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Wolf's Down and Dirty Lists


SYNDROMES


ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES

  • ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME: Radiation exposure.
    • 12 hours post-exposure: Vomiting
    • 24 hours post-exposure: Prostration (extreme exhaustion), fever, diarrhea
    • Later: Petechial hemorrhage, hypotension, tachycardia, profuse bloody diarrhea, maybe death.
  • CHINESE RESTAURANT SYNDROME: MSG reaction ------> Chest Pain, burning sensation over parts of body.
  • BROWN-SEQUARD SYNDROME: Damage (injury) to half of spinal cord ------> symptoms:
    • Loss of pain and temperature sensation on contralateral side of body.
    • Loss of proprioception and discriminatory touch on ipsilateral side of body.


CARDIOVASCULAR

  • ADAMS-STOKES SYNDROME: Heart block, with slow or absent pulse, often accompanied by convulsions.
  • BARLOW SYNDROME: Floppy Mitral Valve Syndrome; Massive Mitral Valve Prolapse ------> Late apical systolic murmur, systolic click, or both.
  • EISENMENGER'S SYNDROME: Ventricular-Septal Defect ------> Pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis.
  • FLOPPY-VALVE SYNDROME: Mitral Incompetence due to myxomatous degeneration of the leaflets.
  • LERICHE'S SYNDROME: Occlusion of distal aorta ------>
    • Hip, thigh, and calf fatigue.
    • Impotence
  • BEHCET'S SYNDROME: Vasculitis ------> secondary symptoms:
    • Oral and genital ulcers
    • Uveitis
    • Optic atrophy
  • SHOULDER-HAND SYNDROME: Pain in shoulder and swelling in hand, sometimes occurring after Myocardial Infarction.
  • SICK SINUS SYNDROME: Chaotic atrial activity; continual changes in P-Waves. Bradycardia, alternating with recurrent ectopic beats and runs of tachycardia.
  • SUPERIOR VENA CAVA SYNDROME: Caused by a tumor. Obstruction of SVC ------>
    • Edema
    • Engorgement of the vessels of face, neck, and arms.
    • Nonproductive cough
    • Dyspnea
  • TAKAYASU'S SYNDROME: Arteritis of the Aortic Arch, resulting in no pulse. Seen in young women.
  • WOLF-PARKINSON WHITE SYNDROME: ECG pattern of Paroxysmal Tachycardia.
    • Short PR interval
    • Delta wave = early QRS complex.
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IATROGENIC (or Secondary to Medical Treatment)

  • AFFERENT LOOP SYNDROME: Gastrojejunal loop obstruction, proximal to a gastrojejunostomy.
    • Ingestion of food produces nausea, pain, and duodenal distension.
  • ASHERMAN'S SYNDROME: Adhesions within the endometrial cavity, causing amenorrhea and infertility.
    • Adhesions probably were caused by surgery.
  • ULYSSES SYNDROME: Ill effects from follow-up diagnostic tests following a false-positive screening test.


NEOPLASTIC (Malignant or Benign)

  • CARCINOID SYNDROME: Carcinoid tumor producing Bradykinin + Serotonin ------> secondary symptoms:
  • CRONKHITE-CANADA SYNDROME: GI-Polyps with diffuse alopecia (hair-loss) and nail dystrophy.
    • May see protein-losing enteropathy and malabsorption.
  • GARDNER'S SYNDROME: Multiple inherited tumors, hereditary dominant trait.
    • Skull osteomas, Fibromas, Epidermoid cysts
    • Colonic polyposis (APC gene) ------> predisposition to colonic adenocarcinoma.
  • LAMBERT-EATON SYNDROME: Progressive proximal muscle weakness secondary to a carcinoma.
  • MEIGS' SYNDROME: Fibroma of ovary with ascites and hydrothorax
  • PANCOAST SYNDROME: Tumor near pulmonary apex ------>
    • Neuritic pain of chest and arm
    • Muscle atrophy of the arm
    • Horner's Syndrome (impaired cervical sympathetics)
  • PEUTZ-JEGHERS SYNDROME: Polyposis (hamartomas) of small intestine
    • Also see melanin pigmentation of buccal mucosa and skin around mouth and lips

