Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for October 2009. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Swine Flu Radiographic and CT Imaging Patterns Studied
FRIDAY, Oct. 30 (HealthDay News) -- Ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in one or both lungs with consolidation are the most common computed radiographic (CR) and computed tomography (CT) images of patients with swine-origin influenza A (S-OIV), according to a study to be published in the December issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology.
HIV Stigma May Still Impact Medical Care Negatively
THURSDAY, Oct. 29 (HealthDay News) -- A stigma felt by HIV/AIDS patients may negatively impact their access to medical care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), according to a study in the October issue of the Journal of General Internal Medicine.
Overweight Patients May Have Effect on Doctor's Attitude
THURSDAY, Oct. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Physicians have lower respect for patients with high body mass index (BMI), which may have an impact on patient care and outcomes, according to a study published online Sept. 18 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.
Male Foreskin Size Can Affect Risk of HIV Infection
THURSDAY, Oct. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Men with larger foreskins are at higher risk of being infected with HIV, according to a study in the Oct. 23 issue of AIDS.
Post-Exposure Prophylaxis of HIV Transmission Spotlighted
WEDNESDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Patients who have a one-time sexual encounter with a person who is highly likely to be HIV-positive should initiate post-exposure prophylaxis as soon as possible, according to a feature article published in the Oct. 29 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Genetic Mutation Linked to Severe Candidasis
WEDNESDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Impaired dectin-1 signaling may be responsible for severe mucocutaneous fungal infections, according to two reports published in the Oct. 29 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Medical School Enrollment Continues to Expand
MONDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Almost 18,400 students enrolled in medical school in the United States in 2009, a 2 percent increase over the previous year, but even more expansion is needed to meet future demand, according to an Oct. 20 report from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC).
Two Studies Focus on Factors Related to Colposcopy
MONDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Younger women in an underserved population had a particularly high likelihood of colposcopic biopsy after cervical cancer screening compared to a repeat Pap test, and multiple biopsies during colposcopy were not associated with a higher risk of new human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, according to the results of two studies published in the November Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Coffee Drinking May Cut Risk of Liver Disease Progression
MONDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- People with advanced hepatitis C-related liver disease who drink three or more cups of coffee a day have lower risk of disease progression than non-coffee drinkers, according to a study in the November issue of Hepatology.
H1N1 Can Be Particular Threat to Transplant Recipients
MONDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Cardiothoracic surgeons should be vigilant for signs of the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus among their patients as the flu season approaches, and aggressively treat any cases, according to an article published online Oct. 26 in the Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation.
Far Fewer H1N1 Vaccine Doses Than Expected Are Available
MONDAY, Oct. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Because of production delays, far fewer than the goal of 40 million doses of H1N1 influenza vaccine will be available in the United States by the end of October, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In addition, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued an emergency use authorization for the investigational antiviral drug peramivir intravenous in certain patients with suspected or confirmed H1N1 infection.
Statins Not Associated With Surgical Site Infections
THURSDAY, Oct. 22 (HealthDay News) -- In elderly patients who undergo elective surgery, statin use is not associated with an increased or decreased risk of surgical site infection, according to a study in the October issue of the Archives of Surgery.
Some Hospital Staff Predicted to Be Infection Superspreaders
THURSDAY, Oct. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Hospital staff such as therapists and radiologists who are in contact with all patients have the potential to be superspreaders of infection if they fail to wash their hands regularly, according to a study published online Oct. 19 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Obstetric Health Workers May Discourage Flu Vaccine
THURSDAY, Oct. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Many obstetric health care workers may have negative attitudes toward flu vaccinations during pregnancy, and the prophylactic use of influenza antivirals in pregnant women after exposure to an infected individual appears cost-effective during a pandemic, according to two studies in the November Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Novel H1N1 Vaccine Found Effective for Most Age Groups
WEDNESDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- A new influenza A (H1N1) vaccine developed in China successfully generated a protective immune response in subjects ranging in age from 12 to 60 years, according to a study published online Oct. 21 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Most H1N1 Hospitalizations Are in Young Patients
WEDNESDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- More than half of hospitalizations for H1N1 influenza are occurring in people younger than 25 years of age, and very few are occurring in the elderly, according to information presented at the Oct. 20 press briefing by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Clinical Approach for Invasive Fungal Disease Explored
WEDNESDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- A clinically driven approach to neutropenia-induced invasive fungal disease (IFD) can expedite diagnosis and reduce unnecessary antifungal treatment compared to standard empirical and preemptive strategies, according to a study published online Oct. 19 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Sources Find Different Numbers of Active Physicians
WEDNESDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Estimates from U.S. Census Bureau surveys find fewer older physicians remaining active compared with the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile data, according to research published in the Oct. 21 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Effect of Microbicidal Wipes on Neonatal Sepsis Assessed
TUESDAY, Oct. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Chlorhexidine vaginal and neonatal wipes are ineffective in preventing sepsis and bacterial colonization of newborns, according to a study published online Oct. 20 in The Lancet.
