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Category: Pediatrics | Monthly Briefing

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September 2009 Briefing - Pediatrics

Last Updated: October 01, 2009.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pediatrics for September 2009. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Treating Gestational Diabetes Can Reduce Fetal Overgrowth

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment of mild gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women did not significantly affect stillbirth or perinatal death, but did reduce the risk of fetal overgrowth, according to a study in the Oct. 1 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Cooling Can Reduce Neurologic Damage in Perinatal Asphyxia

WEDNESADY, Sept. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Reducing the body temperature of newborn infants who have perinatal asphyxia encephalopathy did not reduce the rates of death or severe disability, but lessened the neurologic damage among survivors, according to a study in the Oct. 1 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Bacterial Infections Are a Factor in Many H1N1 Deaths

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Many patients who have died of H1N1 influenza this year had a bacterial co-infection that likely contributed to their deaths, according to a Sept. 29 early release of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Marker Shows Potential in Finding Heart Disease in Youth

TUESDAY, Sept. 29 (HealthDay News) -- B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) appears to be an accurate marker of cardiovascular disease in children, one which may be of diagnostic value, according to research published in the Oct. 6 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

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Study Examines Effects of In Utero Heart Procedure

TUESDAY, Sept. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Successful fetal aortic valvuloplasty may lead to better growth of the aortic and mitral valves and the ascending aorta without change in left ventricular growth rate, according to research published online Sept. 28 in Circulation.

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Several Factors Affect Risk of Crashes in Teenage Drivers

TUESDAY, Sept. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Parenting styles and primary access to vehicles significantly affects crash risks in teen drivers, according to two studies published in the October issue of Pediatrics.

Abstract - Ginsburg
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Abstract - Garcia-Espana
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Medication Usage Differs Among Hispanic Children

TUESDAY, Sept. 29 (HealthDay News) -- In Hispanic children, acculturation differences affect medication usage, according to a study in the October issue of Pediatrics.

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Study Looks at Screening and Bilirubin Encephalopathy

MONDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- The effect of screening for hyperbilirubinemia on the incidence of acute and chronic bilirubin encephalopathy remains unknown, according to research published in the October issue of Pediatrics.

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Meningococcal Disease Jabs Should Be Repeated for Some

MONDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- One dose of the quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine may not be enough to confer ongoing protection, and vaccination should be repeated in those at high risk, according to a study in the Sept. 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Efficacy of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Test Explored

MONDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Although the rapid influenza diagnostic test can accurately predict confirmed infection with pandemic H1N1 influenza, the test produces too many false negatives to be of use in the management of the disease pandemic, according to a study in the Sept. 25 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Parental Understanding of Growth Charts Is Limited

MONDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Although pediatricians commonly share children's growth chart data with parents, many parents have a poor understanding of the data, according to a study in the October issue of Pediatrics.

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H1N1 Virus's Genetic Makeup Appears to Be Staying Stable

MONDAY, Sept. 28 (HealthDay News) -- The genetic makeup of the H1N1 flu has remained stable, which means the yet-to-be-released vaccine is likely to be a good match for the virus, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced at a Sept. 25 media briefing.

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Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome Can Cause Lifelong Ills

FRIDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Children with minimal-change nephrotic syndrome are at increased risk for osteoporosis, hypertension, sperm abnormalities and cataracts if the condition persists beyond puberty, according to a study published online Sept. 24 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

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Early Pregnancy Use of SSRIs and Congenital Defects Studied

FRIDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- The use of certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in early pregnancy is associated with a higher prevalence of septal heart defects in offspring, according to research published online Sept. 23 in BMJ.

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FDA Warns Prescribers About Tamiflu Dosing Errors

FRIDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a Public Health Alert to notify pharmacists and prescribers about the potential for dosing errors with oseltamivir (Tamiflu for Oral Suspension).

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Endocrine Guidelines Developed for Transsexuals

FRIDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- A new clinical practice guideline offers advice for the endocrine treatment of transsexuals, according to a special article published in the September Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

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Maternal Bariatric Surgery Tied to Less Offspring Obesity

THURSDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Bariatric surgery in women before pregnancy helps reduce the risk of childhood obesity and improve cardio-metabolic markers in their offspring by improving the intrauterine environment, according to a study in the October issue of Endocrinology.

