Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Infectious Disease for January 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.
Pilot Study Finds Bacterial Vaginosis Self-Test Effective
FRIDAY, Jan. 29 (HealthDay News) -- A self-test for vaginosis may enable women to accurately diagnose the condition and results in women seeking professional diagnosis and treatment, according to a study in the February issue of Applied Nursing Research.
Rotavirus Vaccine Found to Be Effective in Africa and Mexico
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Human rotavirus vaccine significantly reduces the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and diarrhea-related mortality, according to two studies in the Jan. 28 New England Journal of Medicine.
Insulin Treatments for Septic Shock Compared
TUESDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Among septic shock patients treated with hydrocortisone, intensive insulin therapy did not improve mortality compared to conventional insulin therapy, with or without the further addition of fludrocortisone, according to a study in the Jan. 27 Journal of the American Medical Association.
Study Assesses Statin Efficacy in Pneumococcal Disease
TUESDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- The use of statins might help protect individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) from pneumococcal disease, according to research published online Jan. 19 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.
Prophylactic Use of Antiretrovirals Studied in Mice
TUESDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Pretreating mice with a human immune system with antiretroviral drugs is highly effective in preventing HIV-1 transmission via the rectal, intravenous, and vaginal routes, according to a study published online Jan. 21 in PLoS ONE.
Serum Procalcitonin Levels May Help Guide Antibiotic Use
MONDAY, Jan. 25 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with suspected severe bacterial infection, employing antibiotics judiciously based on the serum levels of the calcitonin precursor hormone procalcitonin can reduce antibiotic exposure without increased mortality, according to a study published online Jan. 23 in The Lancet.
Disease Now Main Cause of Death in Darfur Conflict
FRIDAY, Jan. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Since 2005, disease has replaced violence as the leading cause of death in Darfur, especially among displaced populations, according to a study in the Jan. 23 issue of The Lancet.
Higher Rate Than Estimated of H1N1 in U.K. Children
THURSDAY, Jan. 21 (HealthDay News) -- In the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, children were much more vulnerable to infection than older people and, therefore, should be the primary target group for vaccination, according to a study published online Jan. 21 in The Lancet.
Acyclovir for Herpes Not Found to Reduce HIV Transmission
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The use of acyclovir to suppress herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2) infection does not appear to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1 from infected individuals to uninfected heterosexual partners, according to research published online Jan. 20 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Treatments Linked to Lower Risk of C. difficile Recurrence
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The use of two monoclonal antibodies targeting Clostridium difficile toxins was associated with fewer recurrences of infections, according to research published in the Jan. 21 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Tylenol Recall in Effect Includes Several Other Drugs
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 20 (HealthDay News) -- McNeil Consumer Healthcare has recently expanded its voluntary recall of some over-the-counter drugs to include about 500 lots of products, according to officials from the Office of Compliance in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Diabetes Patients May Be at Higher Risk for Lung Diseases
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The declining lung function of patients with diabetes puts them at increased risk of a range of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonia and asthma, but not lung cancer, according to a study in the January issue of Diabetes Care.
Low-Risk Criteria Help Guide Care for Infants With Fever
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 20 (HealthDay News) -- In most cases, infants with fever who meet low-risk criteria should be closely observed but may not require antibiotics, sparing associated adverse events, according to a study published online Jan. 18 in Pediatrics.
Skin Cancer Checks Needed for Patients on Voriconazole
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Patients receiving long-term treatment for fungal infections who show signs of photosensitivity or chronic photodamage should be monitored for skin cancer formation, according to an article published online Jan. 18 in the Archives of Dermatology.
Child Immunizations Confer Gastroenteritis Protection
TUESDAY, Jan. 19 (HealthDay News) -- A complete series of immunizations with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) offers highly effective protection against pediatric rotavirus acute gastroenteritis, while even a partial series offers substantial acute gastroenteritis protection, according to a study published online Jan. 18 in Pediatrics.
No Link Between Appendicitis and Viral Infection Found
TUESDAY, Jan. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Appendicitis does not appear to be correlated with influenza or rotavirus infection, according to a study in the January issue of the Archives of Surgery.
Number of People Infected by H1N1 Reaches 55 Million
MONDAY, Jan. 18 (HealthDay News) -- On Jan. 15, federal officials reported that, from mid-April through mid-December, an estimated 55 million people in the United States were infected with H1N1 influenza, including approximately 11,200 who died.
Rituximab May Adversely Affect Immune Function
THURSDAY, Jan. 14 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, treatment with rituximab may adversely affect the response to vaccines, according to two studies in the January issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.
Switching HIV Treatments Found to Lower Lipid Levels
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 13 (HealthDay News) -- HIV-infected patients who switch from lopinavir-ritonavir-based therapy to raltegravir have large reductions in lipid levels but less effective virological control, according to a study published online Jan. 13 in The Lancet.