HIV Vaccine Regimen Shows Modest Benefits
TUESDAY, Oct. 20 (HealthDay News) -- A vaccine combination may decrease the risk of HIV infection in a community-based population that has a largely heterosexual risk, according to a study published online Oct. 20 in the New England Journal of Medicine to coincide with the AIDS Vaccine Conference, held from Oct. 19 to 22 in Paris.
CDC Says New Child Deaths Raise H1N1 Beyond Epidemic
MONDAY, Oct. 19 (HealthDay News) -- As of Oct.16, 11 more children in the United States had died of H1N1 influenza in the past week, elevating the disease above epidemic proportions, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced at an Oct. 16 news conference.
FDA Approves Vaccines for HPV-Related Disease
MONDAY, Oct. 19 (HealthDay News) -- On Oct. 16, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved two vaccines to prevent diseases related to human papillomavirus (HPV) in males and females.
Paracetamol May Not Be Best for Infant Vaccinations
FRIDAY, Oct. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Routine use of paracetamol to reduce febrile reactions due to vaccination of infants may not be an optimal approach, as the drug can also reduce the antibody response to several vaccine antigens, according to two consecutive randomized, controlled, open-label studies completed in the Czech Republic and published in the Oct. 17 issue of The Lancet.
HPV Vaccine's Effect on Genital Wart Rates Studied
FRIDAY, Oct. 16 (HealthDay News) -- There has been a significant decline in the number of cases of genital warts since 2007 when Australia introduced vaccination against four strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV) for girls aged 12 to 18 years and young women under the age of 26, according to a study published online Oct. 16 in Sexually Transmitted Infections.
FDA Launches Drug Disposal Advice Web Page
FRIDAY, Oct. 16 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has launched a new Web page for consumers to educate them on the safe disposal of certain medicines that can be dangerous or even fatal if they end up in the wrong hands.
Histological Response Linked to Fewer Hep B Complications
FRIDAY, Oct. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Chronic hepatitis B patients who have a biochemical or histological response to treatment are less likely to experience liver-related complications, according to a study in the October issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.
Action Urged to Reduce Global Diarrhea Deaths in Children
THURSDAY, Oct. 15 (HealthDay News) -- In an effort to reduce the worldwide diarrhea death toll among children, the United Nations Children's Fund and the World Health Organization have issued a series of prevention and treatment recommendations and an urgent call-to-action, published online Oct. 14 in The Lancet.
Interleukin-2 Not Linked to Clinical Benefits in HIV
WEDNESDAY, Oct. 14 (HealthDay News) -- The use of interleukin-2 along with antiretroviral therapy in individuals with HIV is associated with greater CD4+ cell counts, but with no decrease in risk of opportunistic diseases or death compared to antiretroviral therapy alone, according to research published in the Oct. 15 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
No Reduction Noted in Surgical Infection After High Oxygen
TUESDAY, Oct. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Administering high levels of oxygen during and after abdominal surgery does not reduce the rate of infection or other complications, according to a study in the Oct. 14 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Study Evaluates Hospital Quality and Mortality Rates
TUESDAY, Oct. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Hospital mortality rates in the United States have improved, although major differences in quality still exist between the best and worst hospitals, according to a report published Oct. 13 by HealthGrades.
H1N1 Has Made Many Young Adult Patients Critically Ill
MONDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) outbreak has put many young adult patients in intensive care with severe respiratory disease, leading to a high fatality rate, according to three studies published online Oct. 12 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Drugs for Malaria Prevention in Travelers Compared
MONDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Atovaquone-proguanil and doxycycline appear to be relatively well-tolerated for malaria prophylaxis in travelers, and are less likely to cause neuropsychiatric effects than mefloquine, according to research published online Oct. 7 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
Racial Disparities Persist in Prevalence of HIV Infection
MONDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- More than 20 years after the identification of HIV, the racial disparity between African-Americans and Caucasians in HIV prevalence has persisted despite massive governmental and private efforts to contain the AIDS epidemic, according to a study published online Oct. 6 in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Risk of Cancers in HIV-Infected Patients Assessed
MONDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Immunodeficiency greatly increases the risk of seven AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers in HIV-infected patients, and combination treatment that increases CD4 counts can reduce this risk, according to a study published online Oct. 8 in The Lancet Oncology.
Exhalation From Ventilation Masks May Pose Infection Risk
MONDAY, Oct. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Leakage of exhaled air from the face masks used for noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with pneumonia poses a risk of infection for health care workers, according to a study in the Oct. 1 issue of Chest.
Health Care Disparities Among States Found to Be Widening
FRIDAY, Oct. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Increasing health care costs and growing disparities in coverage among U.S. states point to the urgent need for national health care reform, according to an Oct. 8 state-by-state report card from the Commonwealth Fund Commission, a private foundation supporting research on the health care system.
