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Category: Infections | Monthly Briefing

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September 2009 Briefing - Infectious Disease

Last Updated: October 01, 2009.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for September 2009. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Bacterial Infections Are a Factor in Many H1N1 Deaths

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Many patients who have died of H1N1 influenza this year had a bacterial co-infection that likely contributed to their deaths, according to a Sept. 29 early release of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Meningococcal Disease Jabs Should Be Repeated for Some

MONDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- One dose of the quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine may not be enough to confer ongoing protection, and vaccination should be repeated in those at high risk, according to a study in the Sept. 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Efficacy of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Test Explored

MONDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Although the rapid influenza diagnostic test can accurately predict confirmed infection with pandemic H1N1 influenza, the test produces too many false negatives to be of use in the management of the disease pandemic, according to a study in the Sept. 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Test Distinguishes Active From Latent Tuberculosis

MONDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- A diagnostic test using cells from bronchoalveolar lavage is quick and effective in distinguishing active tuberculosis infection from latent infection in patients with suspected tuberculosis where the bacteria are undetectable in sputum, according to a study in the Oct. 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Abstract
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H1N1 Virus's Genetic Makeup Appears to Be Staying Stable

MONDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- The genetic makeup of the H1N1 flu has remained stable, which means the yet-to-be-released vaccine is likely to be a good match for the virus, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced at a Sept. 25 media briefing.

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Role of Nitric Oxide Studied in Antibiotic Resistance

THURSDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Nitric oxide created by bacterial nitric oxide synthases (bNOS) may help protect bacteria from numerous antibiotics, according to research published in the Sept. 11 issue of Science.

Abstract
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Meta-Analysis Finds Flu Linked to Heart Attack and Death

THURSDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- For people with heart disease, getting influenza increases the risk of heart attack and death, and cardiac patients should be strongly encouraged to get vaccinated, according to a literature review and meta-analysis reported in the October issue of The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Abstract
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Live-Virus Vaccine Shows Promise Against Rabies

THURSDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- A rabies vaccine made with a live virus lacking a gene needed for replication appears safe and effective with a simpler dosing regimen than the current post-exposure vaccine, according to results of animal studies published online Sept. 18 in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Abstract
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Gene Mutations Linked to Hereditary Immunodeficiency

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Gene mutations leading to a lack of DOCK8 protein in lymphocytes are associated with a hereditary combined immunodeficiency, according to a study published online Sept. 23 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Inactivated Vaccine Worked Best in 2007/2008 Flu Season

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Inactivated influenza vaccines were the most effective during the 2007/2008 flu season, but live attenuated vaccines also provided some protection, according to a study in the Sept. 24 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract
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Widowhood Affects Sexual Infection Risk in Older Men

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Older men may have an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections after losing a spouse, especially if they take medications for erectile dysfunction, according to a study published online Sept. 17 in the American Journal of Public Health.

Abstract
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Review Advises Hand Washing, Other Antiviral Measures

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Hand washing, wearing a mask, and isolating potential cases are all effective in interrupting the spread of viral respiratory infections and should be given greater attention when planning for widespread outbreaks, according to research published Sept. 22 in BMJ.

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Spotlight on Social Networking Use Among Medical Students

TUESDAY, Sept. 22 (HealthDay News) -- A majority of medical schools report instances of medical students posting unprofessional content on social networking Web sites, including some instances of violations of patient confidentiality, according to a report in the Sept. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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HPV Load in Cervical Tumors Can Affect Relapse, Survival

TUESDAY, Sept. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Uterine cervical cancer patients with low human papillomavirus (HPV) viral loads in their tumors have a higher risk of cancer relapse after treatment with radiotherapy and exhibit worse disease-free survival, according to a study published online Sept. 21 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Abstract
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Report Finds Adolescent Vaccine Coverage on the Rise

FRIDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescent vaccine coverage increased in 2008 versus 2007, but further monitoring is needed to track the demographic factors affecting differences in coverage, according to a study in the Sept. 18 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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HPV Vaccination Acceptance Low in U.K. Minorities

FRIDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) is lower and there are more cultural barriers to acceptance of HPV vaccination among U.K. ethnic minorities than Caucasian women, according to a study published online Sept. 17 in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

Abstract
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Studies Assess Intermittent Preventive Malaria Treatment

THURSDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) against malaria using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine may be beneficial in a range of malaria-transmission settings, and IPTi with mefloquine may help protect infants from malaria in moderate-transmission areas, according to research from two studies set in Africa published online Sept. 17 in The Lancet.