CONGENITAL

  • CEREBELLAR SYNDROME: Congenital Cerebellar Ataxia
  • CERVICAL SYNDROME: Supernumerary C7 rib ------> Pressure on brachial plexus ------> pain radiating over shoulder, arm, and forearm over C7 distribution.
  • DANDY-WALKER SYNDROME: Obstruction of Foramina of Magendie and Luschka in infants ------> Hydrocephalus.
  • DIGEORGE SYNDROME: Congenital absence of 3rd and 4th Branchial Arches (Thymus and Parathyroid Glands) ------> secondary symptoms:
    • No cell-mediated immunity ------> Frequent viral and fungal infections
    • Characteristic facial deformities
  • DOWN SYNDROME: Trisomy 21. Mental retardation, characteristic facial features, Simeon crease in hand.
  • FANCONI'S SYNDROME Type I: Bone-marrow hypoplasia ------> refractory anemia, pancytopenia.
  • EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME: Congenital defect in collagen.
    • Hyper-elasticity and friability of the skin.
    • Hyperextensibility of the joints.
  • FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME: Fetal malformations, growth deficiencies, craniofacial anomalies, limb defects.
  • GOODPASTURE'S SYNDROME: Autoantibodies against basement membranes ------> Glomerulonephritis (kidney) and hemoptysis (lungs).
    • Often, death by renal failure
  • KLINEFELTER'S SYNDROME: Trisomy XXY ------> testicular atrophy, increase in gonadotropins in urine.
  • KLIPPEL-FEIL SYNDROME:
    • Cervical vertebrate fused
    • Congenital short neck, limited neck rotation
    • Abnormalities of the brainstem and cerebellum
    • Low hairline.
  • LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME: Deficiency of HGPRT (Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phospho-ribosyltransferase ------>
    • Hyperuricemia, uric acid kidney stones
    • Choreoathetosis
    • Mental retardation, autism, spastic cerebral palsy
    • X-Linked recessive
  • MARFAN SYNDROME: Connective Tissue disorder ------>
    • Arachnodactyly: Abnormally long digits and extremities
    • Subluxation of lens
    • Dissecting aortic aneurism
  • POSTRUBELLA SYNDROME: Infantile defects resulting from maternal Rubella infection during first trimester.
    • Microphthalmos, cataracts
    • Deafness
    • Mental retardation
    • Patent ductus arteriosis, Pulmonary arterial stenosis
  • PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME: Short stature, mental retardation, polyphagia with marked obesity, sexual infantilism.
  • RENDU-OSLER-WEBER SYNDROME: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.
  • SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME: Unexplained death in sleeping infants.
  • TURNER'S SYNDROME: XO monosomy.
    • Dwarfism
    • Webbed neck
    • Valgus of elbow.
    • Amenorrhea
  • WILSON SYNDROME: Congenital defect in Ceruloplasmin, leading to buildup of copper ------> mental retardation, cirrhosis, hepatolenticular degeneration.

 


ENDOCRINE, REPRODUCTIVE

  • AMENNORRHEA-GALACTORRHEA SYNDROME: Non-physiologic lactation, resulting from endocrinologic causes or from a pituitary disorder.
  • CONN'S SYNDROME: Primary Hyperaldosteronism ------> muscular weakness, hypertension, hypokalemia, alkalosis.
  • CUSHING'S SYNDROME: Hypersecretion of cortisol ------> secondary symptoms and characteristics:
    • Fatness of face and trunk with wasting of extremities
    • Buffalo hump
    • Bone decalacification
    • Corticoid diabetes
    • Hypertension
  • PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME: Abnormal sensation in breasts, abdominal pain, thirst, headache, pelvic congestion, nervous irritability.
    • Ocassionally nausea and vomiting.
  • SHEEHAN'S SYNDROME: Post-partum pituitary necrosis ------> hypopituitarism.
  • STEIN-LEVENTHAL SYNDROME: Polycystic ovary ------> infertility, amenorrhea, hirsutism. Seen in obese women.
  • TESTICULAR FEMINIZATION SYNDROME: Insensitivity to Testosterone. Male Psuedohermaphroditism
    • Complete female external genatalia, incompletely developed vagina, rudimentary uterus.