Oral Vaccine May Help Prevent Endemic Cholera
FRIDAY, Oct. 9 (HealthDay News) -- An inexpensive, locally-produced oral cholera vaccine may benefit populations threatened by endemic cholera, according to a double-blind Indian study published online Oct. 9 in The Lancet.
Herpes Zoster Infection May Increase Risk of Stroke
FRIDAY, Oct. 9 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of stroke is higher in people who have had a herpes zoster infection than in those with no history of the disease, according to a study published online Oct. 8 in Stroke.
Vaccinating Boys for HPV Is Not Found to Be Cost Effective
FRIDAY, Oct. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Vaccinating boys against human papillomavirus (HPV) exceeds value for money thresholds based on the information currently available, according to a study published online Oct. 8 in BMJ.
Effect of H1N1 on Southern Hemisphere ICUs Assessed
THURSDAY, Oct. 8 (HealthDay News) -- During the winter of 2009 in Australia and New Zealand, the H1N1 flu virus had a significant effect on hospital intensive care units, according to a study published online Oct. 8 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Seasonal Flu Vaccine Protects Somewhat Against A/H1N1
THURSDAY, Oct. 8 (HealthDay News) -- There are early signs that the 2008/2009 trivalent inactivated seasonal flu vaccination offers some protection against influenza A/H1N1, particularly in its most severe forms, but this should not be taken to mean that vaccination against swine flu is superfluous, according to a study published online Oct. 6 in BMJ.
Roundtable Discussion Tackles Health Care Reform
WEDNESDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- The health care payment system, the role of consumers in responsible health care spending, and the use of comparative-effectiveness research were topics covered in a roundtable discussion with several health economics experts published in the Oct. 8 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Antibiotic Found Effective Against Lymphatic Filariasis
WEDNESDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- The antibiotic doxycycline is an effective treatment against the lymphatic filarial parasite Mansonella perstans, according to a study in the Oct. 8 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Medical Students Want More Practice of Medicine Training
WEDNESDAY, Oct. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Medical students in the United States perceive that they are not getting enough training in the practice of medicine, particularly in medical economics, according to a study in the September issue of Academic Medicine.
Bovine Lactoferrin May Help Prevent Sepsis in Preemies
TUESDAY, Oct. 6 (HealthDay News) -- In very low birth weight infants, supplementation with bovine lactoferrin, either alone or in combination with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, may significantly reduce the risk of a first episode of late-onset sepsis, according to a study in the Oct. 7 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Effectiveness and Cost Help to Make Coverage Decisions
TUESDAY, Oct. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Countries using evidence-based cost-effectiveness and effectiveness to help make drug coverage decisions show how these factors can successfully support decision making and can also be adapted to the specific conditions of other countries, according to a study in the Oct. 7 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Studies Examine Strategies Against Flu Pandemics
TUESDAY, Oct. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Vaccinating against H1N1 earlier this fall may save more money and avert more deaths than vaccinating later in the season, and expanded adjuvanted vaccination and antiviral prophylaxis could be beneficial in an influenza A (H5N1) pandemic, according to two studies published online Oct. 6 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.
Report Finds Invasive MRSA Infections on the Rise in Iowa
MONDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Invasive community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is an increasing public health threat in Iowa, according to a study in the October issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases.
New Guidelines Endorsed for Pediatric Hepatitis B
MONDAY, Oct. 5 (HealthDay News) -- New recommendations seek to improve the screening, monitoring, initial management, and referral of children with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), according to a special article published online Oct. 5 in Pediatrics.
Rising Numbers of Elderly Will Pose Issues for Nations
FRIDAY, Oct. 2 (HealthDay News) -- An anticipated rise in life expectancy, involving more than half of babies born in wealthy nations living to 100, will cause societal and economic challenges in coming decades, according to research published in the Oct. 3 issue of The Lancet.
Surgical Masks Found to Be Non-Inferior to Respirators
THURSDAY, Oct. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Surgical masks may be no less effective than N95 respirators in preventing influenza in health care workers, according to a study published online Oct. 1 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Strep Infections Not Linked to Neuropsychiatric Disorders
THURSDAY, Oct. 1 (HealthDay News) -- In children, streptococcal infections do not appear to significantly affect the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders, according to a study published online Sept. 30 in Neurology.
CDC Says States Not Meeting Fruit and Veggie Objectives
THURSDAY, Oct. 1 (HealthDay News) -- In a Sept. 29 press release, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says no U.S. state is currently meeting the national Healthy People 2010 objectives for fruit and vegetable consumption.
Prenatal Pandemic Flu May Increase Cardiovascular Risk
THURSDAY, Oct. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Prenatal exposure to the notoriously virulent 1918 pandemic flu increased the risk of cardiovascular disease and growth retardation later in life, according to a study published online Oct. 1 in the Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease.
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