Abstract - Aponte
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Abstract - Gosling
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Commentary (subscription or payment may be required)

HIV Linked With Increased Risk of Premature Delivery

THURSDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- HIV-positive women receiving antiretroviral treatment are at higher risk of giving birth prematurely and delivering a low-birth-weight infant, according to a study in the September issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Abstract
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Guideline Adherence Can Improve Pneumonia Outcomes

THURSDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Adult and elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) achieve better outcomes when treated with empirical antimicrobial therapy in accordance with the 2007 professional guidelines for CAP, according to a pair of studies in the Sept. 14 issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine.

Abstract - Arnold
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Abstract - McCabe
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Antibiotics Easy to Find Online Without Prescription

THURSDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Easy access to antibiotics without a prescription via the Internet encourages patients to self-medicate and compromises the quality of their care, according to a study in the September/October issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Taxes on Sugared Sodas Could Cut Consumption

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Imposing a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could reduce consumption and generate income for obesity reduction and healthy eating education interventions, according to an article published online Sept. 16 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Hispanic/Latino Community Has Unique Cancer Profile

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Hispanics and Latinos have a unique cancer profile that means they are less likely to get the four most common cancers, but are more likely to develop cancers related to infection, according to a report published Sept. 15 by the American Cancer Society.

More Information
Report

FDA Approves Four Vaccines for H1N1 Influenza

TUESDAY, Sept. 15 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved four H1N1 influenza vaccines, according to a Sept. 15 news release issued by the agency.

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Drug Interaction E-Alerts Show Benefit to Patient Safety

MONDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Drug interaction alerts from electronic prescribing likely improve patient safety and reduce costs in outpatient care, despite the fact that over 90 percent of the alerts are overridden by physicians, according to a study in the Sept. 14 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Opt-Out HIV Screening Well-Accepted by Adolescents

MONDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- A routine, opt-out screening process for HIV at a pediatric emergency department was well-accepted by adolescents and their guardians, according to research published online Sept. 14 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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More Pregnant Women Need to Get Flu Vaccinations

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- The proportion of pregnant women in Georgia and Rhode Island vaccinated for influenza has increased in recent years, but the great majority of pregnant women still do not get vaccinated, according to a report in the Sept. 11 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Mutated H1N1 Virus Resistant to Antiviral Drug Oseltamivir

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- The discovery of H1N1 mutations resistant to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir in two adolescent girls sharing a cabin at a North Carolina camp prompted a new recommendation from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the proper prophylactic use of antiviral drugs, according to a case report in the Sept. 11 issue of the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Current Health Policy May Not Serve Young People Well

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- A high proportion of deaths in young people worldwide are due to intentional and unintentional injury, and the current adolescent health policy focus on HIV/AIDS and maternal mortality is not enough to prevent mortality amongst youngsters, according to a study in the Sept. 12 issue of The Lancet.

Abstract
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Poverty-Mortality Association Unchanged in England

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Despite myriad medical, public health, social, economic and political changes, the association between poverty and mortality in England and Wales is as strong today as it was at the start of the 20th century, according to a study published online Sept. 10 in BMJ.

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One Dose of H1N1 Vaccine May Offer Substantial Protection

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Preliminary research indicates that just a single dose of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine can substantially increase protective antibodies, but vaccinations with seasonal flu vaccine provide minimal cross-reactive antibody response, according to several studies published online Sept. 10 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract - Greenberg
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Abstract - Clark
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Abstract - Hancock
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Editorial

Mass Vaccination Could Mitigate Swine Flu Epidemic

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- A swine flu epidemic could be greatly reduced by vaccinating 70 percent of the population, including children, high-risk groups, and health care and emergency services personnel, according to a study published online Sept. 10 in Science.

Abstract
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FDA Panel Recommends HPV Vaccine Gardasil for Males

THURSDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- A U.S. Food and Drug Administration advisory panel is recommending that the vaccine Gardasil be given to boys and young men to help prevent genital warts. The same panel has determined that another human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, Cervarix, seems safe for preventing cervical cancer in females ages 10 to 25 years.

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Prophylaxis Strategies Reduce Nursing Home Flu Outbreaks

THURSDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- During annual influenza epidemics, prophylaxis with oseltamivir in nursing homes may significantly reduce the number of infections, according to a study published online Sept. 10 in Emerging Infectious Diseases.

