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More than one-third of women are willing to use a home test kit to
learn if they are infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.
Researchers at Johns Hopkins say they have evidence that
more than one-third of young women are willing and able to
use a free, easily available home test kit to privately and
accurately learn if they are infected with Chlamydia
trachomatis, the most common sexually transmitted disease
(STD) in this group.
Among the women, mostly under age 25, who used the kit --
developed by Hopkins -- 87 percent did so by ordering it on the
Internet. The kit, which costs about $10 to manufacture, was
provided free for study participants.
"Our results confirm that home test kits ordered via the Internet
provided young women with a safe and effective means for protecting
their sexual reproductive health," says study lead investigator and
infectious disease specialist Charlotte Gaydos, M.S., Dr.P.H.,
associate professor of medicine at The Johns Hopkins University
School of Medicine. "The Internet is how the current generation does
business -- from researching homework to shopping for clothes. Not
surprisingly, they prefer using the Internet to also help take care
of their health."
The Hopkins findings, to be presented at the 105th general
meeting of the American Society for Microbiology on June 8, are
believed to be the first to show that online access to self-sampling
test kits for Chlamydia is an effective way to address the spread,
detection and treatment of the disease. This age group also has the
highest risk of contracting an STD and has historically been the
least likely group to undergo regular testing.
Results of a new survey by the same investigators, also to be
presented at the ASM meeting, warn that reinfection rates for
Chlamydia were alarmingly high among middle- and high-school
students in Baltimore, Md.
"Teenagers and young adults are frequently left unaware for years
that they have Chlamydia because symptoms may not appear for long
periods after infection," says Gaydos.
In the case of Chlamydia, for example, 80 percent to 90 percent
of those infected develop no symptoms, putting them at extremely
high risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, a condition that can leave
a woman infertile from resulting scar tissue. "Many of these hidden
and untreated cases occur in women who lack health insurance and
cannot afford to pay for tests or regular check-ups, the easiest way
to detect this infection and prevent others from becoming exposed,"
In the study, free kits funded by the City of Baltimore Health
Department were made available to women in Maryland for a six-month
period starting in August 2004. Kits could be ordered through a
designated Internet site (www.iwantthekit.org) or could be picked up
from any one of 250 participating pharmacies and recreation centers.
Inside each kit was a packaged, sterile vaginal swab and
instructions for using it. Also enclosed were sealed containers for
the self-collected swabs and return envelopes with postage paid for
mailing the samples back to a laboratory at Johns Hopkins, where
they were tested for Chlamydia and gonorrhea, another common STD.
The kits were mailed in plain, brown paper envelopes and contained a
detailed questionnaire, allowing the researchers to gather important
information about who used the kit and why.
Of the 1,100 kits distributed, 400 samples were returned to
Hopkins by January 2005, and 10 percent were positive for Chlamydia.
Only three women tested positive for gonorrhea. Results were made
available to the women within two weeks via a secured telephone
answering service that used kit numbers and passwords. For women who
tested positive for Chlamydia or gonorrhea, referrals were also
provided to a local community health clinic for treatment, as part
of the confirmation telephone message.
Ninety-five percent of women who tested positive for Chlamydia
sought treatment, which, according to Gaydos, is almost twice as
high as the rate found among people seeking care in health clinics.
The researchers say study participants may have been more highly
motivated to seek treatment, but suggest that easy access to testing
may have been responsible for at least some of the improvement.
Final results of the gonorrhea testing have not yet been analyzed or
Of those tested who ordered the kit rather than picking it up in
person, 87 percent used the Internet, and half were younger than age
25. Eighty-nine percent said they preferred to test themselves
rather than go to a clinic, and 93 percent rated the kit as easy to
use. Study participants reported that self-collection was preferable
to having a physician perform a pelvic exam, which for some can
cause discomfort and be embarrassing, the researchers say. Earlier
studies showed that self-collected vaginal swabs are as effective as
a doctor's cervical exams for diagnosing STDs. Indeed, 29 percent of
respondents had not had a regular physical exam within the past
"The home test kit is important because it offers physicians and
nurses another tool in efforts to reduce the spread of Chlamydia --
both locally and nationally," says Gaydos.
Home test kits are still available to people who live in
Maryland, and the study remains open through to the end of 2005. The
researchers have plans next year to expand their research to include
women in the District of Columbia. They also plan to develop within
five years a home test kit that also tests for trichomoniasis; human
papillomavirus, or HPV; and HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC), all people under age 25 who are also sexually
active should be regularly screened for Chlamydia.
The pilot study was launched in Baltimore, Md., in part because
of the city's high prevalence of STDs. In 2003, the last year for
which statistics are available, Baltimore had the sixth highest
incidence (reported new cases per year) in the nation for Chlamydia
(at 6,413 cases, behind Rochester, N.Y., Philadelphia, Pa., Detroit,
Mich., Richmond, Va., and St. Louis, Mo.) In previous years, the
city ranked third and second. According to the CDC's biannual survey
of risky youth behaviors, 32 percent of students are sexually active
by the ninth grade.
In a related survey to determine why the number of Chlamydia
infections remains high, the researchers examined lab results from
Chlamydia tests, collected from 1994 to 2004, on students at
Baltimore area schools, looking for cases of reinfection among young
people ages 11 to 18.
"It is hard enough to find and treat young people for Chlamydia,
but our overall mission is to keep them healthy and free from
getting reinfected," says Gaydos.
Out of nearly 1,000 students who tested positive for Chlamydia at
11 area schools and were successfully treated, the researchers found
that, within one year, 26 percent of girls and 20 percent of boys
were reinfected with the STD. These numbers were considerably higher
than the 7 percent to 13 percent rates for reinfection reported
nationally by the CDC, whose guidelines call retesting three to four
months after infection.
Gaydos believes that once treated, students are either continuing
to have sex with an untreated partner or are becoming infected from
new sex partners who are infected.
"Regardless the underlying causes of risky sex behaviors, our
study affirms the need for more screening and testing of students
for STDs," she says.
Funding for the survey analysis was provided by the Baltimore
City Health Department.
Other researchers involved in this research were Sabina
Mahmutovic, M.D.; Catherine Wright, B.S.; Mathilda Barnes, B.S.;
Karen Dwyer, B.S.; Billie Jo Wood, M.S.; Patricia Rizzo-Price, M.S.;
Toni Fleming, B.S.; M. Terry Hogan, M.P.H.; Rebecca Miller, B.S.;
Patricia Agreda, B.S.; Gerry Waterfield, C.P.N.P.; Sharon Hobson,
C.P.N.P.; Alain Joffe, M.D.; and Thomas C. Quinn, M.D.
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