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AC regimen

Abstract: Two months of doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide with and without interval reinduction therapy compared with 6 months of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in positive-node breast cancer patients with tamoxifen-nonresponsive tumors: results from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-15.

The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) implemented protocol B-15 to compare 2 months of Adriamycin (doxorubicin; Adria Laboratories, Columbus, OH) and cyclophosphamide (AC) with 6 months of conventional cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) in patients with breast cancer nonresponsive to tamoxifen (TAM, T). A second aim was to determine whether AC followed in 6 months by intravenous (IV) CMF was more effective than AC without reinduction therapy. Through 3 years of follow-up, findings from 2,194 patients indicate no significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS, P = .5), distant disease-free survival (DDFS, P = .5) or survival (S, P = .8) among the three groups. Since the outcome from AC and CMF was almost identical, the issue arises concerning which regimen is more appropriate for the treatment of breast cancer patients. AC seems preferable since, following total mastectomy, AC was completed on day 63 versus day 154 for conventional CMF; patients visited health professionals three times as often for conventional CMF as for AC; women on AC received therapy on each of 4 days versus on each of 84 days for conventional CMF; and nausea-control medication was given for about 84 days to conventional CMF patients versus for about 12 days to patients on AC. The difference in the amount of alopecia between the two treatment groups was less than anticipated. While alopecia was almost universally observed following AC therapy, 71% of the CMF patients also had hair loss and, in 41%, the loss was greater than 50%. This study and NSABP B-16, which evaluates the worth of AC therapy in TAM-responsive patients, indicate the merit of 2 months of AC therapy for all positive-node breast cancer patients.

References
Fisher B, Brown AM, Dimitrov NV, Poisson R, Redmond C, Margolese RG, Bowman D, Wolmark N, Wickerham DL, Kardinal CG, et al. Two months of doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide with and without interval reinduction therapy compared with 6 months of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in positive-node breast cancer patients with tamoxifen-nonresponsive tumors: results from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-15. J Clin Oncol. 1990 Sep;8(9):1483-96.

Regimen

Adriamycin...... 60 mg/sqm IV day 1.
Cytoxan......... 600 mg/sqm IV day 1.
FREQUENCY....... Repeat cycle every 21 days.

     
  Summary Adjuvant AC vs AC+CMF vs CMF
  Disease Free Survival @ 3 years No difference
  Toxicity Alopecia was observed more in the AC group
     
   

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Article reviewed by:

Dr. Tamer Fouad, M.D.

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