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Kenyan Immunization May Reduce Sickle-Cell Death

THURSDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Sickle-cell anemia is more than 25 times more common in Kenyan children with bacterial infections, and immunization may prevent death since the bacterial species are the same as those in developed countries, according to a study published online Sept. 10 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Viruria Could Help Predict Rare Condition in Multiple Sclerosis

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Analyzing the urine of multiple sclerosis patients for JC virus could help identify those at risk of developing another rare demyelinating disease after natalizumab (Tysabri) treatment, according to a study in the Sept. 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. And two additional reports detail cases of this rare condition, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML).

Abstract - Chen
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Case Study - Wenning (subscription or payment may be required)
Case Study - Linda (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Retreatment Benefits Some Hepatitis C Non-Responders

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with chronic hepatitis C infection who fail to respond to standard antiviral therapy, retreatment with either pegylated interferon alfa plus ribavirin or pegylated interferon alfa plus ribavirin in combination with antiviral therapies may lead to a sustained virologic response, according to a study in the September issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Abstract
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Most H1N1 Flu Patients Don't Need Antiviral Medication

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Antiviral medications should be used to treat H1N1 swine flu only in people who are hospitalized from the flu or are at high risk of complications from it, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Infections Linked to Mental Decline in Alzheimer's Disease

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Acute systemic inflammation linked to episodes of illness or injury may speed the rate of cognitive decline in individuals with Alzheimer's disease, according to research published in the Sept. 8 issue of Neurology.

Abstract
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Guideline Reduces Antibiotics Usage, Adverse Drug Effects

TUESDAY, Sept. 8 (HealthDay News) -- In the management of lower respiratory tract infections, procalcitonin-based guidelines may lead to lower rates of antibiotic exposure and associated adverse effects without increasing adverse outcomes, according to a study published in the Sept. 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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H1N1 Vaccines Appear Safe for Adults, Children

MONDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- The new H1N1 swine flu vaccine appears to be as safe as the seasonal flu variety, according to experts from the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; and, intravenous use of the antiviral zanamivir (Relenza) may provide a lifesaving alternative for severe cases of H1N1 pneumonitis, according to a report published online Sept. 4 in The Lancet.

More Information - Vaccines
The Lancet Case Report (subscription or payment may be required)

Swine Flu Guidelines for Day Care Centers Announced

FRIDAY, Sept. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Children enrolled in early education programs should be among the first to get the H1N1 vaccine when it becomes available in mid-October, according to new guidelines issued Sept. 4 for program staffers by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta.

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HIV-Associated Dementia Linked to Disease Subtype

FRIDAY, Sept. 4 (HealthDay News) -- HIV-associated cognitive impairment may be more common in persons who are infected with the HIV subtype D, according to a study in the Sept. 1 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Abstract
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Underlying Conditions in Kids Increase Risks From Swine Flu

THURSDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- At least 36 children younger than 18 years of age are among the nearly 500 Americans who have died of complications from H1N1 swine flu, according to a new government report in the Sept. 4 issue of the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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RSV Infection Has Different Effect Throughout Airways

THURSDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of bronchial cells induces transcript and protein overexpression of nerve growth factor, which may protect the cells against virus-induced apoptosis, but the same does not occur in nasal and tracheal cells, according to research published online July 31 in PLoS One.

Abstract
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Race Not Shown to Affect Liver Transplant Outcome

THURSDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Liver transplant outcomes for patients with hepatitis B are similar regardless of whether the patient is Caucasian, Asian-American or African-American, according to a study in the September issue of Liver Transplantation.

Abstract
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Editorial

House Screens Key in Preventing Malaria Transmission

THURSDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Houses with screening have fewer mosquitoes indoors, which may help prevent malaria-related anemia in children, according to a study published online Sept. 3 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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Comment (subscription or payment may be required)

Academic Medical Centers Active and Diverse in Research

TUESDAY, Sept. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Research at academic medical centers is active and diverse, with nearly a quarter of life-science researchers receiving no funding, and relationships with industry more commonly seen among translational and clinical researchers than basic science researchers, according to a study in the Sept. 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Antibiotics Can Reduce Death Rates in Ethiopian Children

TUESDAY, Sept. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Mass antibiotic treatment reduces death rates in Ethiopian children in trachoma-endemic areas, according to a study in the Sept. 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Neurologists Should Report Reactions to Flu Vaccine

TUESDAY, Sept. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Neurologists should report any possible new cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome after immunization with the 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine to health officials.

www.vaers.hhs.gov
CDC - H1N1 Update
American Academy of Neurology
The Brain Matters - Public Web Site

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