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Category: Pathology | Monthly Briefing

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January 2010 Briefing - Pathology

Last Updated: February 01, 2010.

 

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Here are what the editors at HealthDay consider to be the most important developments in Pathology for January 2010. This roundup includes the latest research news from journal articles, as well as the FDA approvals and regulatory changes that are the most likely to affect clinical practice.

Transient Elastography Offers Liver Disease Screening Tool

FRIDAY, Jan. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Transient elastography offers a new noninvasive screening test to detect or rule out significant fibrosis and early cirrhosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), according to a study in the February issue of Hepatology.

Abstract
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Editorial

Three Autoantibodies Appear Common in Chagas' Disease

FRIDAY, Jan. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Three autoantibodies (AAB) are often present in patients with Chagas' disease and may identify asymptomatic patients most likely to develop clinical manifestations and serious complications, according to a study in the Feb. 2 Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Abstract
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Elevated Cytokines May Point to RA Before Disease Onset

FRIDAY, Jan. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Rheumatoid arthritis patients develop elevated levels of several cytokines, cytokine-related factors, and chemokines before onset of the disease, thus providing a potential opportunity for early identification, according to a study in the February issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.

Abstract
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Relationship of Knee Abnormalities, Activity Studied

FRIDAY, Jan. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Middle-aged, asymptomatic individuals at risk of knee osteoarthritis commonly have cartilage and meniscus lesions, particularly if they are physically active, with patellar cartilage T2 values significantly correlated with the severity and grade of such lesions, according to a study in the February issue of Radiology.

Abstract
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Brain Vessel Disease May Help Predict ESRD in Diabetes

FRIDAY, Jan. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with type 2 diabetes who have cerebral microvascular disease are more likely to develop renal disease, according to a study published online Jan. 28 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

Abstract
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Pilot Study Finds Bacterial Vaginosis Self-Test Effective

FRIDAY, Jan. 29 (HealthDay News) -- A self-test for vaginosis may enable women to accurately diagnose the condition and results in women seeking professional diagnosis and treatment, according to a study in the February issue of Applied Nursing Research.

Abstract
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T Cells Linked to Skin Cancer After Kidney Transplant

FRIDAY, Jan. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Components of the immune system, particularly high numbers of regulatory T cells, predict whether a kidney transplant recipient is likely to develop a type of skin cancer, according to a study published online Jan. 28 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

Abstract
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Immunotherapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Explored

FRIDAY, Jan. 29 (HealthDay News) -- Treatment with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-targeted poxviral vaccine substantially improves overall survival among metastatic prostate cancer patients, according to the results of a phase II study published online Jan. 25 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)
Editorial

Photodynamic Therapy Linked to Oral Cancer Benefit

THURSDAY, Jan. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Photodynamic therapy (PDT) appears useful in treating early-stage cancer of the mouth or oropharynx, either as a primary treatment or as an addition to unsuccessful surgery or radiation, according to research published in the January issue of Lasers in Surgery and Medicine.

Abstract
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Clues Found to Pathogenesis of Lupus Kidney Complication

THURSDAY, Jan. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Infiltrating macrophages and interferons play a key role in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis, a complication of lupus characterized by abnormal growth of kidney cells leading to kidney damage, according to a study published online Jan. 26 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Abstract
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Examined in Multiple Sclerosis

THURSDAY, Jan. 28 (HealthDay News) -- The use of functional MRI to assess patterns of brain activation in adults and children with multiple sclerosis (MS) may offer insight into disease progression among these groups, according to research published in the February issue of Radiology.

Abstract
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Pediatric Rheumatic Disease Mortality Rate Improving

THURSDAY, Jan. 28 (HealthDay News) -- The overall and disease-specific mortality rates for pediatric rheumatic disease patients have improved compared with the findings of earlier research, according to a report in the February issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism.