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Lower Legal Drinking Age Linked to Later Problems

THURSDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Individuals who were able to legally purchase alcohol at younger ages may have a higher risk of recent alcohol or drug disorders, even decades later, according to a study published online Sept. 23 in Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.

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Exercise During Pregnancy Cuts Odds of Overweight Baby

THURSDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- Regular exercise during pregnancy lowers the odds of giving birth to an excessively heavy baby, but exercise before pregnancy may not make a difference, according to a study published in the October issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Live-Virus Vaccine Shows Promise Against Rabies

THURSDAY, Sept. 24 (HealthDay News) -- A rabies vaccine made with a live virus lacking a gene needed for replication appears safe and effective with a simpler dosing regimen than the current post-exposure vaccine, according to results of animal studies published online Sept. 18 in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

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Interventions Could Reduce Maternal Mortality in Africa

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Improved health facilities and greater access to misoprostol and antibiotics in the community could prevent thousands of maternal deaths in Africa annually, according to research published online Sept. 23 in The Lancet.

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Review Advises Hand Washing, Other Antiviral Measures

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Hand washing, wearing a mask, and isolating potential cases are all effective in interrupting the spread of viral respiratory infections and should be given greater attention when planning for widespread outbreaks, according to research published Sept. 22 in BMJ.

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Guidelines Offered for Emergency Pediatric Care

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 23 (HealthDay News) -- A joint policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Emergency Physicians, intended to help hospital emergency departments maintain the appropriate resources and personnel to properly serve pediatric patients, has been published online Sept. 21 in Pediatrics.

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Study Finds Obesity Impairs Leukemia Treatment Response

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity may directly impair the efficacy of leukemia treatment, according to an animal study published online Sept. 22 in Cancer Research.

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Surgeries Offering Relief for Excessive Drooling Analyzed

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Most patients with drooling will report improvement in symptoms following surgical treatment, according to research published in the September issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery.

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Spotlight on Social Networking Use Among Medical Students

TUESDAY, Sept. 22 (HealthDay News) -- A majority of medical schools report instances of medical students posting unprofessional content on social networking Web sites, including some instances of violations of patient confidentiality, according to a report in the Sept. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Physician Medical Errors Linked to Fatigue and Burnout

TUESDAY, Sept. 22 (HealthDay News) -- The incidence of medical error is associated with a host of factors related to physician fatigue, burnout, and mental and emotional well-being, according to a study in the Sept. 23/30 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Tanning May Put Very-Light-Skinned Youth at Higher Risk

MONDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Very-light-skinned children who tan develop more nevi than their counterparts who do not, which may indicate increased risk of developing melanoma when they are older, according to a study published in the September issue of the Archives of Dermatology, while another study in the same issue recommends more states implement controls on youth access to tanning facilities.

Abstract - Aalborg
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Abstract - Pichon
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Pediatric Nurses Seldom Tackle Parents About Smoking

MONDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatric nurses are often in contact with smokers among the parents of their patients, but they seldom engage in smoking cessation activities with them, according to a study in the September issue of the Journal of Emergency Nursing.

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Even Lower Blood Lead in Children Can Impair Function

MONDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Lead levels in the blood of young children are associated with hindered educational attainment at concentrations half that previously considered as a cause for concern, according to a study published online Sept. 21 in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

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Color-Coded Charts Increase Parental Awareness of BMI

MONDAY, Sept. 21 (HealthDay News) -- In pediatric practices, color-coded charting may improve parental understanding of body mass index (BMI), according to a study in the September/October issue of Academic Pediatrics.

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Study Finds Spanking in Low-Income Toddlers Detrimental

FRIDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal age and children's fussiness may be associated with spanking, which appears to be commonly used on toddlers in low-income families, and may have detrimental effects on the child's cognitive development, according to research published in the September/October issue of Child Development.

