Back to Oncology Diseases
Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the
testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.
Epidemiology of testicular cancer
1 in every 25,000 men will get testicular cancer and it is very
common among males ages 15 through 40. However testicular cancer is
known to have the highest cure rates of all cancers. Cures can be
achieved even after it has spread to other parts of the body.
Pathology of testicular cancer
There are two tumor types, seminomas and nonseminomas. Seminomas
are slow- growing immature germ cells. To clear any confusion, germ
cells are not the actual pathogens we know them to be, they are cells
that produce sperm. Seminomas are generally localized in the
testicles. Nonseminomas on the other hand are more aggressive and more
mature germ cells that spread fast.
Staging of testicular cancer
There are three basic stages of testicular cancer. The first is
where the cancer remains in the testicle. In the second stage, the
cancer begins to spread to lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small bean
shaped structures that produce and store infection fighting cells in
the abdomen. During the third stage, everything is vulnerable. This
includes the kidneys, liver, bones, lungs or even the brain.
Symptoms and diagnosis of testicular cancer
These are some general symptoms: a lump in one testicle, pain and
tenderness in testicles, blood in sperm during ejaculation, build up
of fluid in the scrotum, enlargement of breasts, and an increase in
the size of one testicle. Any of these should be checked out by a
Treatment of testicular cancer
There are three basic types of treatment: surgery, radiation
therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery is the most common, in which the
infected testicle is removed and the lymph nodes can be also removed.
Radiation therapy is effective only on seminomas. Chemotherapy is used
when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
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