Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
The etiology of CLL is unclear. However, some factors associated
with CLL have been identified.
There is a high familial risk for CLL with family members of CLL
patients (2 to 7 times).
CLL with a familial association tends to occur in younger age
groups with subsequent generations, perhaps because of increased
screening. Association with certain HLA patterns has not been
There is no documented association of CLL with exposure to
radiation, alkylating agents, or known leukemogenic chemicals.
However, exposure to some chemicals used in agriculture may
increase the risk of developing CLL.
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No conclusive evidence of a causal relationship exists.
Associations between CLL and several viruses including:
- Human T-cell lymphotrophic viruses I and II (HTLV-I and HTLV-II)
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, a T-cell disorder that can
resemble CLL, is caused by HTLV-I.