Abstract
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Intensive Glycemic Control May Spike Diabetes Mortality

THURSDAY, Jan. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Intensive treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus that drives the patient's glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level too low, or insufficient treatment that leaves it too high, both increase mortality risk, according to a study published online Jan. 27 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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Comment (subscription or payment may be required)

Serotonergic Drugs May Delay Lactation

THURSDAY, Jan. 28 (HealthDay News) -- In new mothers, the use of medications affecting the balance of serotonin may have an adverse effect on lactation, according to a study published online Dec. 4 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Abstract
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Study Links Childhood Obesity to Inflammatory Markers

THURSDAY, Jan. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Obese children who have not yet developed features of the metabolic syndrome are likely to show abnormal markers of inflammation and prothrombosis, which could increase their later risk of cardiovascular disease, according to a study published online Jan. 8 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Abstract
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Flame Retardant Linked to Reduced Fertility

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- A class of flame retardants is associated with reduced fertility, according to a study published online Jan. 26 in Environmental Health Perspectives.

Abstract
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Biomarker May Benefit Risk Stratification in Older Adults

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Higher levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with the development of heart failure, as well as cardiovascular death, in older adults, according to research published in the Feb. 2 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Neoadjuvant Therapy Found Beneficial in Rectal Cancer

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with poor-risk, potentially operable rectal cancer, intensification of systemic therapy with neoadjuvant combination chemotherapy before standard treatment may result in good long-term outcomes, according to a study published online Jan. 26 in The Lancet Oncology.

Abstract
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Impact of Hemodialysis-Induced Hemoglobin Release Studied

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Hemoglobin released after hemodialysis is associated with nitric oxide scavenging and worse endothelial function, according to a study in the Feb. 2 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Velcade Prescribing Information Changed

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 27 (HealthDay News) -- Takeda Oncology and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have announced important revisions to the prescribing information for the drug Velcade (bortezomib) related to dosing in patients with hepatic impairment.

Safety Alert
Velcade Prescribing Information
Takeda Letter to the Health Care Professional

FDA Issues Recall of Nipro Medical's Infusion Needles

TUESDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a Class I recall of Exel/Exelint Huber needles, Exel/Exelint Huber Infusion Sets, and Exel/Exelint "Securetouch+" Safety Huber Infusion Sets, manufactured by Nipro Medical Corporation for Exelint International Corporation.

Press Release
FDA MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting

Study Assesses Statin Efficacy in Pneumococcal Disease

TUESDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- The use of statins might help protect individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) from pneumococcal disease, according to research published online Jan. 19 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Abstract
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Imaging May Reduce Negative Appendectomy Rate in Women

TUESDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- The use of preoperative computed tomography (CT) in women under the age of 46 years with suspected acute appendicitis was associated with a lower rate of negative appendectomy, according to research published in the February issue of Radiology.

Abstract
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Prophylactic Use of Antiretrovirals Studied in Mice

TUESDAY, Jan. 26 (HealthDay News) -- Pretreating mice with a human immune system with antiretroviral drugs is highly effective in preventing HIV-1 transmission via the rectal, intravenous, and vaginal routes, according to a study published online Jan. 21 in PLoS ONE.

Abstract
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Serum Procalcitonin Levels May Help Guide Antibiotic Use

MONDAY, Jan. 25 (HealthDay News) -- In patients with suspected severe bacterial infection, employing antibiotics judiciously based on the serum levels of the calcitonin precursor hormone procalcitonin can reduce antibiotic exposure without increased mortality, according to a study published online Jan. 23 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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Comment (subscription or payment may be required)

Common Chemicals Linked to Risk of Thyroid Problems

MONDAY, Jan. 25 (HealthDay News) -- High serum levels of the widely used chemicals perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluoroctane sulphonate (PFOS) are associated with thyroid disease in adults, according to research published Jan. 20 in Environmental Health Perspectives.

Abstract
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New Protocol Cuts Radiation Dose to Embolism Patients

MONDAY, Jan. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Implementing a new protocol for the judicious use of ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scanning and computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism reduced patient radiation exposure by 20 percent without increasing the false-negative rate, according to a study in the February issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology.

Abstract
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Researchers Explain Link Between Obesity, Liver Cancer

MONDAY, Jan. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity promotes hepatocellular carcinoma by stimulating production of two inflammatory cytokines, according to an animal study in the Jan. 22 issue of Cell.

