects Absorptive Disorder in Small Intestine

WEDNESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- The 13C-sucrose breath test (SBT) offers a noninvasive way to test the absorptive integrity of the small intestine, according to a study conducted with Australian Aboriginal children and reported online July 5 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Inflammation Is Linked to Corneal Transplant Rejection

WEDNESDAY, July 8 (HealthDay News) -- For patients receiving a corneal transplant for herpes simplex virus keratitis, signs of inflammation in excised corneal tissue detected in a histopathologic examination indicate increased risk for allograft rejection, according to a study in the July issue of Ophthalmology.

Abstract
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Reduced-Dose PCV-7 Schedules May Be Effective

TUESDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- In infants, two or three primary doses of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) significantly decrease vaccine serotype pneumococcal carriage, according to a study published in the July 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Stepped-Dose Efavirenz May Minimize Side Effects

TUESDAY, July 7 (HealthDay News) -- In HIV-positive patients, step-wise administration of efavirenz may reduce neuropsychiatric adverse events and prove just as effective as full-dose administration, according to a study published online July 7 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Swine Flu Airborne Transmission Found Inefficient

MONDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- The swine-origin 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus, the so-called swine flu, does not spread as efficiently by inhaled respiratory droplets as the common seasonal flu, according to a study by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported July 2 in Science.

Abstract
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Parkinson's Drugs Show Promise Against Tuberculosis

MONDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- Two existing drugs used for Parkinson's disease may be useful in treating drug-resistant cases of tuberculosis, according to research published July 3 in PLoS Computational Biology.

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Health Woes of Indigenous People Spur Call to Action

MONDAY, July 6 (HealthDay News) -- The world's 400 million indigenous people are dramatically more likely than non-indigenous people to suffer from chronic disease and premature mortality, and national and international efforts are needed to correct these disparities, according to two related review articles published July 4 in The Lancet.

Abstract - Gracey
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Abstract - King
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Antibiotics for Childhood Ear Infections May Raise Recurrence

WEDNESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- Children treated with amoxicillin for acute otitis media are more likely to experience a recurrent infection than children not treated with antibiotics, according to a study published online June 30 in BMJ.

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Priorities Set for Comparative Effectiveness Research

WEDNESDAY, July 1 (HealthDay News) -- The extent to which large-scale public investment in comparative effectiveness research can achieve its goals of better decision making and improved uptake of new knowledge depends on engaging the medical profession and patients, according to recommendations by the Institute of Medicine published online June 30 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Editorial - Luce
Editorial - Iglehart
Editorial - Conway & Clancy
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