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 LATEST: Health Highlights: Feb. 12, 2016

Doctors Lounge - Medical Reference

Dysphagia

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: January 13, 2016. Updated: January 13, 2016
Category: Family Medicine | Gastroenterology

Dysphagia is the nonpainful difficulty in swallowing. It is most probably experienced at the same level as the lesion or above it.

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Hypoglycemia

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: July 10, 2009. Updated: August 08, 2009
Category: Endocrinology | Diabetes

Hypoglycemia is a pathologic state that is caused by neuronal glucose deprivation. Brain metabolism depends primarily on glucose as energetic material. When blood glucose levels decrease a group of homeostatic mechanisms come into play as a reaction to… Read more... (Comments: 0)

Chest pain

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: June 22, 2009. Updated: January 13, 2016
Category: Cardiology | Family Medicine | Pulmonology

Any of the structures within the chest are sensitive to pain except the lung parenchyma (tissue) and visceral pleura (not the parietal pleura - which is the cause of pleuritic pain). This makes chest pain a very difficult symptom to analyze as the list… Read more... (Comments: 1)

Diseases

Diverticulitis

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: January 13, 2016. Updated: January 13, 2016
Category: Gastroenterology

Diverticulosis is a common digestive disease which involves the formation of pouches (diverticula) within the bowel wall. These pouches are thought to be due to faulty intestinal contractions but cause is not known. Diverticulitis… Read more... (Comments: 0)


Zenker diverticulum

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: January 13, 2016. Updated: January 13, 2016
Category: Gastroenterology

Zenker diverticulum is a pouch in the back of pharynx (posterior pharyngeal constrictor muscles), which accumulates undigested food that has usually been eaten several days before.

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Diffuse esophageal spasm

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: January 13, 2016. Updated: January 13, 2016
Category: Gastroenterology

Diffuse esophageal spasm (DES), also known as nutcracker esophagus, is an abnormality of the neural processes in the esophagus leading to intense contractions (spasms).

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Hypercholesterolemia

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: January 12, 2016. Updated: January 12, 2016
Category: Cardiology | Family Medicine

Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. It is not a disease but a metabolic derangement that can be secondary to many diseases and can contribute to many forms of disease,… Read more... (Comments: 0)


Parkinsonism

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: April 03, 2010. Updated: April 03, 2010
Category: Neurology

Parkinsonism is a group of neurodegenerative diseases involving the substantia nigra (an area in the basal ganglia).

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Pregnancy test

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: January 12, 2016. Updated: January 12, 2016
Category: Family Medicine | Gynecology | Obstetrics

A pregnancy test is done to determine whether or not a woman is pregnant. All tests currently available to depend on testing for the presence of beta HCG or human chorionic gonadotropin in the blood or urine.

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Troponin

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: June 21, 2009. Updated: August 17, 2009
Category: Cardiology | Pathology

Troponin is a protein that confers calcium sensitivity to muscle cells. Read more... (Comments: 0)

Creatine kinase

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: June 21, 2009. Updated: August 17, 2009
Category: Cardiology | Pathology | Rheumatology

Creatine kinase is one of the most sensitive indicators of myocardial injury. Creatine kinase is found primarily in the heart, skeletal muscle, and brain. Acute liver damage has no effect on CK. CK may be elevated in acute muscular damage (such as seen… Read more... (Comments: 0)

Pacemaker

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: June 21, 2009. Updated: July 29, 2009
Category: Cardiology

A pacemaker (or "artificial pacemaker", so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device designed to regulate the beating of the heart. The purpose of an artificial pacemaker is to stimulate the heart when either the heart's… Read more... (Comments: 0)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: June 21, 2009. Updated: July 04, 2009
Category: Cardiology

CPR or cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an emergency first aid procedure used to help a person who has lost their pulse and their ability to breathe normally, a condition known as cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest is a condition nearly everyone experiences… Read more... (Comments: 0)

Defibrillation

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: June 21, 2009. Updated: July 04, 2009
Category: Cardiology

Defibrillation is the definitive treatment for the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Read more... (Comments: 0)

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: June 21, 2009. Updated: July 27, 2009
Category: Cardiology

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a technique that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery, maintaining the circulation of blood and the oxygen content of the body. The CPB pump itself is often referred to as a Heart-Lung… Read more... (Comments: 0)

Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA)

Edited by: Tamer M. Fouad, M.D.
Published: June 21, 2009. Updated: July 04, 2009
Category: Cardiology

Angioplasty, or Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) is a method used to unblock a coronary artery. A wire is passed through the diseased coronary artery, to an area of the coronary artery that is not being worked upon. Over this wire,… Read more... (Comments: 0)

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