PULMONARY

  • KARTAGENER'S SYNDROME: Situs Inversus (lateral transposition of lungs) resulting from chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis.
  • HAMMAN-RICH SYNDROME: Interstitial fibrosis of the lung.
  • MIDDLE-LOBE SYNDROME: Chronic pneumonitis and atalectasis of middle lobe of right lung.
  • CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME: Allergic Granulomatous Angiitis: Asthma, fever, eosinophilia.

INFECTIOUS

  • FITZ-HUGH-CURTIS SYNDROME: Gonococcal Periphepatitis in woman, as a complication of Gonorrhea.
  • GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME: Infectious Polyneuritis of unknown cause.
  • HUNT'S SYNDROME: Herpe's Zoster infection of Facial Nerve (CN VII) and Geniculate Ganglion ------> facial palsy.
    • Zoster of ear
  • PARINAUD'S SYNDROME: Preauricular lymph node enlargement on the same side as conjunctivitis.
  • REYE'S SYNDROME: Loss of consciousness and seizures in kids, after a viral infection treated by aspirin.
  • REITER'S SYNDROME: Symptom cluster. Etiology is thought to be Chlamydial or post-chlamydial.
    • Urethritis
    • Iridocyclitis (Conjunctivitis)
    • Arthritis
    • Skin lesions like karatoderma blenorrhagicum
    • Also can see fatty liver or liver necrosis.
  • SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME: S. Aureus toxic epidermal necrolysis.
  • STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME: Erythema Multiforme complication.
    • Large areas of skin slough, including mouth and anogenital membranes.
    • Mucous membranes: stomatitis, urethritis, conjunctivitis.
    • Headache, fever, malaise.
  • TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME: Caused by superabsorbent tampons. Infection with Staph Aureus and subsequent toxicity of exotoxin TSST ------> systemic anaphylaxis.
    • Fever, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Red rash followed by desquamation
  • WATERHOUSE-FRIEDRICHSON SYNDROME: Meningeococcal Meningitis ------> DIC, hemorrhagic infarct of adrenal glands ------> fulminant adrenal failure.
    • Vomiting, diarrhea.
    • Shock
    • Extensive purpura, cyanosis, circulatory collapse.

RENAL

  • KEMMELSTIEL-WILSON SYNDROME: Diabetic Glomerulosclerosis.
  • BARTTER'S SYNDROME: Juxtaglomerular Cell Hyperplasia ------> secondary symptoms:
    • Hyperaldosteronism, Hypokalemic Alkalosis, elevated renin and angiotensin
    • No hypertension.
    • Compare to Conn's Syndrome
  • FANCONI'S SYNDROME Type II: Renal aminoaciduria, glycosuria, hypophosphaturia, cysteine deposition, rickets.
  • THORN'S SYNDROME: Salt-losing nephritis.

NEUROLOGICAL

  • CARPAL-TUNNEL SYNDROME: Compression of Median Nerve through the Carpal Tunnel ------> pain and parasthesia over distribution of Median N.
  • FROIN'S SYNDROME: Block in CSF flow ------> xanthochromia (yellow discoloration) of CSF.
  • ACUTE-BRAIN SYNDROME: Delirium, confusion, disorientation, developing suddenly in a person that was previously psychologically normal.
  • GERSTMANN'S SYNDROME: Lesion between occipital area and angular gyrus ------> symptoms:
    • Finger agnosia, Agraphia, acalculia
    • Right-left disorientation
  • HORNER'S SYNDROME: Loss or lesion of cervical sympathetic ganglion ------>
    • Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
    • Enophthalmos (caved in eyes)
  • KORSAKOFF SYNDROME: Loss of short-term memory in chronic alcoholism, caused by degeneration of mamillary bodies.
  • RILEY-DAY SYNDROME: Familial dysautonomia.