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Report Finds Adolescent Vaccine Coverage on the Rise

FRIDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Adolescent vaccine coverage increased in 2008 versus 2007, but further monitoring is needed to track the demographic factors affecting differences in coverage, according to a study in the Sept. 18 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Low Scoliosis Revision Surgery Rate Seen at Center

FRIDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with idiopathic scoliosis who undergo primary fusion surgery, reoperation rates may vary greatly between institutions, according to a study in the Sept. 15 issue of Spine.

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Mediterranean Diet More Costly to Follow Than Western

FRIDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Spanish university graduates who tended to follow a Mediterranean diet spent more money for their food than those following a western diet, according to a study published online Sept. 17 in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

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Tutorial Improves Doctor Comfort With Down Syndrome

FRIDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- An interactive tutorial involving hypothetical patient scenarios improves residents' knowledge and comfort in delivering a diagnosis of Down syndrome, according to a study published in the September issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Most Pediatric Emergency Asthma Cases Not Followed Up

FRIDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- In reference to children with asthma who are seen at a hospital emergency room, most cases are never followed up and the mother's education level is associated with odds of a child being taken for a check-up, according to a study published in the September issue of the Journal of Emergency Nursing.

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HPV Vaccination Acceptance Low in U.K. Minorities

FRIDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) is lower and there are more cultural barriers to acceptance of HPV vaccination among U.K. ethnic minorities than Caucasian women, according to a study published online Sept. 17 in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

Abstract
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Search Finds Higher Pediatric Ischemic Stroke Rate

FRIDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Using radiology searches results in a substantially higher estimate of the incidence of pediatric ischemic stroke than previous estimates, according to research published online Sept. 17 in Stroke.

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Fatty Acid Supplements Can Improve Infant Cognition

FRIDAY, Sept. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Babies given infant formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids showed signs of improved cognitive function as demonstrated by means-end problem solving, according to a study published online on Sept. 14 in Child Development.

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Studies Assess Intermittent Preventive Malaria Treatment

THURSDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) against malaria using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine may be beneficial in a range of malaria-transmission settings, and IPTi with mefloquine may help protect infants from malaria in moderate-transmission areas, according to research from two studies set in Africa published online Sept. 17 in The Lancet.

Abstract - Aponte
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Abstract - Gosling
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HIV Linked With Increased Risk of Premature Delivery

THURSDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- HIV-positive women receiving antiretroviral treatment are at higher risk of giving birth prematurely and delivering a low-birth-weight infant, according to a study in the September issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Abstract
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Uninsured Children Have the Most Unmet Health Care Needs

THURSDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Although children lacking health insurance have the highest odds of unmet health care needs, insured children with uninsured parents are also vulnerable to suboptimal health care provision, according to a study published in the September/October issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Antibiotics Easy to Find Online Without Prescription

THURSDAY, Sept. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Easy access to antibiotics without a prescription via the Internet encourages patients to self-medicate and compromises the quality of their care, according to a study in the September/October issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.

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Taxes on Sugared Sodas Could Cut Consumption

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Imposing a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could reduce consumption and generate income for obesity reduction and healthy eating education interventions, according to an article published online Sept. 16 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Quality of Early Child Care Can Affect School Performance

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 16 (HealthDay News) -- The reading and math ability of children from low-income families is better when they are put into higher-quality child care as babies and toddlers, compared to being in substandard child care, according to a study published online Sept. 14 in Child Development.

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Celiac Disease Linked to Modestly Increased Death Risk

TUESDAY, Sept. 15 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with confirmed or latent celiac disease -- including those who underwent small-intestinal biopsy in childhood -- there is a modestly increased risk of death, according to a study in the Sept. 16 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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FDA Approves Four Vaccines for H1N1 Influenza

TUESDAY, Sept. 15 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved four H1N1 influenza vaccines, according to a Sept. 15 news release issued by the agency.

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Prediction Rules for Brain Injury Can Cut Down on Scans

TUESDAY, Sept. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Children at very low risk for brain injury following head trauma can be identified using a set of prediction rules that obviate the need for a computed tomography (CT) scan, according to a study published online Sept. 15 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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New Microcephaly Evaluation Guidelines Issued

TUESDAY, Sept. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Because microcephaly is associated with developmental delays, learning disorders and neurologic conditions, children with microcephaly should be screened for such problems, according to a special article published in the Sept. 15 issue of Neurology.