Abstract
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Mixed-Handedness Linked to Scholastic Problems and ADHD

MONDAY, Jan. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Mix-handedness, an indication of atypical cerebral laterality, may be an early indicator of children who will have language and scholastic performance problems and possibly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a study published online Jan. 25 in Pediatrics.

Abstract
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Cortisol Level Shows Effect of Stress on Low-Income Youth

FRIDAY, Jan. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Children from low socioeconomic status families have a steeper trajectory of cortisol secretion than their counterparts from more advantaged socioeconomic backgrounds, which may leave them vulnerable to health problems when they get older, according to a study in the January issue of Psychological Science.

Abstract
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Ovarian Cancer Early Diagnosis Prospects Evaluated

FRIDAY, Jan. 22 (HealthDay News) -- Proteomic-based biomarker discovery and contrast-enhanced ultrasound may be the best combination for accurately identifying early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer in women, according to a perspective in the February issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology.

Abstract
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Virus Testing Most Effective in Detecting Cervical Cancers

THURSDAY, Jan. 21 (HealthDay News) -- Screening women 35 and older for human papillomavirus (HPV) is more effective than conventional cytology in detecting invasive cervical cancers, while HPV screening in younger women leads to over-diagnosis of precancerous lesions that often regress, according to a study published online Jan. 19 in The Lancet Oncology.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Higher Rate Than Estimated of H1N1 in U.K. Children

THURSDAY, Jan. 21 (HealthDay News) -- In the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, children were much more vulnerable to infection than older people and, therefore, should be the primary target group for vaccination, according to a study published online Jan. 21 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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Comment (subscription or payment may be required)

Emphysema Associated With Left Ventricular Issues

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 20 (HealthDay News) -- A greater extent of emphysema and more airflow obstruction is linked with poorer left ventricular filling and reduced cardiac output, according to research published in the Jan. 21 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Treatments Linked to Lower Risk of C. difficile Recurrence

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 20 (HealthDay News) -- The use of two monoclonal antibodies targeting Clostridium difficile toxins was associated with fewer recurrences of infections, according to research published in the Jan. 21 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Reducing Dietary Salt Could Substantially Impact Health

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 20 (HealthDay News) -- Even modest reductions in Americans' dietary salt could substantially reduce cardiovascular events, including death, myocardial infarction and stroke, and should be a public health goal, according to a study published online Jan. 20 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract
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Editorial

Tylenol Recall in Effect Includes Several Other Drugs

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 20 (HealthDay News) -- McNeil Consumer Healthcare has recently expanded its voluntary recall of some over-the-counter drugs to include about 500 lots of products, according to officials from the Office of Compliance in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

More Information

Serotonin-1A Receptor Gene Linked to Depression

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 20 (HealthDay News) -- In a mouse model, researchers were able to manipulate the level of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) autoreceptors to affect both the mice's vulnerability to stress as well as their response to antidepressants, according to a study in the Jan. 14 issue of Neuron.

Abstract
Full Text

Omega-3 Fatty Acids Linked to Less Change in Telomeres

TUESDAY, Jan. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Higher blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with a slower rate of telomere shortening in individuals with coronary artery disease, according to research published in the Jan. 20 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Cells Linked to Outcomes After Coronary Intervention

TUESDAY, Jan. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Different subtypes of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are associated with different outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention, according to research published in the January issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Cardiovascular Interventions.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Nimodipine Found Beneficial in Facial Nerve Crush Injury

MONDAY, Jan. 18 (HealthDay News) -- In rats with facial nerve crush injury, the calcium-channel blocker nimodipine significantly improves functional recovery of whisking, according to a study in the January/February issue of the Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery.

Abstract
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Number of People Infected by H1N1 Reaches 55 Million

MONDAY, Jan. 18 (HealthDay News) -- On Jan. 15, federal officials reported that, from mid-April through mid-December, an estimated 55 million people in the United States were infected with H1N1 influenza, including approximately 11,200 who died.

CDC MMWR
H1N1 Estimates

Imaging May Help Identify a Biomarker of Autism

FRIDAY, Jan. 15 (HealthDay News) -- Autistic children have right-hemisphere delays in their response to a range of auditory frequencies, suggesting abnormal maturation of the auditory system, according to a study published online Jan. 8 in Autism Research.