Central Line Care Key to Less Pediatric Blood Infections
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 13 (HealthDay News) -- In pediatric intensive care units, central line maintenance practices have the biggest impact on reducing catheter-associated bloodstream infections, according to a study published online Jan. 11 in Pediatrics.
Biomedical Research Funding Shows Decline in 2008
TUESDAY, Jan. 12 (HealthDay News) -- After increasing since 1994, annual funding for biomedical research topped out at $90.2 billion in 2007 and began to decline in 2008, according to a study in the Jan. 13 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Models Assess Effect of School Closures in Flu Pandemic
TUESDAY, Jan. 12 (HealthDay News) -- As an isolated approach, closing schools would have a limited effect on an influenza pandemic, but lengthy closures could forestall the peak of the epidemic and allow for other strategies such as vaccinations to be implemented, according to research published online Dec. 23 in the Journal of Public Health Management and Practice.
Clinical Benefits of Circumcision Remain Unclear
TUESDAY, Jan. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Although strong evidence shows that circumcision can prevent HIV infection in sub-Saharan African men, it's unclear if the procedure is associated with an overall reduced risk of sexually transmitted infections, urinary tract infections or penile cancer, according to a study in the January/February issue of the Annals of Family Medicine.
Neonatal Molluscum Infections Likely Vertically Transmitted
TUESDAY, Jan. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Neonatal molluscum contagiosum infections are probably transmitted vertically, based on the findings of a case study published online Jan. 11 in Pediatrics.
Increased Caffeine Linked to Reduced Hepatic Fibrosis
MONDAY, Jan. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Increased coffee consumption may protect against advanced liver fibrosis, especially in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, according to a study in the January issue of Hepatology.
Post-Transplant Liver Stiffness May Predict Fibrosis Risk
MONDAY, Jan. 11 (HealthDay News) -- In patients whose hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection recurs after liver transplantation, repeated liver stiffness measurements can distinguish between slow and rapid "fibrosers," according to a study in the January issue of Hepatology.
Viral Infection Associated With Autoimmune Diabetes in Rats
MONDAY, Jan. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Certain viruses -- including Kilham rat virus (KRV) and rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) -- are associated with autoimmune diabetes in rats, according to research published in the January issue of Diabetes.
Quercetin Appears to Block Hepatitis C Virus Production
FRIDAY, Jan. 8 (HealthDay News) Quercetin, a natural heat shock protein inhibitor, may be a potential treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, according to a study in the December issue of Hepatology.
Varicella Risk Soars Among Unvaccinated Children
FRIDAY, Jan. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Children whose parents refuse to have them vaccinated for varicella are at nearly nine times the risk of contracting the disease as children who are vaccinated, according to a study in the January issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.
Readmissions After Cesarean Higher Than Vaginal Delivery
THURSDAY, Jan. 7 (HealthDay News) -- Hospital readmissions for women in the postpartum period are often due to infections, and women have a higher risk of readmission after cesarean than vaginal deliveries, according to research published in the January issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Skin Preparations Decrease Risk of Surgical-Site Infections
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Simple preoperative skin preparations may significantly reduce the risk of surgical-site infections, according to two studies in the Jan. 7 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Gap in Childhood Vaccination Coverage Is Narrowing
WEDNESDAY, Jan. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Vaccination coverage of American children is improving, with the gap between various sociodemographic groups narrowing, according to a study published online Jan. 5 in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Adherence to HIV Drugs May Reduce Overall Medical Costs
TUESDAY, Jan. 5 (HealthDay News) -- In resource-poor settings, high adherence to antiretroviral therapy is associated with reduced overall direct health care costs, especially those associated with hospitalization, according to a study in the Jan. 5 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.
Four-Drug Regimen Found Effective for Stomach Infection
TUESDAY, Jan. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment with four drugs successfully eradicates Helicobacter pylori infection whether given sequentially or concomitantly, according to a study in the January issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.
Changes Made to Adult Vaccination Guidelines
TUESDAY, Jan. 5 (HealthDay News) -- The recommended immunization schedule for adults has been changed for this year to reflect the latest scientific evidence, according to an article in the Jan. 5 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.
2010 Childhood Vaccination Schedules Approved
MONDAY, Jan. 4 (HealthDay News) -- New recommendations for childhood and adolescent immunization schedules have been approved by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Academy of Family Physicians, incorporating several changes from last year, according to an article published online Jan. 4 in Pediatrics.
Hepatitis C Treatment Effective in Injection Drug Users
MONDAY, Jan. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment of recent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is effective in injection drug users, even those co-infected with HIV, according to a study in the January issue of Gastroenterology.
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