Abstract
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Parents Discuss Needs During Child Development Talks

MONDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Parents' readiness to hear about their children's possible developmental delays may help primary care providers tailor their communications to better suit the parents' needs, according to research published online Sept. 14 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Drug Interaction E-Alerts Show Benefit to Patient Safety

MONDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Drug interaction alerts from electronic prescribing likely improve patient safety and reduce costs in outpatient care, despite the fact that over 90 percent of the alerts are overridden by physicians, according to a study in the Sept. 14 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine.

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Chlorinated Pools Linked to Problems in Atopic Teens

MONDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Atopic adolescents who swim in chlorinated swimming pools may face a higher risk of asthma and respiratory allergies, according to research published online Sept. 14 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Dimenhydrinate of Little Help in Pediatric Gastroenteritis

MONDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Administering dimenhydrinate suppositories to children with infectious gastroenteritis can reduce vomiting but does not significantly improve rehydration and overall outcome, according to a study published online Sept. 14 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Opt-Out HIV Screening Well-Accepted by Adolescents

MONDAY, Sept. 14 (HealthDay News) -- A routine, opt-out screening process for HIV at a pediatric emergency department was well-accepted by adolescents and their guardians, according to research published online Sept. 14 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Screening Athletes Could Prevent Sudden Cardiac Death

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Athletes should undergo routine screening for heart abnormalities, as the practice would help prevent sudden death, according to two articles published in the September issue of the British Journal of Sports Medicine, a special issue in partnership with the International Olympic Committee dedicated to elite sports injury prevention.

Abstract - Bessem
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Studies Explore Genetic Factors Underlying Depression

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Multiple genetic factors may help predict patient response to antidepressants, and a haplotype in the CRHR1 gene may help protect individuals who were subjected to childhood mistreatment from depression in adulthood, according to the results of two studies published in the September Archives of General Psychiatry.

Abstract - Polanczyk
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Abstract - Ising
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Regimen Improves Survival in Childhood Leukemia

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- A dexamethasone-based chemotherapy regimen improves survival in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) without cranial irradiation or some routinely used chemotherapy drugs, according to a study published online Sept. 10 in The Lancet Oncology.

Abstract
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Mutated H1N1 Virus Resistant to Antiviral Drug Oseltamivir

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- The discovery of H1N1 mutations resistant to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir in two adolescent girls sharing a cabin at a North Carolina camp prompted a new recommendation from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the proper prophylactic use of antiviral drugs, according to a case report in the Sept. 11 issue of the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Current Health Policy May Not Serve Young People Well

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- A high proportion of deaths in young people worldwide are due to intentional and unintentional injury, and the current adolescent health policy focus on HIV/AIDS and maternal mortality is not enough to prevent mortality amongst youngsters, according to a study in the Sept. 12 issue of The Lancet.

Abstract
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Poverty-Mortality Association Unchanged in England

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Despite myriad medical, public health, social, economic and political changes, the association between poverty and mortality in England and Wales is as strong today as it was at the start of the 20th century, according to a study published online Sept. 10 in BMJ.

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S. pneumoniae Leads to Death in Many Under 5

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Approximately 11 percent of all deaths in children aged 1 to 59 months are due to infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and greater efforts to prevent and treat disease associated with the bacterium could help attain the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, according to a study published in the Sept. 12 issue of The Lancet.

Abstract
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One Dose of H1N1 Vaccine May Offer Substantial Protection

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Preliminary research indicates that just a single dose of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine can substantially increase protective antibodies, but vaccinations with seasonal flu vaccine provide minimal cross-reactive antibody response, according to several studies published online Sept. 10 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Mass Vaccination Could Mitigate Swine Flu Epidemic

FRIDAY, Sept. 11 (HealthDay News) -- A swine flu epidemic could be greatly reduced by vaccinating 70 percent of the population, including children, high-risk groups, and health care and emergency services personnel, according to a study published online Sept. 10 in Science.