Abstract
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Long-Term Risk of Cancer High for Endometrial Hyperplasia

THURSDAY, Jan. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Women with endometrial hyperplasia are at much higher long-term risk of developing endometrial cancer if their hyperplasia is atypical, according to a study published online Jan. 11 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Abstract
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Novel Breast Cancer Therapy Targets Cancer Stem Cells

THURSDAY, Jan. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Blockading interleukin 8 (IL-8) receptors to kill off cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be a novel approach to treating breast cancer, according to a study published Jan. 4 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Abstract
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Subjective Cognitive Decline Often Sign of Worse to Come

THURSDAY, Jan. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Subjective cognitive impairment is often a harbinger of future deterioration, according to a study in the January issue of Alzheimer's & Dementia.

Abstract
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Study Explores Relationship Between Migraine, Depression

THURSDAY, Jan. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Depression and migraine, particularly migraine with aura (MA), may share underlying genetic factors, according to research published online Jan. 13 in Neurology.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Switching HIV Treatments Found to Lower Lipid Levels

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 13 (HealthDay News) -- HIV-infected patients who switch from lopinavir-ritonavir-based therapy to raltegravir have large reductions in lipid levels but less effective virological control, according to a study published online Jan. 13 in The Lancet.

Abstract
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Angiotensin Receptor Blockers May Help Prevent Dementia

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Angiotensin receptor blockers are associated with a significant reduction in the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and dementia, along with a slowing of the progression of the disease in those who already have dementia, according to a study published online Jan. 12 in BMJ.

Abstract
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Editorial

Biomedical Research Funding Shows Decline in 2008

TUESDAY, Jan. 12 (HealthDay News) -- After increasing since 1994, annual funding for biomedical research topped out at $90.2 billion in 2007 and began to decline in 2008, according to a study in the Jan. 13 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Editorial

CETP Gene Linked to Reduced Risk of Dementia in Seniors

TUESDAY, Jan. 12 (HealthDay News) -- Changes in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene are associated with slower memory decline and lower risk of dementia in older adults, according to research published in the Jan. 13 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Abstract
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Imaging Groups Issue Breast Screening Recommendations

MONDAY, Jan. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Citing gaps in existing guidelines, the Society of Breast Imaging (SBI) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) issued recommendations for the use of mammography, MRI, and other imaging approaches for breast cancer screening in the January issue of the Journal of the American College of Radiology.

Abstract
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Post-Transplant Liver Stiffness May Predict Fibrosis Risk

MONDAY, Jan. 11 (HealthDay News) -- In patients whose hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection recurs after liver transplantation, repeated liver stiffness measurements can distinguish between slow and rapid "fibrosers," according to a study in the January issue of Hepatology.

Abstract
Full Text

Viral Infection Associated With Autoimmune Diabetes in Rats

MONDAY, Jan. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Certain viruses -- including Kilham rat virus (KRV) and rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) -- are associated with autoimmune diabetes in rats, according to research published in the January issue of Diabetes.

Abstract
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Imetelstat Shows Potential for Prostate, Brain Cancer

FRIDAY, Jan. 8 (HealthDay News) -- The telomerase inhibitor imetelstat may be useful in treating glioblastoma and prostate cancer, according to research published online Jan. 4 in Clinical Cancer Research and online Nov. 11 in the International Journal of Cancer.

Abstract - Study 1
Full Text - Study 1 (subscription or payment may be required)
Abstract - Study 2
Full Text - Study 2 (subscription or payment may be required)

Vitamin and Drug Combination May Benefit Breast Cancer

THURSDAY, Jan. 7 (HealthDay News) -- The active form of vitamin D selectively reduces the production of aromatase, which catalyzes the production of estrogen, in breast cancers, and, when combined with aromatase inhibitors, further reduces tumor growth, according to a study in the January issue of Endocrinology.

Abstract
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Study May Explain Cardiac Benefit of Green Tea

THURSDAY, Jan. 7 (HealthDay News) -- A component of green tea reduces the production of a vasoconstrictor in endothelial cells, possibly explaining the beneficial cardiovascular effects of green tea, according to a study in the January issue of Endocrinology.