GASTROINTESTINAL

  • MALLORY-WEISS SYNDROME: Laceration of lower end of esophagus from vomiting ------> hematemesis. Often seen in alcoholics.
  • MALABSORPTION SYNDROME: Impaired absorption of dietary substance ------> diarrhea, weakness, weight loss, or symptoms from specific deficiencies.
  • BARRETT SYNDROME: Chronic peptic ulcer of the lower esophagus, resulting in metaplasia of esophageal columnar epithelium ------> squamous epithelium.
  • ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME: Gastrin-secreting tumor in pancreas ------> Severe peptic ulcers, gastric hyperacidity.
  • PLUMMER-VINSON SYNDROME: Esophageal Webs, leading to dysphagis and atrophy of papillae of tongue.
    • Also see hypochromic anemia, splenomegaly.

RETICULOENDOTHELIAL, HEMATOLOGIC

  • BANTI'S SYNDROME: Chronic Congestive Splenomegaly with anemia, caused by either Portal Hypertension or Splenic Vein Thrombosis.
  • BUDD-CHIARI SYNDROME:
    • ACUTE: Hepatic Vein Thrombosis ------> Massive ascites and dramatic death.
    • CHRONIC: Gradual hepatomegaly, portal hypertension, nausea, vomiting, edema, ulimately death.
  • DUBIN-JOHNSON SYNDROME: Defect in excretion of conjugated bilirubin ------> recurrent mild jaundice. Buildup of direct builirubin in blood.
  • CHIDIAK-HIGASHI SYNDROME: Abnormalities in leukocytes with large inclusions.
  • CRUVEILHIER-BAUMGARTEN SYNDROME: Symptoms cluster:
    • Liver cirrhosis
    • Caput Medussae
    • Venous hum and thrill
  • FELTY'S SYNDROME: Rheumatoid Arthritis with splenomegaly, leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia.
  • LOFFLER'S SYNDROME: Eosinophilia with transient infiltrates in lungs.
  • PARINAUD'S SYNDROME: Preauricular lymph node enlargement on the same side as conjunctivitis.

UNCATEGORIZED

  • YELLOW-NAIL SYNDROME: Stop growth of nails ------> increased convexity, thickening, and yellowing of nails.
    • Found in Lymphedema, bronchitis, chronic bronchiectasis.
  • COSTOCHONDRAL SYNDROME: Pain in chest with tenderness over one or more costochondral junctions.
    • Similar to Tietze's Syndrome but no specific inflammation.
  • TIETZE'S SYNDROME: Costochondritis. Swelling and tenderness of the costal cartilege.
  • MIKULICZ'S SYNDROME: Salivary and lacrimal enlargement as seen in several diseases:
    • Sarcoidosis
    • Tuberculosis
    • Leukemia
  • MUNCHAUSEN SYNDROME: Malingering -- fabrication of a clinically convincing disease by an itinerant malingerer.
  • PICKWICKIAN SYNDROME: Symptom cluster
    • Obesity
    • Hypoventilation
    • Somnolence
    • Erythrocytosis
  • RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME: Need to stretch legs at night before going to sleep; twitch in legs causing insomnia.
  • STRAIGHT BACK SYNDROME: Loss of normal kyphosis of thoracic spine ------>
    • Straight spine
    • Ejection murmur
    • Widened cardiac silouhette on x-ray
  • SJ?REN'S SYNDROME: Autoimmune complex
    • Keratoconjuctivitis Sicca (dry eyes and mouth)
    • Dryness of Mucous membranes
    • Telangiectasias in face
    • Parotid enlargement

Copyright 1999, Scott Goodman, all rights reserved

 

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