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Adiponectin Associated With Childhood Lymphoma

THURSDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Higher levels of adiponectin, but not leptin, are associated with childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as a poorer prognosis, according to research published online Sept. 8 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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FDA Panel Recommends HPV Vaccine Gardasil for Males

THURSDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- A U.S. Food and Drug Administration advisory panel is recommending that the vaccine Gardasil be given to boys and young men to help prevent genital warts. The same panel has determined that another human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, Cervarix, seems safe for preventing cervical cancer in females ages 10 to 25 years.

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Kenyan Immunization May Reduce Sickle-Cell Death

THURSDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Sickle-cell anemia is more than 25 times more common in Kenyan children with bacterial infections, and immunization may prevent death since the bacterial species are the same as those in developed countries, according to a study published online Sept. 10 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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Neonatologists Need to Brush Up on Communication Skills

THURSDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Although neonatologists graduate with a high degree of training in the technical skills they need, they typically lack adequate training in how to best communicate with families facing end-of-life decisions, according to a study published in the September issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

Abstract
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Bullying, Victimization in Kids Linked to Later Problems

THURSDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Childhood bullying or victimization may predict later psychiatric issues, suggesting that this issue deserves greater attention from school professionals and the public, according to research published in the September issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry.

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More Illness for Term Babies Exposed to Preeclampsia

THURSDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Babies who are exposed to preeclampsia are at increased risk of hospitalization for a range of illnesses, according to a study published in the September issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

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Most Chronic Coughs in Kids From Allergy, Asthma or Reflux

THURSDAY, Sept. 10 (HealthDay News) -- The great majority of chronic coughs without obvious cause among pediatric patients are from allergies, asthma or gastroesophageal reflux disease, according to a study in the Sept. 1 issue of Chest.

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In-Hospital Pediatric Diagnosis of VTE Up 70 Percent

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Yearly pediatric hospital cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have risen 70 percent in this decade, with many children having coexisting chronic conditions, according to a study published online Sept. 7 in Pediatrics.

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Maternal Literacy Good Gauge of Home Learning Environment

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Maternal literacy level is a more accurate predictor of the cognitive home environment than maternal educational level in low-income families, according to a study in the September issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Pediatricians Face Wide Range of Ethics Issues

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Pediatric residents may face ethics challenges that are wide-ranging and pose a challenge to patient care, according to a study in the September issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

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Early Day Care May Not Protect Against Childhood Asthma

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Although early exposure to day care causes an increase in airway symptoms, it does not confer any additional protection against asthma in later childhood, according to a study published in the September 15 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Abstract
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Most H1N1 Flu Patients Don't Need Antiviral Medication

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Antiviral medications should be used to treat H1N1 swine flu only in people who are hospitalized from the flu or are at high risk of complications from it, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Antipyretics Not Found to Stop Recurrent Febrile Seizures

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Antipyretic agents cannot prevent the recurrence of febrile seizures, although they can lower temperature in non-seizure febrile episodes, according to a study in the September issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

Abstract
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Gene Linked to Cystic Fibrosis With Liver Disease

TUESDAY, Sept. 8 (HealthDay News) -- The SERPINA1 Z allele is associated with severe liver disease with portal hypertension in patients with cystic fibrosis (CFLD), according to a study in the Sept. 9 Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Dopamine Reward Pathway Linked to ADHD Deficits

TUESDAY, Sept. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Rewards-motivation deficits reported in people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be associated with a disruption in the mesoaccumbens dopamine reward pathway evidenced by reduced dopamine synaptic markers seen in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the brain, according to a study in the Sept. 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Guideline Reduces Antibiotics Usage, Adverse Drug Effects

TUESDAY, Sept. 8 (HealthDay News) -- In the management of lower respiratory tract infections, procalcitonin-based guidelines may lead to lower rates of antibiotic exposure and associated adverse effects without increasing adverse outcomes, according to a study published in the Sept. 9 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Many Children Receive Little Pain Relief After Surgery

TUESDAY, Sept. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Although most parents say that their children are in pain after surgery, many give them little or no pain relief, according to a study published online Sept. 7 in Pediatrics. In a related study in the same issue, nearly all families like being present for rounds in the pediatric intensive care unit, but on the first day of their child's admission, they often do not understand the plan and have privacy concerns.