Abstract
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Hemodialysis Linked to Higher Risk of Colonic Perforation

THURSDAY, Jan. 7 (HealthDay News) -- The risk of perforation during colonoscopy is much higher in patients undergoing hemodialysis, according to a study in the January issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Abstract
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New Marker Identified for Early Alzheimer's Disease

THURSDAY, Jan. 7 (HealthDay News) -- In healthy older adults, higher hippocampal mean diffusivity may help predict memory decline, according to a study published online Jan. 6 in Neurology.

Abstract
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Skin Preparations Decrease Risk of Surgical-Site Infections

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Simple preoperative skin preparations may significantly reduce the risk of surgical-site infections, according to two studies in the Jan. 7 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Abstract - Bode
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Abstract - Darouiche
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Mouse Study Assesses Use of Tetracycline in Diabetes

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Tetracycline reduces the progression of diabetes in lines of mice that develop the disease along with islet β-cell dysfunction and β-cell loss, according to research published in the January issue of Diabetes.

Abstract
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Pomegranates May Offer Benefits Against Breast Cancer

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 6 (HealthDay News) -- Compounds derived from pomegranates could help prevent estrogen-responsive breast cancers, according to research published in the January issue of Cancer Prevention Research.

Abstract
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Bladder Cancer Deemed Rare in Men With Microhematuria

TUESDAY, Jan. 5 (HealthDay News) -- The eventual development of bladder cancer in men who test positive for asymptomatic microhematuria (MH) is less than 1 percent, calling into question professional guidelines recommending intensive follow-up evaluation for bladder cancer in such patients, according to a study in the January issue of Urology.

Abstract
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Editorial (subscription or payment may be required)

Risk of Type 1 Diabetes in Offspring of Patients Assessed

TUESDAY, Jan. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Among offspring born to parents with late-onset type 1 diabetes, the risk of the disease varies according to the gender of the parent in combination with the age of diabetes onset in the parent, according to research published in the January issue of Diabetes.

Abstract
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Survival Studied in Myeloma and Myelodysplastic Syndrome

TUESDAY, Jan. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Overall survival for multiple myeloma (MM) patients has increased substantially in recent decades for patients aged 65 years or younger, while prognosis for survival in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) can be determined by methylation in key genes, according to a pair of studies published online Dec. 28 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Abstract - Turesson
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Abstract - Shen
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Quitting Smoking May Up Short-Term Risk of Diabetes

TUESDAY, Jan. 5 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking cessation is associated with a short-term increase in the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and strategies to encourage quitting smoking should include diabetes prevention and early detection measures for at-risk patients, according to a study in the Jan. 5 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Abstract
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Not Breast-Feeding Tied to Higher Risk of Heart Disease

MONDAY, Jan. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Women who do not breast-feed their children are more likely to have subclinical signs of cardiovascular disease than women who consistently breast-feed, according to a study in the January issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Full Text

Probe Shows Potential for Identifying Breast Cancers

MONDAY, Jan. 4 (HealthDay News) -- The radiolabeled peptide analog 64Cu-TP3805, which has a high affinity for the receptor for the oncogene product VPAC1, appears useful in identifying breast cancers with PET imaging, according to the results of an animal study published online Dec. 15 in the Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

Abstract
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Genotype Can Figure in Cancer Prognosis and Treatment

MONDAY, Jan. 4 (HealthDay News) -- A patient's genotype can affect their prognosis in certain cancers, as well as their medication tolerance, and should be taken into account in evaluation and treatment, according to a pair of studies published online Dec. 28 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Abstract - Damm
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Abstract - Toffoli
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Top 10 Heart Studies of 2009 Hold Promise of New Drugs

MONDAY, Jan. 4 (HealthDay News) -- Interventions to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke, breakthroughs in basic science, and new drugs on the horizon were among the top 10 pieces of research of 2009, according to a Dec. 22 report by the American Heart Association.

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Tea Drinking May Lower Endometrial Cancer Risk

FRIDAY, Jan. 1 (HealthDay News) -- Tea drinking, in particular drinking green tea, can reduce the risk of endometrial cancer, according to a meta-analysis reported in the December issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Abstract
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