Abstract - Fortier
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Abstract - Aronson
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Weight Loss Prescriptions to Children Increased 15-Fold

TUESDAY, Sept. 8 (HealthDay News) -- The number of off-label prescriptions for weight loss drugs to children and adolescents has increased 15-fold over an eight year period in Kingdom, although most young people only take the drug for a short time and are unlikely to have seen any benefit, according to a study published online Sept. 2 in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.

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Safety of Many Drugs During Breast-Feeding Unclear

TUESDAY, Sept. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Only about two-thirds of psychotropic drugs can even be evaluated for their safety while breast-feeding, and only about a third of these can be judged as safe to use based on current evidence, according to a review published online Sept. 7 in Pediatrics.

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H1N1 Vaccines Appear Safe for Adults, Children

MONDAY, Sept. 7 (HealthDay News) -- The new H1N1 swine flu vaccine appears to be as safe as the seasonal flu variety, according to experts from the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; and, intravenous use of the antiviral zanamivir (Relenza) may provide a lifesaving alternative for severe cases of H1N1 pneumonitis, according to a report published online Sept. 4 in The Lancet.

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Swine Flu Guidelines for Day Care Centers Announced

FRIDAY, Sept. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Children enrolled in early education programs should be among the first to get the H1N1 vaccine when it becomes available in mid-October, according to new guidelines issued Sept. 4 for program staffers by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta.

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AHA Advocates Atherosclerosis Assessment in Children

FRIDAY, Sept. 4 (HealthDay News) -- In a scientific statement published online Sept. 3 in Hypertension, the American Heart Association has promulgated recommendations for a standardized approach to the noninvasive assessment of children and adolescents for the earliest signs of approaching atherosclerosis.

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Underlying Conditions in Kids Increase Risks From Swine Flu

THURSDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- At least 36 children younger than 18 years of age are among the nearly 500 Americans who have died of complications from H1N1 swine flu, according to a new government report in the Sept. 4 issue of the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

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Prenatal Smoking Linked to Different DNA Methylation

THURSDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero may have long-term health effects due to alterations of DNA methylation, according to research published in the September issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

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RSV Infection Has Different Effect Throughout Airways

THURSDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of bronchial cells induces transcript and protein overexpression of nerve growth factor, which may protect the cells against virus-induced apoptosis, but the same does not occur in nasal and tracheal cells, according to research published online July 31 in PLoS One.

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House Screens Key in Preventing Malaria Transmission

THURSDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Houses with screening have fewer mosquitoes indoors, which may help prevent malaria-related anemia in children, according to a study published online Sept. 3 in The Lancet.

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New Cancer Drug Targets Hedgehog Signaling Pathway

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 2 (HealthDay News) -- A new drug, GDC-0449, that targets the hedgehog pathway has shown promise in the treatment of basal-cell cancer and medulloblastoma, according to two reports and an editorial published online Sept. 2 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

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Retail Clinics Cost Effective for Treating Common Illnesses

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Compared with physician offices and urgent care centers, retail clinics provide cost-effective treatment without compromising quality of care for urinary tract infections, pharyngitis and otitis media, according to a study published in the Sept. 1 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

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Secondhand Smoke, Pollution Pose Cardiovascular Risks

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 2 (HealthDay News) -- While risks of cardiovascular mortality are greatest for active cigarette smokers, the relative risk for people exposed to secondhand smoke or air pollution is significant, according to a study published online Aug. 31 in Circulation.

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Safer Transplant Technique Benefits Immunodeficient Kids

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 2 (HealthDay News) -- In children with primary immunodeficiencies who are too sick to undergo traditional stem-cell transplantation, antibody-based minimal-intensity conditioning may minimize toxicities and allow for successful transplantation, according to a study published online Sept. 2 in The Lancet.

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Many Childhood Sexual Behaviors Temporary, Normal

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 2 (HealthDay News) -- Sexual behavior by children is often normal and transient in nature, but clinicians need to be able to distinguish between age-appropriate sexual behaviors and those which may indicate problems in the child's environment, according to a clinical report by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published online Aug. 31 in Pediatrics.

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